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This entry was posted in Outdoor Wiring Diagrams and tagged backup generator, do-it-yourself, emergency generator, generator, transfer switch, wiring, wiring diagram. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Load Management System Using Intelligent Monitoring and Control System for Commercial and Industrial SectorsM.M. Meier, Alexandra von2006Load Management System Using Intelligent Monitoring and Control System for Commercial and Industrial SectorsJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc. Installing the Mopar electronic ignition requires a distributor with the magnetic pickup, and one more wire to the ballast resistor.
To post questions, help other DIYers and reduce advertising (like the one on your left), join our DIY community. If you do not understand what I am saying here then its best get a electrician to do this for you.
Thanks for this info, I'm going to look at the generator tomorrow and see if this possible. I have a schematic of a gen with the switch with all outlets I describe but I cant seem to upload it.
If you aren't sure, you can post a couple of pictures of it, including one with the door open, and enough to let us read any labels.
I didn't mean to confuse anyone, but feel if they are going to provide a diagram it should follow normal wiring conventions with the black being shown on the brass. Required is an additional utility service from a separate source and the required switching equipment.Figure 1 shows automatic transfer between two low-voltage utility supplies. The display of the currently transmitted measured values of Quality Meter used in the system.
Equivalent in size to a four-story building, the main propulsion engine is started with the help of compressed air at a pressure of 30 bar.
So now if you use the gen as a stand alone out in the woods with an RV with no ground you will need to discuss this with the electricians here.
This way you can power your home with the 240 then switch to 120 and add a extra 30 amp rv outlet to power your camper. Does it have two hot buses, each of which powers half of the breakers (like the breaker panel in your house)? Utility source 1 is the normal power line and utility source 2 is a separate utility supply providing emergency power.
I only connected 1 of the hots on the 4 prong connector since the camper is wired for 120vac. They are more expensive but safer to operate, and the use of fuses for overcurrent protection is avoided.
I got everything hooked up and started turning on loads in the camper, after a few minutes the breaker on the generator flipped. Figure 1 – Two-utility source system using one automatic transfer switchRelaying is provided to transfer the load automatically to either source if the other one fails, provided that circuit is energized. IntroductionThere are vast opportunities to improve energy use efficiency by eliminating waste through process optimization.
I done some more research and found out that each hot terminal on the 4 prong connector can only handle 22 amps, the generator can handle a total of 42-44 amps depending on who you ask.
The supplying utility will normally designate which source is for normal use and which is for emergency.If either supply is not able to carry the entire load, provisions must be made to drop noncritical loads before the transfer takes place.
Applying today’s computing and control equipment and techniques is one of the most cost-effective and significant opportunities for larger energy users to reduce their energy costs and improve profits. My question is this, is there something I can do to get all of the amperage use out of the 4 prong connector?
If the load can be taken from both services, the two R circuit breakers are closed and the tie circuit breaker is open.This mode of operation is generally preferred by the supplying utility and the customer.
An Energy Management Information System (EMIS) is an important element of a comprehensive energy management program. It provides relevant information to key individuals and departments that enable them to improve energy performance.
Today it is normal for companies, particularly in process sectors, to collect huge amounts of real-time data from automated control systems, including Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), etc. The captured data is shared and analysed in an orderly and precise way that identifies problem areas and provides solutions, this mass of data is merely information overload. Advances in information technology (IT), defined here as the use of computers to collect, analyse, control and distribute data, have developed rapidly. It is now common for managers and operators to have access to powerful computers and software. There are many methods of load management which can be followed by an industry or a utility, such as load shedding and restoring, load shifting, installing energy-efficient processes and equipment, energy storage devices, co-generation, non-conventional sources of energy, and reactive power control [1]-[3]. With the existing generating capacity being unmanageable, authorities are forced to implement load shedding in various sectors during most of the seasons.
Load shifting basically means scheduling the load in such a way that loads are diverted from peak period to off-peak periods, thereby shaving the peak and filling the valley of the load curve, so improving the load factor[4]-[6].
To encourage load shifting in industries, and thereby to reduce peak demand automatically, a new technology such as introduced here will be extended.Also, power quality is of major concern to all types of industries, especially those operating with critical machinery and equipments. Poor quality of power leads to major problems like break-downs, production interruptions, excess energy consumption etc.
Modern industries require automation of their operation enabling them to produce quality products and also for mass production. The conventional systems are being replaced by modern Power Electronic systems, bringing a variety of advantages to the users. Power Quality Alarming and Analysis provides a comprehensive view into a facility's electrical distribution system. Power Quality can be monitored at the electrical mains or at any critical feeder branch in the distribution system such as described here. Devices in this category typically provide all of the parameters found in basic devices, plus advanced analysis capabilities [7]-[8].
These advanced analysis capabilities include using waveform capture to collect and view waveform shape and magnitude, providing harmonic analysis graphs, collection and storage of events and data, and recording single or multiple cycle waveforms based on triggers such as overvoltage or transients.

With the ever-increasing use of sophisticated controls and equipment in industrial, commercial, and governmental facilities, the continuity, reliability, and quality of electrical service has become extremely crucial to many power users. Electrical systems are subject to a wide variety of power quality problems which can interrupt production processes, affect sensitive equipment, and cause downtime, scrap, and capacity losses. Momentary voltage fluctuations can disastrously impact production [7]-[8].The proposed modified intelligent monitoring and controlling system will introduce monitoring, alarming, controlling, and power quality mitigation based on data collected and analyzed from the system. These values will assist in getting any action to return the plant to its normal operation by minimum costs.Protective information such as the insulation of cables, temperatures of the generators. These values will be very essential in case of future correction.Recorded information such case voltage spikes, reducing the voltage on the medium or current interruption. Original system descriptionThe hardware configuration of the original intelligent monitoring and controlling system is divided into two levels. The first level includes two workstations -1 and -2 with two different software programs are used for data handling and monitoring purpose. The second level includes the PLC for data collected that constituted from 10 digital meters and some smart sensors to cover many points in the system. Some digital meters are fed directly to the workstation-2 using different software for data handling.
All other parameters such as breaker status, temperature, controllers, and cable insulators are fed through the PLC. 1 shows the overall structure of original intelligent monitoring and controlling system achieved at the Eastern Company in Egypt. The intelligent monitoring and controlling system uses the most recent technology of Profibus in data transferring. Workstaton-1 used the Wincc flexible software program for data handling received from the MV, Transformers and Generators. One programmable logic controller S7-300 associated with 10 power meters for monitoring the MV, Transformers and Generators, Insulation relays, Temperature transducers for generators, and Circuit Breakers auxiliary points for all loads have been applied to workstation 1 through Profibus network-1. Workstation-2 associated with 12 power quality meters for monitoring all loads (Compressors, Pumps, Motors, Processes, etc.) via Profibus network-2.
The output system is limited by given alarming and recommendation to the operator without doing any automatic actions for the system. The system components used in the system are produced from Siemens and can be described as:PROFIBUS is the powerful, open and rugged bus system for process and field communication in cell networks with few stations and for data communication. Automation devices such as PLCs, PCs, HMI devices, sensors or actuators can communicate via this bus system. PROFIBUS is part of totally integrated automation, the uniform, integrated product and system range from Siemens for efficient automation of the entire production process for all sectors of industry. PROFIBUS can be used, for example, for the following applications: Factory automation, Process automation and Building automation. Different PROFIBUS versions are available for the various fields of application: Process or field communication (PROFIBUS DP) (for fast, cyclic data exchange with field devices). PROFIBUS PA (for intrinsic safety applications in process automation) Data communication (PROFIBUS FMS) (for data communication between programmable controllers and field devices).Power Quality devices are installed at various measuring points in order to record a series of measurements of the required values for an analysis of the network quality. In addition to all relevant measured variables, the meter can also record system disturbances, always when an upward or downward limit value violation has occurred. Power Quality is available in 3 device versions with the following communication interfaces: RS232, RS485, and PROFlBUS-DP. Furthermore the device version Power Quality with PROFIBUS-DP interface opens up another area of application.
We publish, we share and we spread the knowledge.You're welcome to read, write and contribute to EEP in any way! Together with programmable control systems (PLCs), it can be used as a “sensor” for electrical measured variables. The software allows you to define the device address, so that each device is uniquely identified and to configure the power quality for the communication protocol to be used (PROFIBUS DP) in order to prepare it for the measurement task.
2 shows the display of the currently transmitted measured values.Power Meter is a power meter for panel mounting, with big graphic display and background illumination. Power monitoring systems with Power Meter, a permanently installed system, enables continuous logging of energy-related data and provides information on operational characteristics of electrical systems. Ten maters are installed on the system and arranged on the incoming feeders, transformers and also on the generators.
The Runtime application of the WinCC basic software offers all essential functions of a powerful SCADA-System.
Using WinCC User Administrator, One can assign and control users access rights for configuration and runtime.3. Original system operationThe application functions of the data collection and monitoring are all performed via two workstations, PLC and two different software programmes.
I am here with a new tutorial…Most of you sent me messages about the portable generator wiring diagrams in home. 4 and 5 show part of the system operation for monitoring feeder-2 and transformer-2 parameters for the system installed at Eastern Company in Egypt. Information received from the plant can be monitored in different forms from data or trends mode. Alarms, recommendation and event reportingThe main feature of the IMCS is producing the alarms, recommendation and event reporting functionality. The system gives all information about the power quality of the plant and cable insulation.
System Modified for load management and quality mitigation schemesThe original system is used mainly for monitoring purposes with some recommendation messages produced from it. Be Careful Note: In this Case, the first MCB (Main Switch which is connected to main power supply) would be “ON” and The Second MCB Switch (Which is connected to Generator) should be “OFF”. The paper introduces an extension for the system for producing many digital and analogue output signals from the PLC to control loads based on load management programs and power quality mitigation procedure.
The modified IMCS associated with load management and power quality schemes gives the customer the possibility of load reduction or control during the peak periods of the day, moreover, gives more information about the power quality of the system. The following subsections explain some function components embedded in the modified IMCS4.1. New generation of power quality meterThe new generation of the power monitoring device provides accurate knowledge of the systems characteristics with maximum, minimum and average values for voltage, current, power values, frequency, power factor, symmetry and THD.

The SENTRON PAC4200 detects the values for active, reactive and apparent energy – both for high and low tariff.
The SENTRON PAC4200 also facilitates the detection of a measuring period’s average values for active and reactive power. Now put the generator 3-pin power plug into that socket which you have installed in step (4).
PAC4200 also detects uneven harmonics from the 3rd to the 31st for voltage and current, the distortion current strength (Id), the phase angle and the asymmetry for voltage and current with reference to the amplitude and phase. For further processing of the measured data, the devices can be very easily integrated in superior automation and power management systems in the proposed system the meters are interfaced with SIMATIC PCS 7 powerrate and SIMATIC WinCC powerrate software packages. ControlThe purpose of the control module in the modified IMCS is to provide the control of the necessary parameters for each point in the plant. It provides the functionality required to control the load in case of peak period or in case of exceeding the threshold boundary.
8 shows the new added function blocks for the modified intelligent monitoring and controlling system. The figure shows three main components; workstation-2 with control scheme, Control output module, new generation of the power quality meters compatible with Wincc powerrate software program. 9, the proposed modified system uses one additional PLC interfaced with the new power quality meters located on the loads. Workstation-2 uses Wincc powerrate software program for programming and controlling purposes.
Workstation-2 manipulates different load management programs through collected data received from the PLC.
Never try to work on electricity without proper guidance and care Work with electricity only in presence of those persons who has good knowledge and practical work to deal with electricity Read all instruction and cautions and follow them strictly. The proposed modified system avoids many of original system limitations by replacing the power quality meters interfaced directly with workstation-2. Load management A company's electric bill, in most countries, consists of two major components: demand charge and energy consumption charge.
Demand charges are reset monthly and are based on the highest rate at which electricity is consumed during periods that are peak utility service hours.
Demand charges are measured in kilowatts and, depending on the utility service provider, the highest consumption rate is measured in 15- or 30-minute intervals during peak hours or contracted value. Peak load management strategies that lower a facility's demand during times when the peak demand is measured can result in significant facility cost savings, especially for commercial, industrial and governmental sectors. 10 shows the procedure of the load management that can be achieved automatically in the proposed modified IMCS. The scheme of load management can be built and programmed according to previous scenario using energy auditing.
In such a case the customer can avoid any penalty from the utility and can save money as well. The procedure of the control can be run through workstation-2 and the readings of the loads received from PLC with power quality meters.
Firstly, the system will check the required load capacity to be shaved during peak value and then select the minimum diesel power generated that coves the required loads.
Load reduction and energy saving using VFD for HVACFlow generating equipment like fans, pumps and compressors are often used without speed control. When flow is controlled without regulating the motor speed, it runs continuously full speed. Because HVAC systems rarely required maximum flow, a system operating without speed control wastes significant energy over most of its operating time.
Using VFD to control the motor speed can save up to 70% of the energy (Central line of Honeywell). The extended system can include VFD interfaced with the PLC and can run according to the given parameters and atmospheric boundary conditions in the side control module. Power quality mitigation through IMCSThe demands to the power reliability and the power quality become stricter due to the popular application of variable-frequency and variable-speed drives, robots, automated production lines, accurate digital-control machines, programmable logic controllers, information manage systems in computers and so on. These devices and computer systems are very sensitive to the power-supply ripple and various disturbances. Any power quality problems may result in the reduction of product quality or confusion of management order which means great economic loss. Power Quality can be measured with power quality meters and analyzed with software in the control module. Power Quality events usually are infrequent, making them hard to detect and store without specialized equipment. The system is able to collect and analyze events on the basis for identifying the Power Quality problem.
Corrective actions may include: changing motor starting procedures, replacing faulty switches or relays, filtering harmonic producing loads, or changing switching schedules for power factor correcting capacitors, changing control of the power filter.
Once the corrections are in place, further monitoring will verify that the corrective action worked.
The applied system such as IMCS can line with this specifications for power quality mitigation.
ConclusionThe application of good plant quality and demand control concepts requires an understanding of utility rates, auditing, and metering in addition to a basic knowledge of the process and load being controlled or shed. The paper introduced an overview explanation for the original IMCS achieved at the Eastern Company. The paper also proposed modified intelligent monitoring and controlling system that has the feature of high speed data manipulation through the technology of Profibus and new generation of digital meters. Also, Power Quality can be measured with power quality meters and analyzed with software in the control module. The feature of the energy consumption and power quality mitigation are significantly enhancing the power system operation.

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