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When a straight conductor is moved rapidly in a magnetic field, then a current is induced in the conductor. An AC generator consists of a magnet with concave cylindrical poles, an armature, and a current collecting arrangement. Armature is a soft iron core on which a coil having a large number of turns of insulated copper wire is wound.
The axle is rotated mechanically from outside by a diesel engine, flowing water, steam or high-speed wind. Such a current which changes its direction after equal intervals of time is called alternating current (AC). UStudy aims to provide Educational Content for Polytechnic College students based on the latest K Scheme syllabus of Tamil Nadu. Copyright © 2008 Lakshmi Anand K, Director of MSPVL Polytechnic College, Pavoorchatram. Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of high intention, sincere efforts, intelligent direction and wise choice of alternatives and skillful execution. Hydropower plants harness water's energy and use simple mechanics to convert that energy into electricity.

Dam - Most hydropower plants rely on a dam that holds back water, creating a large reservoir. Use of hydropower peaked in the mid-20th century, but the idea of using water for power generation goes back thousands of years. One end of each brush is in contact with the rotating slip rings and the other end is connected to an external circuit. In this arrangement, one brush is at all times in contact with the arm moving up in the field while the other is in contact with the arm moving down. The left side of the armature is pushed away from the left magnet and drawn towards the right, causing rotation. If you have ever been white-water rafting, then you've felt a small part of the river's power. Hydropower plants are actually based on a rather simple concept -- water flowing through a dam turns a turbine, which turns a generator. Often, this reservoir is used as a recreational lake, such as Lake Roosevelt at the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State.Intake - Gates on the dam open and gravity pulls the water through the penstock, a pipeline that leads to the turbine. When the gates open, the water flowing through the penstock becomes kinetic energy because it's in motion.

When the coil turns through 900, the brushes lose contact with the commutator and the current stops flowing through the coil. White-water rapids are created as a river, carrying a large amount of water downhill, bottlenecks through a narrow passageway. Water builds up pressure as it flows through this pipe.Turbine - The water strikes and turns the large blades of a turbine, which is attached to a generator above it by way of a shaft.
More than 2,000 years ago, the Greeks are said to have used a water wheel for grinding wheat into flour. The most common type of turbine for hydropower plants is the Francis Turbine, which looks like a big disc with curved blades. These ancient water wheels are like the turbines of today, spinning as a stream of water hits the blades. Giant magnets rotate past copper coils, producing alternating current (AC) by moving electrons.

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