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20.12.2014
JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE traditional tea house Austere construction methods, lightweight materials and porous boundaries between inside and outside are all hallmarks of traditional Japanese architecture. Also, while Western architecture has often featured spires and other vertical features that intended to show the power of God and man over nature, Japan temples and shrines usually stressed the horizontal and were often relatively small and hidden by trees and other natural objects. Early History of Japanese Architecture Historically, architecture in Japan was influenced by Chinese architecture, although the differences between the two are many. Methods for Buddhist architecture were introduced by two skilled workers from the Paekche kingdom in Korea in 577.
In 710, when the capital of Japan was moved 18.4 kilometer from Fujiwara-kyo to present-day Nara city, a unprecedented construction boom ensued.
Features of Japanese Architecture Post-and-lintel structures provide traditional Japanese buildings with strength over a wide area. A traditional Japanese interior features a multitude of partially-screened, geometrically-arranged rooms with sliding doors that can be opened to create large spaces or closed to create private rooms. The most expressive element of Japanese architecture is the roof, which tends to hang over the building like a shaggy wig and stress its smallness and horizontal plane. The roof in a traditional Japanese structure is made of heavy timbers placed at right angles, and the sheer weight of it is what keeps structure in place. Japanese Wood Architecture Construction Techniques Japanese carpenters have traditionally lavished as much attention on the frames of their buildings as Westerners gave to their furniture, partly because Japanese shrines and houses have traditionally had very little furniture.
Japanese carpenters and architects use their skills not decorate wood surface but rather to maximize the effect of unadorned wooden surfaces. Japanese Architecture, Wood, Earthquakes and Fire It had traditionally been thought that one of the main reasons why wood was more dominant in Japanese architecture than stone is that wood structures were less vulnerable to earthquakes that stone buildings, which topple over easier. Providing a better explanation for dominance of wood, Edward Morse wrote in 1885, "The Japanese house answers admirably the purposed for which it was intended. Japanese Architecture and Weather Traditional houses were built to deal with summer heat more than winter cold under the understanding that residents could put on layers of clothing in the winter. In Ishinomaki, Miyagi Prefecture a century-old storehouse somehow survived the March 2011 tsunami, will be preserved with the support of building experts and enthusiasts across the country. According to its owner Eiichi Honma, 62, the tsunami washed away Honma's house and another storehouse on his land. Development of Japanese Wood Architecture Stone construction had been around for a long time in Japan, where sophisticated techniques were used to make stone bridges and tombs.
Another important factor that shaped Japanese wood architecture was the abundance of cypress trees in Japan. By the 16th century the typical Japanese house had post-and-beam construction and elaborate joinery.
Traditional Japanese Homes rural house in the 19th century Influenced by Zen Buddhism, the traditional Japanese home is simple and austere yet elegant. Types of traditional homes include thatched minka houses, samurai residences, teahouses, townhouses, traditional inns, mountain refuges and Haokone retreats.
The traditional Japanese house as we know it today has its origins in homes of rich farmers in the early Edo Period (1603-1868) and were built with tools and methods imported from Korea and China for building palaces and temples. In urban areas, the Japanese fascination with the new and the urge to redevelop wins out over efforts to preserve the old. The interior of Japanese houses in the past was virtually open, without even screens to partition off individual spaces. Thatch-Roof Houses and Machiya Houses in Japan machiya house The charming-looking, giant, multi-storied, thatch-roof minka farmhouses are designed on utilitarian principals for large extended families with 40 or more people living on the top floors, domestic animals kept on the bottom floor and mulberry-leave-munching silkworms housed in the upper gables. Built through a communal effort, gassho-zukuti are usually made of unpainted boards and waddle-and-daub walls without using a single nail. The thatched roofs can be up to a meter thick and are made hand woven from thick reeds that come from communal grasslands. The thatched roofs are replaced every 30 or 40 years, with work usually being done in April.
In the old days villager maintained communal grasslands by annual cutting and burning to provide grass for roofs. Udatsu is an architectural feature of some Edo Period (1603-1867) homes in which thick layers of plaster were placed between upper floors to prevent fires from spreading.
Features of a Traditional Japanese Home A traditional Japanese house today is made of wood and has tatami mat floors (floor coverings made of two-inch thick pressed straw, covered panels of tightly woven reeds), sliding shoji doors, wooden walls, lacquer doors, clay walls, coffered ceiling, sliding doors, a tile roof, lath-and-plaster walls, wood or metal rain shudders, and tokonama (display alcoves). The tokonoma is an alcove in a traditional Japanese home intended for displaying a flower arrangement, a work of Zen-style art or a calligraphy scroll.
The Japanese traditionally would speak to guests in the entrance hall or else show them to a reception hall or living-room-dining-room area. Japanese Tea Rooms In the Ashikaga Period (1338-1573), the Japanese upper classes considered it a pleasure to sit in a quite room with friends, separated from the worries of life, and listen to the soft sound of water boiling. The idea of the traditional tea ceremony cottage was to create an atmosphere of calm and meditation. The goal was to create a facsimile of a hermit's hut with a sense of wabi (quiet taste) and shibumi (sobriety). Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Daily Yomiuri, Times of London, Japan National Tourist Organization (JNTO), National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner.
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BEIRUT a€” A rebel-claimed bombing Thursday in the northern Syrian city of Aleppo leveled a once luxurious hotel near the ancient Citadel that government troops used as a military base, causing multiple casualties, activists and militants said. Syrian state television said the explosion struck the Carlton Hotel in a government-held area on the edge of a contested neighborhood in the old part of Aleppo. The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, which maintains a network of activists on the ground, said at least 14 soldiers were killed in the blast. In a live broadcast from the site of blast, the stationa€™s correspondent in Aleppo stood on a huge pile of rubble with twisted metal and palm trees sticking out, saying that the army had been using the building as a base and soldiers were positioned there at the time of the explosion. Thursdaya€™s attack was a blow to President Bashar Assada€™s government in the north as his troops prepare to regain control of the central city of Homs following last weeka€™s cease-fire agreement after a fierce, two-year battle with the rebels trying to oust him.
Rebels were completing their withdrawal from Homs on Thursday, a day after hundreds of fighters evacuated from the city under the cease-fire deal.
No such agreement appears to be in sight in Aleppo, Syriaa€™s largest city and former commercial hub. In recent months, government aircraft relentlessly has bombed rebel-held areas of the city and the opposition fighters have hit back, firing mortars into government-held areas. The Observatory said Islamic Front fighters planted a huge amount of explosives in a tunnel they dug below the hotel and detonated it remotely. Meanwhile Thursday, more rebels were expected to leave the central city of Homs as an evacuation of opposition fighters moves into its second day. Barazi was seen touring Homs on Lebanona€™s Al-Manar TV, which is owned by the Shiite militant group Hezbollah. A reporter with Syrian state TV was seen broadcasting live from an entrance to Homs Old City. The Observatory, which has been documenting Syriaa€™s 3-year-old conflict, said that about 250 opposition fighters remain in the old districts of Homs, where they have been holed up under a crippling government siege for more than two years. An activist in Homs who goes with the name of Beibares Tellawi told The Associated Press that seven buses went into a once-besieged area of Homs on Thursday to take the remaining rebels out of the city.
In exchange for the rebelsa€™ safe departure from Homs, the opposition fighters have released 70 people who had been held by gunmen in various areas, including in Aleppo and in the coastal province of Latakia, Barazi said. Syriaa€™s uprising began with largely peaceful protests and has evolved into a civil war with sectarian overtones, pitting largely Sunni Muslim rebels against Assada€™s government that is dominated by Alawites, a sect of Shiite Islam. Islamic extremists, including foreign fighters and Syrian rebels who have taken up hard-line al-Qaida-style ideologies, have played an increasingly prominent role among fighters, dampening the Westa€™s support for the rebellion to overthrow Assad. Pritzker-prize-winning Japanese architect Ryue Nishikawa told AP, “If you see Japanese temples made of wood, you can see how the architecture is made up.
Unlike Western architects who have traditionally tried to make to make their buildings interesting to look at by adding unnecessary decorations and arranging modules of differing heights, Japanese architects focused on making their structures sublime and mysterious on a horizontal level. Whereas the exposed wood in Chinese buildings is painted, in Japanese buildings it traditionally has not been. The skills they introduced were used to construct Japan’s first Buddhist temple, Asukamura, in Asuka, Nara Prefecture.
Yakushji, Asukadera (now Gangoji) and Daikandaiji (now Daianji) were moved to new sites and Kofukiji was built by Fujiwara Fuhito, the nobleman who orchestrated the move to Nara. Instead of the laying cornerstone to dedicate a new building, Japanese builders plant a decorative and symbolic ridgepole in an important ceremony that gives thanks to the gods and asks them to make the building durable and safe.
The translucent paper walls between the rooms allowed people to see shadows in the next rooms but not clearly see what was making the shadows.
Trusses were rarely used until Japanese architecture was Westernized and even today Japanese engineers say that the heavier the roof is the more stable the structure is because Japanese buildings rest on columns at ground level instead of deep foundation so they can sway and bounce in an earthquake rather than buckle and collapse.
Early European visitors to Japan were so impressed by the perfect fit of the swallow-tail joint at the corners of doors and windows they thought they must had been produced by magic. The five stories oscillate in opposed phases when there are tremors, which keeps the structure from breaking apart. They were built of light materials---wood, bamboo, straw and paper---which provide terrible insulation but allow breezes to enter, air to circulate and heat to escape.
The Shosoin Temple, for example, the imperial treasure repository at Nara, has a roof made up of triangular timbers that expand during wet weather to protect the interior from rain and shrink during hot, dry weather to allow ventilation. The two-story storehouse, which was built in the year following the 1896 Meiji Sanriku Earthquake, is in the Kadonowaki district, about 500 meters from Ishinomaki Bay. The storehouse that survived had part of its outer wall damaged by destroyed houses and cars carried by the tsunami, and its first floor was flooded. But despite this, there is not one example of a surviving ancient Japanese building made of stone.
Stone can be fashioned with stone, while woodworking and wood construction requires tools made of iron. Cypress is a soft wood with grains running straight along the length of the tree, which it makes it easy to cut into timber.
The floor was raised above ground, its post resting on foundation stone, which allows the structure to bounce in the event of an earthquake.
Common features include a fluid floor plan created by movable screens and the use of indigenous woods, straw, bamboo and paper. The mansions and homes built during this period had elaborate receiving rooms, sculptured gardens with huts, and thatch roofs with Japanese cypress tree beams resting on wooden pillars and beams. Many traditional houses have been lost because their owners couldn’t pay inheritance taxes---which can be as high as 75 percent of the value of the property---and were forced to sell. Gradually, as more thought was given to particular areas and their functions, such as eating, sleeping, or dressing, self-standing screens ( byobu) came into use. The steep praying-hands roof are designed the way they area or shed the heavy snows that fall on them in the winter.
A typical one is six meters wide and 30 meters deep, has six tatami mat rooms, and is worth about $420,000.


On visiting a Japanese home, one of the first things a host or hostess often does is show their guests pictures of living family members and dead ancestors on the Buddhist altar that is often in or near the tokonama. It very unusual for a visitor to come in the kitchen or the bedrooms and have a look around the house. One Japanese artist told National Geographic that shoji creates a "good feeling" because "behind the shoji screen we cannot really see you, but we can know your actions, whether or not your are lively." Shoji windows infuse traditional homes with a soft natural light.
Members of the aristocracy created special tea rooms in their palaces or tea houses in their gardens that looked simple in appearance but were actually created with a careful eye for detail. Tea cottage designed by the great 15th century architect Senno Rikyu (1522-1591) were small and contained a bamboo ceiling, bare walls, sliding doors covered with snow-white translucent Japanese paper, and pillars made with wood still containing their bark.
Hedges, stepping stones, a hand-washing basin and stone lanterns were placed on path to prepare one's spirit for the ceremony.
Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. The Islamic Front, Syriaa€™s biggest rebel alliance which claimed the attack, claimed to have killed 50 soldiers. In the broadcast, Syrian TV did not mention casualties but said the rebels blew up the building by tunneling underneath and planting explosives. The first, allegedly carried out also through explosives-packed tunnels, caused a partial collapse of the building in February.
The city has been carved up into opposition- and government-held areas since the rebels launched an offensive there in mid-2012, capturing territory along Syriaa€™s northern border with Turkey.
It said the hotel was completely destroyed in the blast and at least 14 government soldiers were killed in the blast. Talal Barazi told Syrian state TV that that the evacuation process is being conducted in a€?positive atmosphere.a€? He said Homs will be declared a a€?securea€? city once the army moves in later Thursday. Standing near the citya€™s main square known as the Clock Square, the reporter interviewed a priest who said he hoped people in the city would be safe again.
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You can download and obtain the Earthquake Resistant Bed images by click the file image name Above . It has been said that with traditional Japanese architecture you start with one room and take a great effort to get that right before moving on to the next room.
Also, Chinese architecture was based on a lifestyle that included the use of chairs, while in Japan people customarily sat on the floor. In Japanese lumberyards, pieces of wood are not piled in big stacks as they are in Western lumberyard, rather they are organized by color and grain. Wooden structures are often destroyed by earthquakes, plus they are generally more vulnerable to fire and typhoons than stone buildings. In the old days some houses were so cold in winter that children went outside to play to get warm. The structure's characteristic feature is its namako kabe-style outer walls, which are covered with square tiles with joints protected by plaster. However, it withstood the disaster relatively well, probably thanks to repairs to the reinforcement bars of the outer wall last year.
Early Japanese carpenters didn't even develop cross cut saws or planes, which are necessary to fashion woods with uneven grains.
Many have lattice windows, stripped beams, Older unrestored ones have dirt floors and mushikomado windows framed by thick clay.
The only adornment was a hanging scroll will calligraphy or a flower arrangement in the tokonoma, an alcove in a traditional Japanese home intended for displaying a flowers or art.
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Both groups did not say how they know how many soldiers died, and the claims could not be independently verified. The Front, an alliance of several Islamic groups fighting to topple Assad, appears to favor this technique and has used it to carry out deadly attacks against government forces in Aleppo and Idlib provinces. Even today most of Japan's oldest surviving buildings and most famous shrines and temples are made of wood. Cypress also has an appealing texture and fragrance, which make ideal for unadorned wooden surface. Single-leaf and folding screens, tatami and other light materials made it possible to define the living space freely.
Some people stand on the roof beams and put the thatch in place while others hand the thatch up to them.
The thatched-roof houses there are called gassho-zukuti, which refers to the fact they look like praying arms. The roofs extend almost all the way to the ground and windows are only at the front and back of the houses. About three or four houses are reroofed every year, with the generous Japanese government absorbing of the costs.
If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. You can get Earthquake Resistant Bed and see more pictures about home decor decor on this website.
Scientists are now studying the pagoda for clues on making modern buildings more earthquake-resistant.



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