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Most homes have at least one water heater taking up space in a basement or inside a utility closet. An on-demand water heater can tuck into the same utility closet without taking up the whole space. The first practical electricity generating system using a steam turbine was designed and made by Charles Parsons in 1885 and used for lighting an exhibition in Newcastle. Steam emissions from naturally occurring aquifers are also used to power steam turbine power plants.
The stationary blades act as nozzles in which the steam expands and emerges at an increased speed but lower pressure.
The next series of fixed blades reverses the direction of the steam before it passes to the second row of moving blades. Water vapour seen billowing from power plants is evaporating cooling water, not the working fluid. Back-Pressure Turbines, often used for electricity generation in process industries, do not use condensers. The output steam is fed through a cooling tower through which cooling water is passed to condense the steam back to water.

The steam turbine drives a generator, to convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy. The energy conversion efficiency of these high capacity generators can be as high as 98% or 99% for a very large machine.
Note: This means that a 1000MW generator must dissipate 20 MW of waste heat and such generators require special cooling techniques. Water flows into a tank where it’s heated up using electricity or gas, and then it sits and waits. Also called on-demand water heaters, these clever appliances save money and will likely overtake the more wasteful, traditional models in years to come. You turn on the water and let it run until what comes through the tap is a comfortable temperature. That means less heat is lost, which translates to fewer on-cycles to heat up water that’s cooled off. These beasts have tank sizes that are much larger in diameter than a person, if not as tall. With technology improvements, it’s easy to see a future where wasteful tanks of heated and reheated water give way to a smaller, more efficient design.

If it waits too long, it’s reheated to keep it at the right temperature until you need it.
Only then will you (and everyone else) dare to step into a shower or wash your face or hands. But every time you reheat the same water, even if it’s less often, you waste energy and money. A common design flaw releases a slug of frigid water when you least expect it, which is right in the middle of your shower.
With a small, electric accessory tank in line from the on-demand unit, those slugs get mixed with warm so they never reach the tap. The space-saving nature of tankless water heaters means homeowners can use square footage much more efficiently than before. Unlike large tanks, small units require regular purging and flushing of the lines to remove sediment, which impairs water flow.

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