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23.09.2015
If you want to use this site for free, I'd be grateful if you could add the site to the whitelist for Adblock. Media errors during backup or restore operations are quite stressful, because usually these tasks should run smoothly. But just in case you happen to have one such error, then it would be ready if you would be prepared or have a bit of knowledge about these errors before you see them.
It has a new mechanism which is an important step forward in the field of error detection which gives you the option of creating a backup and doing a checksum operation during backup and during restore. You have the ability to control if the operation will look for errors and if it encounters any errors, you also can specify if it should continue or stop.
If such a backup does contain such a checksum you can use the RESTORE and RESTORE VERIFYONLY options to look for errors which are caused by the media.
Backup checksums are a feature of SQL Server since the 2005 edition, and up until the 2012 generation there are multiple types of checksum operations available for the user. Checksums are important because they help you detect media errors during backup or restore operations. SQL Server has suppor for up to three types of checksum operations: a checksum operation for pages, a checksum for log blocks and checksums for backups. When you are doing a backup operation, the BACKUP command will verify that the data that has been read from the source keeps its consistency with any checksum or torn-page indicator that the database has. But, an extra operation during the backup process will obviously have an impact on the time required to finish the backup.
Therefore, doing a checksum operation during your backup is optional, but recommended, if you care very much for your data.
Another thing which you should monitor before doing a backup operation is the usage of the CPU. Before a page is written to the media, the backup operation will check the page-level information. This means that it will do a checksum for the page, it will perform a torn-page detection or it either exists. If neither exist, the backup cannot verify the page, which will determine the page to be included as it is and the contents of the page are added to the overall backup checksum value.
Even if the page has checksums, the BACKUP operation will generate a separate checksum for the streams.
Restore operations will optionally make use of the backup checksum in order to verify that the backup has not been corrupted.
This backup checksum is stored on the media, not on the pages of the database and it can be optionally used during the restore process.
During the process of restoring the backup if the checkums are present on the media then by default both of the RESTORE and RESTORE VERIFYONLY statements, which we mentioned before will check make the verification on the checksum and page checksums.
In case there is no backup checksu, the operation of restoring will continue without further verifications.
This is because without a checksum the restore process cannot verify in a reliable manner the page checksums. If media errors during backup or restore operations occur, then by default, after encountering such a checksum error, the RESTORE VERIFYIONLY operation will continue. Although, you have the possibility of controlling what happens in case of such an error, if the process continues to give the best possible outcome or if it should stop.
The BACKUP operation will flag the backup set on the media as having errors and will track the page in the suspect_pages table which is part of the msdb database. The backup set will be marked as having an error,  by populating the is_damaged column from msdb.backupset table. A message will be issued if the backup has been succesfully created, but the page has errors. Open System Interconnection (OSI) model, an ISO standard for worldwide communication Networks that defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. This model is called Open System Interconnection (OSI) because this model allows any two different systems to communicate regardless of their underlying architecture. The International standard organization (ISO), in an effort to encourage open networks, developed an open systems interconnect reference model.
To remember the names of seven layers in order one cornmon mnemonic used is -"All People Seem to Need Data Processing".
The last three layers are mainly concerned with the organization of terminal software and are not directly the concern of communications engineers. The application layer serves as the window for users and application processes to access network services. Network Virtual Terminal: A network virtual terminal is a software version of a physical terminal and allows a user to log on to a remote host. File transfer, access and management (FTAM): This application allows a user to access a file in a remote host to make changes or to read data, to retrieve files from remote computer for use in local computer, and to manage or control files in a remote computer locally.
Mail services: This application provides various e-mail services such as email forwarding and storage.
Directory services: This application provides the distributed database sources and access for global information about various objects and services.
Session layer has the primary responsibility of beginning, maintaining and ending the communication between two devices, which is called Session. Session establishment, maintenance and termination: allows two application processes on different machines to establish, use and terminate a connection, called a session. Session support: performs the functions that allow these processes to communicate over the network, performing security, name recognition, logging and so on. Dialog control: Dialog control is the function of session layer that determines which device will communicate first and the amount of data that will be sent.


When a device is contacted first, the session layer is responsible for determining which device participating in the communication will transmit at a given time as well as controlling the amount of data that can be sent in a transmission. The types of dialog control that can take place include simplex, half duplex and full duplex.
Dialog separation or Synchronization: The session layer is also responsible for adding checkpoint or markers within the message. Protocols: The protocols that work on the session layer are NetBIOS, Mail Slots, Names Pipes, and RPC.
Transport layer manages end to end (source to destination) (process to process) message delivery in a network and also provides the error checking and hence guarantees that no duplication or errors are occurring in the data transfers across the network.
Transport layer also provides the acknowledgement of the successful data transmission and retransmits the data if error is found. The size and complexity of a transport protocol depends on the type of service it can get from the network layer.
Transport layer divides the message received from upper layer into packets at source and reassembles these packets again into message at the destination. Segmentation of message into packet and reassembly of packets into message: accepts a message from the (session) layer above it, splits the message into smaller units (if not already small enough), and passes the smaller units down to the network layer. Message acknowledgment: provides reliable end-to-end message delivery with acknowledgments. Message traffic control: tells the transmitting station to "back-off" when no message buffers are available. Session multiplexing: multiplexes several message streams, or sessions onto one logical link and keeps track of which messages belong to which sessions.
Service point addressing: The purpose of transport layer is to delivery message from one process running on source machine to another process running on destination machine.
This layer is incharge of packet addressing, converting logical addresses into physical addresses.
It also translates the logical address into the physical address e.g computer name into MAC address.
In the network layer and the layers below, peer protocols exist between a node and its immediate neighbor, but the neighbor may be a node through which data is routed, not the destination station.
Protocols: These protocols work on the network layer IP, ICMP, ARP, RIP, OSI, IPX and OSPF. The data link layer provides error-free transfer of data frames from one node to another over the physical layer, allowing layers above it to assume virtually error-free transmission over the link. The data link layer handles the physical and logical connections to the packet's destination, using a network interface.
LLC sublayer determines whether the communication is going to be connectionless or connection-oriented at the data link layer. Link Establishment and Termination: Establishes and terminates the logical link between two nodes. Frame Traffic Control: Tells the transmitting node to "back-off algorithm" when no frame buffers are available.
Media Access Management: determines when the node "has the right" to use the physical medium.
Flow control: It is the traffic regulatory mechanism implemented by Data Link layer that prevents the fast sender from drowning the slow receiver. Error control: Data link layer provides the mechanism of error control in which it detects and retransmits damaged· or lost frames.
Access control: When a single communication channel is shared by multiple devices, MAC sub-layer of data link layer helps to determine which device has control over the channel at a given time. The physical layer, the lowest layer of the OSI model, is concerned with the transmission and reception of the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium.
When receiving data, this layer will get the signal received and convert it into 0s and 1s and send them to the Data Link layer, which will put the frame back together and check for its integrity The X.25 protocols works at the physical, data link, and network layers. Data Encoding: Modifies the simple digital signal pattern (1s and 0s) used by the PC to better accommodate the characteristics of the physical medium, and to aid in bit and frame synchronization.
Transmission Technique: determines whether the encoded bits will be transmitted by baseband (digital) or broadband (analog) signaling. Bit synchronization: The physical layer provides the synchronization of the bits by providing a clock. Provides physical characteristics of interfaces and medium: Physical layer manages the way a device connects to network media. Line configuration: Physical layer also defines the way in which the devices are connected to the medium.
Transmission mode: Physical layer also defines the way in which the data flows between the two connected devices. Multiplexing: Physical layer can use different techniques of multiplexing, in order to improve the channel efficiency. Circuit switching: Physical layer also provides the circuit switching to interconnect different networks.
But please understand that I am providing premium content for free that takes hundreds of hours of time to research and write. It's priced very economically and you can read all of it in a convenient format without ads. No se permite la copia de estas obras con fines lucrativos excepto para web’s o sitios donde el beneficio economico sea indirecto. Without such a verification, you might find out one day that all of your backups on a disk are not correct and consistent files because the disk is corrupted. When doing a backup checksum the operation does not put any additional information on the pages (checksums are not stored on pages), but the pages are backed up just as they are in the database.


Doing checksums will have an influence on the time it takes to do your backups, but usually it is not a significant increase. Backup checksums will generate a CPU overhead, so your system is not affected at a great degree.
Therefore OSI reference model allows open communication between different systems without requiring changes' to the logic of the underlying hardware and software.
The model logically groups the functions and sets rules, called protocols, necessary to establish and conduct communication between two or more parties. OSI reference model is now considered as a primary standard for internetworking and inter computing.
The transport layer is the one which links the communication processes to this software-oriented protocol. The application layer makes the interface between the program that is sending or is receiving data and the protocol stack.
The presentation layer presents the data into a uniform format and masks the difference of data format between two dissimilar systems. Session layer establish and manages the session between the two users at different ends in a network. The transport layer ensures that messages are delivered error-free, in sequence, and with no losses or duplications. It may be possible that several programs or processes are running on both the machines at a time. Transport layer makes sure that the sender and receiver communicate at a rate they both can handle.
It is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of a packet across multiple networks (links).
And if two systems are attached to different networks with connecting devices like routers between the networks, then there is need for the network layer. It is also responsible for defining the route, it managing the network problems and addressing The network layer controls the operation of the subnet, deciding which physical path the data should take based on network conditions, priority of service, and other factors.
At the MAC sublayer of Data link layer, the actual physical address of the device, called the MAC address is added to the packet. Detects and recovers from errors that occur in the physical layer by retransmitting non-acknowledged frames and handling duplicate frame receipt. If the rate at which data is absorbed by receiver is less that the rate produced in the sender, the data link layer imposes this flow control mechanism. It also deals with the problem of duplicate frame, thus providing reliability to physical layer. The receiving device then sends the acknowledgement frames back to the source providing the receipt of the frames. Such physical connection may be made by using twisted pair cable, fiber-optic, coaxial cable or wireless communication media. This clock controls both transmitter as well as receiver thus providing synchronization at bit level.
For example, if the physical connection from the device to the network uses coaxial cable, the hardware that functions at the physical layer will be designed for that specific type of network. Two different line configurations are used point to point configuration and multipoint configuration.
I don't want to go to a pay-only model like some sites, but when more and more people block ads, I end up working for free. The user's computer talks to the software terminal which, in turn, talks to the host and vice-versa. Session layer also manages who can transfer the data in a certain amount of time and for how long. Transport layer provides services to application layer and takes services from network layer. In order to delivery the message to correct process, transport layer header includes a type of address called service point address or port address. Therefore flow control prevents the source from sending data packets faster than the destination can handle. The sending transport layer ensures that the entire message arrives at the receiving transport layer without error (damage, loss or duplication). Such a packet is called a Frame that contains all the addressing information necessary to travel from source device to destination device. In these 12 digits of MAC address, the first six digits indicate the NIC manufacturer and the last six digits are unique. This layer gets the frames sent by the Data Link layer and converts them into signals compatible with the transmission media. The remote host believes it is communicating with one of its own terminals and allows the user to log on.
Thus by specifying this address, transport layer makes sure that the message is delivered to the correct process on destination machine. The packets will use to arrive at their destination, based on factors like traffic and priorities.
This layer may translate data from a format used by the application layer into a common format at the sending station, and then translate the common format to a format known to the application layer at the receiving station.



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