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Author: admin | Category: How To Learn Piano | 02.04.2016

This document describes keys you may find on your keyboard and some of the functions available when keys are used in combination with each other. Despite all letter keys having a capital letter on them, pressing them on their own produces a lower case letter.  Capital letters are produced by pressing and holding down the Shift key and then pressing the corresponding letter on the keyboard. These keys usually run along the top of the keyboard, and are marked F1 to F12.  Many packages have defined these keys to be used as shortcuts for commonly-needed actions but you rarely need to use them.
Situated on the right of the keyboard, these keys have numbers and control functions on them.
If the NumLock key is not pressed, it means that the other items marked on these keys are operational. When using word processors, the 'up arrow' moves your cursor up one line of typed characters at a time, the 'down' arrow moves it down one line of typed characters at a time. The Home key moves the cursor to the beginning of the current line of typed characters, the End key moves it to the end.
Some of these keys are used in conjunction with other keys to perform specific tasks within software packages.
This key is used to send the cursor to the beginning of the next line (for instance when typing text in a word processing package). Hold down this key and press a letter, to get an upper case letter, or press any other key, eg a number, to get the symbol above it.  Some keyboard shortcuts also use the Shift key. Primarily used to cancel a command (instead of pressing Enter) or to escape from a process which may be in an odd state.
Used in conjunction with other keys to carry out functions specific to your computer system.
Used to produce the third character located on the key above the Tab key.  Hold this down and press the key above Tab. Allows the numeric keys to be used on the numeric keypad, rather than the cursor control keys. Used by the operating system and applications - actions variable depending on program used. Sends a copy of everything on your current screen to the Windows Clipboard.  From here you can paste it into an application, eg a Word document. Keyboards and typing technology have come a long way over the past couple centuries. The first typing devices were designed and patented in the 1700s while the first manufactured typing devices came about in the 1870s. To begin exploration of the first keyboards, we must first examine the origins of typing and the first typing devices. While typewriters were widely used throughout the 1950s to the 1970s, computers were starting to emerge as a consumer friendly product, beginning the age of the computer keyboard as a primary input device. Teletype and ENIAC computers used cards  (similar in shape to index cards) that were inserted into the Teletype while a series of holes called keypunches would be punched into the cards according to which keys were pressed on the teletype machine. After the cards were keypunched by the computer, they were brought over to a card-reader that would analyze the deck of cards as data (tangible memory). The first keyboards that were sold in the 1970s were all built from scratch, piece by piece, and were heavy as they were fully mechanical. In the late 1970s Apple, Radio Shack and Commodore all had the foresight to see the large market in computer keyboards, and started manufacturing keyboards for their computers, paving the way for the modern assumption that all computers come with a keyboard, and that keyboards are the primary, standard input device. In the 1990s membrane switches began to replace the mechanical key switch, as it was quieter, weighed less, and suited the needs of the new laptop generation. Other changes in keyboard design, whether or not improving upon function, have included the folding keyboard, the water-proof (and washable) keyboard, the keyboard that also functions as a mouse, thumb-sized keyboards (for mobile devices and travel) and virtual touch-screen keyboards. Over the years there have been several other designs that verge on science fiction- like the laser keyboard, the flying saucer keyboard, the jellyfish keyboard, and the fully-programable, lcd-key display Optimus Maximus Keyboard. Keyboards come in all shapes, sizes, and colors these days, though it’s important to remember that without the original, simple,  powerhouse mechanical keyboards of IBM we wouldn’t be where we are today. With all of the design innovations being manufactured, there is no surprise that many creative keyboard aficionados have started to emerge with their own inventive modifications to improve the typing experience and aesthetic. The most widely used keyboard layout is QWERTY, named as such for the positioning of the keys in the top left row.
The QWERTY model keyboard is still used today by some of the world’s fastest typists, but imagine how much faster and more efficient typing could be if the keys we use most often were under the strongest of our fingers in the easiest to access areas.
Histories of Keyboards concentrate on the main Alpha Numeric layout but there are USA and UK English Layouts .
Jayson and Jhiggins, I appreciate your feedback, I'll research more and revise :) Thanks for reading!
Jayson and Jhiggins, I appreciate your feedback, I’ll research more and revise ?? Thanks for reading! Persian QWERTY Keyboard is designed to provide users with additional input tools in order to edit their documents or emails. Windows comes with multiple keyboard layouts which enable users to type in their native language by using the standard keyboard. This tool provides you with two additional input methods which are optimized for writing in Arabic and Persian. After the installation you can access the new keyboard layout from the language bar and set it as default from the Control Panel.
Unlike transliteration software, this program allows you to use the layout in every Windows application by specifying it from the language bar.
Unfortunately, in our tests some of the keyboard combinations specified in the online documentation did not change the inserted characters. If you often use Arabic or Persian for editing text and need to quickly switch the keyboard layout, you should try Persian QWERTY Keyboard to see the results for yourself.
These generally consist of punctuation (including accents and quotes) and mathematical symbols. This facility is often used by data entry operators who need to input vast amounts of numerical data by touch. PgUp is an abbreviation for Page Up, and moves your cursor up one page, and PgDn moves it down one page.
The decimal point key beneath the number 3 key also has a Del function, allowing deletion of items at the current cursor position. It is also used to finish a command and tell the computer to execute the command just typed. You can also click and drag to highlight text and then press the Backspace key to delete text. Setting tab positions allows you to move the cursor to defined positions, for instance when typing figures in columns.


Also used to enter ASCII codes, including non-English characters, by holding down the Alt key and entering the number from the numeric keypad. Num Lock mode is activated by pressing the key once and is indicated by a light on the panel above the numeric keypad. In 1714, the first patent for a typing machine was issued in London, England to Henry Mill.
The Selectrics used typeballs (resembling golf balls) that rolled, tilted, and printed the letters on the page without the typebars. Though the first computers and computer keyboards were created before the Selectric, these power-house typewriters were so great at putting text on the page that they continued to be used alongside keyboards, as computers gained in popularity. Since so much time and effort was needed to create these keyboards, and since the target market was primarily computer programmers and engineers, they were built for function and not for visual aesthetics. In the mid-1970s Imsai and Altair created the first small PCs for consumer use, generally referred to as the S100 computer systems. This was also an advantage for the manufactures because membrane keyboards were much cheaper to produce.
Its mind-bending to see the evolution of keyboards in terms of where they started as teletype machines and  typewriters- to where they’ve evolved into all the options we have quite literally at our fingertips. Christopher Latham Sholes and Carlos Glidden produced the first typewriter featuring the QWERTY layout in 1874 and though there have been minor changes over the past centuries, for the most part it has remained consistent.
In the beginning stages of the typewriter, people typed so quickly, that they often jammed the keys as they flew up to hit the typewriter ribbon. If he was able to design a keyboard easy for one-handed typists to use, imagine the functionality and efficiency possible for two-handed typists.
Though this layout hasn’t reached as much of a fan base of the first two, it has gained some notoriety. Just wanted to let you know that we are working on getting you this information as soon as possible.
The components aim to help the users who need to use Persian or Arabic in their daily activity. The main goal of the project is to provide the ability to write in Persian and Arabic to the operating systems that do not include these languages. These characters are obtained by pressing and holding down the Shift key before pressing the required key. To use the numeric option, press down the NumLock key above the 7 key.  There is usually a light above the numeric keypad that lights when the NumLock key has been pressed. The arrows are known as cursor control keys (the cursor is the flashing bar on the computer screen that shows your current position). By holding down the Shift key then pressing Tab, you can move to the previous tab position.
Scroll Lock mode is activated by pressing the key once and is indicated by a light on the panel above the numeric keypad. You can also click and drag to highlight text and then press the Delete key to delete text. Since then, we have seen several updates in design, layout, technology, and function that are more efficient and user-friendly. Though there is no evidence that the machine was in fact constructed, or sold, all we know is that this typing device was intended to prepare legal documents in a manner that was neat, legible, and in a standardized format. Machinist and clock-maker Matthais Schwalbach made the Sholes and Glidden typewriter in Milwaukee, and had Remington manufacture and sell it. This was huge, because typewriter jams (when two typebars interlocked if you typed too fast) were no longer an issue. Another punchcard computer popular at the time, was the UNIVAC I, produced  in 1951 is also pictured below.
Text was instantly visible on the screen as it was typed, which made communicating commands, programs, and controls to computers more efficient than previous teletype methods of input.
This meant there wasn’t a keyboard cover or cabinet, making the keyboard more or less exposed. This computer keyboard was wildly successful because it was so easy to use, users didn’t have to convert their typewriters or provide their own build of keyboard to use as an input device for their computers.
Unfortunately the quality of the keyboard significantly dropped as these superficial keyboard aesthetics dominated (slimmer, quieter, lighter weight, easier to be mobile with). Because only 17 keys differ from the QWERTY layout, this keyboard layout is fairly easy to relearn after years of QWERTY use. When you have finished typing the numbers you want you can press the NumLock key again to release it (and turn the light off).  You would do this if you want to use the other options on these keys (see Cursor control keys). The type-writer has changed shape dramatically over the years, eventually becoming electronic- then practically obsolete as we moved into the age of computers and the birth of the keyboard.
The first Remington typewriters, created by Sholes, Glidden, and Soule even came with a foot pedal (like a sewing machine) to control carriage returns. It was completely constructed of household materials which makes it particularly interesting and impressive. Soon after this sewing-machine-like model was created and sold, the foot pedal was removed with carriage returns being controlled on the typewriter itself.
Thompson was known to write on one, and some writers such as David Sedaris to this day still use and prefer their Selectric Typewriter. As you can see below, the ENIAC computer took up an entire room, hundreds of times larger than the modern computer laptop. There were no hard drives or floppy discs on these first machines, so there was no way to save data on them. The Model M was a mechanical keyboard, and used the highest quality construction, giving typists the satisfaction of tactile feedback, acute accuracy and comfort.
The technology and mechanics of these keyboards will be detailed in future chapters, and mechanical keyboard information can be found here: on our Mechanical Keyboard Guide. August Dvorak, and offers a keyboard layout that is more intuitive and efficient for modern typists. This has helped the Colemak layout to gain a following amongst typists who no longer want to adhere to an outdated QWERTY mode of typing, but are frustrated with the learning curve involved in readjusting to the Dvorak layout. The keyboard is the number one computer interface used around the world, and an integral object for many of us that most people take for granted.


Following this change, a slightly smaller, desk-top version of the typewriter came to be (though still extremely heavy and full of metal), losing the sewing machine look and defining its own look as a typewriter. The other new element brought to the typewriter scene with the Selectrics was that the typeballs could easily be taken out, and replaced with others to change fonts quickly on the same document. Typewriters have largely been replaced and taken over by the keyboard as the preferred, and most used typing device.
It was simply the most straight-forward and user-friendly method of interacting with computers (no stack of cards to punch holes in and keep organized).
The only draw backs on this keyboard was that the “Shift” and “Enter” keys were reportedly too small for the majority of user’s preferences. Here’s a photo showing the dramatic difference between early Apple mechanical keyboards (1983), and decades later the modern non-mechanical Apple keyboards (2010). Colemak is named after its creator, Shai Coleman, though Shai decided to match the last two letters to the Dvorak layout namesake (hence, Colemak), to perhaps appeal more to the alternative keyboard layout seeking community and draw some similarities between the two. This paper will explore the history of typing, detailing the innovations across time that have accumulated  into the definition of today’s standard for the ultimate typing experience. To move forward, its important to first move backwards in time and see how these first commercially successful type-writers came to be.
Moving across the globe to Denmark just a few years later, The Hansen Writing Ball was invented by Reverend Rasmus Malling-Hansen, in 1865. By 1910 all typewriters were more or less standardized, sharing very similar resemblances across the board, until the IBM Selectric was introduced in 1961. If users wanted a standard keyboard, IBM sold  a converted electric typewriter, but as supplies were limited and the product wasn’t in high demand many users had to convert their own electric typewriters if they wanted an easier to use keyboard to enter programming code. Because of this, IBM made and sold “Keytop Expanders” which fit over the shift and enter key-switches to expand the keys.
Dvorak conducted extensive research on the English language (and other languages using the Roman alphabet), and studied the physiology of the hand.
Dvorak noticed this speed bump, and took it into consideration for his simplified layout, where the same finger or hand aren’t required to type all of the characters in frequent letter-combinations and words while the other fingers or hand sit idly. This is the youngest of the three layouts discussed, though layout designs and updates continue to be tested and developed on a regular basis.
The half-sphere shape of the ball is unlike any other typing device before or after it, and regardless of visual appeal, The Hansen Writing Ball actually gained quite a bit of attention in Europe and England as a fully functional typing device. Though the Selectrics were still quite heavy, large, hunks of metal that were difficult to move around, the typeballs were small, easy to move, accessories that gave typists more freedom and accessibility.
Though the age of typewriters has faded and they have become more of a novelty than a necessity, several government offices continue to use typewriters to produce legal documents, which has kept and will keep typewriters in production, at least for the time being. All of the keyboards at this time were limited in that they were only offered in two colors: beige and grey, until the late 1980s when black was introduced as an option.
These symbols were used very infrequently on typewriters as it was generally assumed that Adding Machines were used to do all the mathematical notation. With these inconvenient placements, more than 50% of keystrokes take place on the top row, and roughly 30% take place on the bottom row.
Due to the popularity of the three layouts discussed, all other options receive little to no recognition or public attention. It is documented that Hansen Writing Balls could be found in operation up until 1909 in many offices and businesses in England and Europe. The Selectric Typewriter was produced up until the 1980s with three models that evolved over the course of those decades: The Selectric I, The Selectric II, and The Selectric III.
If typists wanted to produce a plus-sign, they would type a hyphen (-), hit backspace, then type a colon (:). Dvorak’s research brought forth not only the Dvorak layout, but also two additional keyboard layouts designed for people with one hand: one keyboard for those with only one right hand, and the other for those with only a left.
The design requires less finger-motion, which both increases typing speed and reduces finger strain. The main focus of newer alternative keyboard layouts tends to be an emphasis on mixing the familiarity of QWERTY with the efficiency of Dvorak. Because of the relative success of this product, Malling-Hansen released a few different versions of this invention.
They were available in a variety of colors including: vintage blue, mossy green, burnt red, beige, and black. When they wanted to type an equal sign, they would type a hyphen (-), hit backspace, and then type an underscore (_). It is also supposedly much easier to learn since the characters fall in less awkward positions, and the most common letters are all lined up next to each other on the home row. When IBM and the other major manufacturers chose to stick with QWERTY, everyone else followed their lead. Dvorak layouts never overcame the popularity of QWERTY layouts, even though Dvorak is compatible with almost all modern computer models (including Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, Linux, and BSD-UNIX). The fact that it no longer required electricity resulted in a broader range of consumers in various rural and urban locales. At the end of the 19th century in 1894, The Duplex full keyboard brought lower case letters to the typewriter by featuring separate keys for lower case and UPPER CASE letters. Thus they established the standard in layout design for decades to come- regardless of how inefficient and outdated. Additionally, having a shift key allowed the numerical keys to be shared with special characters such as the ampersand (&) and percent (%) signs for further keyboard consolidation. Shift lock allowed typists to switch back and forth between lower and upper case characters, as well as numerical andspecial characters with ease. If you are using Mac OS X with a German keyboard layout, but need to type lots of Sorbian text, then use this Keyboard Layout.



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