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Author: admin | Category: Learn Piano Online | 08.08.2015

Whether you are just beginning your journey or have been practising for years, this complete course in Pilates matwork is an invaluable resource, taking you through all Pilates exercises as originally conceived and practised by Joseph Pilates. To play Mozart on a modern grand piano with the appropriate style and taste will always be a challenge for today's performers. In agreement with the vision that Eva and Paul Badura-Skoda give in their book Interpreting Mozart on the keyboard, it is the performera€™s job, in order to do full justice to music from other periods, to hear it as its composer did, and attempt to reproduce it, as far as possible, in the style and with the resources of the period when it was written.
The piano that Mozart owned during his lifetime was built by Gabriel Anton Walter (1752-1826). First, it is necessary to know some relevant facts about piano history during Mozarta€™s lifetime.
In the time I have been here, your brothera€™s pianoforte has been moved at least twelve times from the house to the theatre or to another house.
The device mentioned in this letter was a pedal board that was adapted to Mozarta€™s piano and allowed him to extend the lower register of his instrument and to double important bass notes and motives (Badura-Skoda, 1962, 14). It is also relevant to know that WalterA probablyA modernized Mozarta€™s piano at the request of his wife Constanze. Unfortunately, Mozarta€™s own piano, used in AndrA s Schiffa€™s recording (Mozart, 1992, CD) therefore cannot recreate the sound of his time any more. There are the 15 instruments by Stein, all signed and variously dated between 1777 and 1790, two by Johann David Schiedmayer (1753-1805) dated 1783 and 1785, three attributed to Ignatz Kober (1755-1813), and three or four by Ferdinand Hofmann (1756-1829), and, of course, a number of square pianos, which Mozart could have known. As consequence of this, Mozart could not been fixed with a specific keyboard sound, because there were different types of these instruments available for him to play during his life, and they evolved in several ways through that period. Thus, Steina€™s pianos made an important impression on Mozart and if the replica used in Christinea€™s recording (Mozart, 1990a, CD) can reproduce faithfully the sound of Stein instrument, this is likely to be a more accurate example of the sound during Mozart period. On the other hand, the previous quote also shows that Mozart enjoyed playing his pieces on diverse instruments, and appreciated how the sound of his pieces could benefit from this. When I told Herr Stein I would love to try out his organ because organ playing was my real passion, he was a bit sceptical, and said: what? After listening to both the selected recordings for this essay, it is very easy to understand the clarity inherent to Mozarta€™s music. In this sense, Joseph Banowetz comments in his book The Pianista€™s Guide to Pedaling that the bright, somewhat thin and transparent tone of the fortepiano of Mozarta€™s day is difficult if not impossible to reproduce on a modern piano. Many recordings of contemporary pianists are examples of the exquisite, clear and colourful performances of Mozarta€™s music that can be achieved in a modern instrument, such as those by Alicia de Larrocha (Mozart, 1990b, online video) and Maria JoA?o Pires (Mozart, 1990c, online video) to list just a few. She will never be able to get what is most essential and difficult and the principal thing in Musique: the right tempo, for she has, since her earliest youth, completely neglected to play in time.
This may contradict with Christine Farona€™s performance, where she constantly extends the value of the first quaver (bars 8, 23, 27a€¦ of Mozart, 1986). It has been shown, therefore, that recordings performed on period instrument can be very helpful for performers trying to recreate Mozarta€™s piano sonatas.
Questo prodotto non è venduto singolarmente, devi selezionare almeno 1 pezzi per questo prodotto. Johann Joachim Quantz's On Playing the Flute has long been recognized as one of the primary sources of information about eighteenth-century performance practice. I have compiled a list of books that were used as part of the core curriculum of the vocal program at The Juilliard School and at Pepperdine University. Enjoy learning to sing or brush up your technique in a warm and friendly environment with a trained professional.
One of the main reasons is that Mozart was thinking of a different instrument at the moment he composed his music, constructed with other materials, played with another technical approach, and activated with a different mechanism that provided a very characteristic tone. It is necessary to find a compromise between historical knowledge and the world of present day perception, because the recreation of the original sound will always be limited (Badura-Skoda, 1962, 6-7). Walter made this instrument for Mozart in 1784, and it is this pianoforte which the composera€™s son Carl donated to the Mozart Museum in Salzburg in 1856 (McKay, 1997, 5).
On many occasions, he used pianos constructed by Johann Andreas Stein (1728-1792), with the same action mechanism but improved with the addition of the escapement (Closson, 1947,87). Acording to Michael Latchman in his article Mozart and the Pianos of Gabriel Anton Walter, the piano went through a very rapid development in Vienna at the end of the 18th century.
He has had a large pianoforte pedal made, which stands underneath the instrument and is about three spans longer and is remarkably heavy.
This is an example of how Mozart was keen to use the new advantages and innovations that became available to expand the possibilities of his instrument.
Of course, it is unlikely that Walter would have made the extensive alterations to Mozarta€™s piano if they had not improved the instrument.


However, instruments made by other makers can provide a more useful basis for understanding Mozarta€™s performance practice. Nevertheless, is important to know the sound of the keyboard that he would have been more familiar with and which was in his mind when he was composing.
However, to truly compare this sound with the one heard in AndrA sa€™ recording (Mozart, 1992, CD), it would be necessary for both to have been recorded under the same conditions, which is very unlikely.
His keyboard technique could not have been strongly attached to his own piano because he often had to adapt his way of playing to the keyboard available for him in each situation. This is a natural result of the way in which the pianoforte was constructed, in contrast to the modern piano. Irving also explains that the modern grand enjoys a wider register with two more octaves, and it requires a cast metal frame to bear the vastly increased tension of extra and much thicker strings. That is undoubtedly why many performers have recommended avoiding the right pedal entirely in repertory of this period. Nevertheless, listening to recordings performed on a pianoforte can give the performer a closer idea of the clarity and sound he or she should be trying to recreate.
Obviously, AndrA s Schiff is playing in a faster tempo, but this is not a very important issue. Even though most of the time the general tempo remains unchanged (because she rushes the other quavers), this effect can disturb the fluently of the music in passage such as bars 101-132, where a two bars theme is repeated many times while the harmony changes, always making the first quaver of the second bar longer. They can give them an auditory reference for the clear and colourful sound they should try to reproduce. Utilizzando i nostri servizi, l'utente accetta le nostre modalità d'uso dei cookie (Cookie Policy).
In spite of its title, it is not simply a tutor for the flute, but a fully-fledged programme for training musicians of all types, with detailed information on intonation, ornamentation, dynamics, the 'duties' of the various accompanying performers, including the leader of the orchestra, and the principal forms and styles (French, Italian and German) of the time.
A I, in turn, use these books as references in my own teaching and view them as the absolute definitive study materials for anyone wanting to learn about Vocal Arts. All exercises are shown step by step for beginner, intermediate and advanced levels, with instructions on adapting poses with supports such as cushions, blocks and dynabands, and alternative moves for those with special needs along with any contraindications.
This essay analyses two recordings made on historical instruments of the Mozart Sonata in B flat K.570.
For this reason, the Walter name is strongly associated with the performance of Mozarta€™s piano works in the early music movement. The opportunities these pianos offered for a true legato and cantando style of performance marked a turning point in Mozarta€™s approach to composition for the instrument, and indeed had an enormous influence on him in his keyboard music (McKay, 1987, 7). A piano made in 1785 differs radically from one made in 1800 because in those 15 years there was an ever increasing demand for greater volume and instruments able to withstand a vigorous technique. Nevertheless, these changed both the touch and perhaps its sound significantly, as Latchman explains (Latchman, 1997, 391). It should also not be forgotten that the harpsichord was still popular during Mozarta€™s lifetime, that Mozart took a clavichord with him on his journeys and that the TangentenflA?gel was not uncommon (The TangentenflA?gel is an instrument like a piano but with bare wooden jacks to strike the strings instead of leathered hammers.) (Latchman, 1997, 399).
According to John Irvinga€™s explanation in his book Understanding Mozarta€™s piano sonatas, each register of the instrument possess a characteristic tone quality, and therefore tonal contrasts are produced by the instrument itself. As consequence, the textures of Mozarta€™s sonatas sound thicker, and the harmonics of the immensely powerful lower strings can sometimes obscure the music in the treble register played by the right hand (Irving, 2010, 106).
According to Badura-Skoda (1962, 30), several reports suggest that Mozart himself tended to take his allegro movements at a moderate speed. Additionally, she distorts the tempo every time Mozart writes two crochets and a rest to finalize a section, playing the crochets slower and making a longer pause in the rest (bars 21, 22, 40, 79, 80, 100, 153, 154 and 170). Nevertheless, in order to take this reference as representative or not of Mozarta€™s original sound, is necessary to do some research about the specific instrument used in the recording, to find out whether it was constructed in the corresponding period or if it went through changes from that time to the moment it was used in the recording. Although Quantz is most often identified as the teacher of Frederick the Great, his musical roots were in Dresden, the most brilliant musical establishment in Germany; and his travels and studies in Italy, France and England gave him direct experience of most phases of European musical life in the 1720s and 30s. A Also, if you're thinking about applying to a conservatory, you may want to consider looking through a few of these before you do.
Careful attention is given to how poses are executed safely and with maximum effect.­A fully illustrated chapter details the anatomy and physiology of the human body, explaining its various functions and how each body system works. His surviving playable pianos are prized for their sound; together with their many modern copies, they have been extensively used for public concerts and recordings (Latcham, 1997, 383).
Thus, the second recording selected is Christine Faron's performance on a replica made in 1983 by Schriesheim Werner Keil of Steina€™s 1788 instrument (Mozart, 1990a, CD).
For this reason, not all the surviving pianos by Walter are suited to Mozarta€™s music (Latchman, 1997, 383).


Additionally, according to him, there is little doubt that it was Walter himself who ,made these important changes in Mozarta€™s piano action and that he did so after about 1790, after Mozarta€™s death.
There is no jangling noise, the sound will not get louder, or softer, or stop altogether, in one word: everything remains even [a€¦] And indeed, his pianos really last. In the same way, nowadays performers need to find the way in which Mozarta€™s music can speak through the modern piano. Additionally, the lucidity is enhanced because the strings run parallel to the grain of the soundboard, rather than the bass strings running diagonally across and above the higher strings (as on the modern grand).
Virtually all the fortepianos of the last three decades of the eighteenth century were equipped with a knee lever to raise and lower the dampers in much the same way as the modern pianoa€™s damper pedal does. What is contrasting between both recordings is that they show remarkably different conceptions regarding playing in time.
They simply cana€™t believe that you can play a Tempo rubato in an Adagio, and the left hand knows nothing about it but goes on playing in strict time. Is notable that this idea of time flexibility, questionable as representative of Mozart style, is presented in a recording made on a period instrument, which should aim to bring the listener closer to Mozarta€™s original sound and musical ideas. It is also noteworthy that Mozart had different types of keyboards available to play during his time and that they went through developments and changes in this period.
This reissue of the second edition provides a wonderfully complete and detailed picture of musical taste and performance practice in the 18th century, and includes a new introduction by Professor Reilly, drawing attention to recent research on Quantz. It will then go on to examine the context of the instruments used in these recordings and how this relates to their reliability as a reference for the original sound of the fortepiano in Mozarta€™s time. With this in mind, one of the recordings selected for this essay is the one AndrA s Schiff recorded in 1992 playing this same instrument, in the Mozart Museum in Salzburg (Mozart, 1992, CD).
In order to compare these two recordings, the Sonata in B flat K.570 has been selected as reference, because it is present in both works and was composed after Mozart became familiar with both Walter's and Steina€™s pianos in 1789.
Thus, what is remarkable is that this piano cannot properly serve as a source for understanding Mozarta€™s performance practice because itA nowA resembles more the functioning of an instrument of a later period. He guarantees that the soundboard will neither break nor crack [a€¦] He has three Piano fortes finished; I just played them again today [a€¦] I have played my 6 sonatas from memory several times both here and in Munich. Consequently, it is not necessary to overproduce the treble lines on the fortepiano, since the tone quality of the lower registers never overpowers that of the treble (Irving, 2010, 106).
In any style, one of the most important roles for the right pedal is to give greater resonance and colour. He could not been attached to the sound of only one instrument because he had to adapt his way of playing to the keyboard he had to use in each situation, in the same way the contemporary performer will have to adapt Mozarta€™s music to the modern piano. Whether you want to learn to play the flute and be taught by the teacher of Frederick the Great, or just to gain a first-hand insight into the history of classical music, On Playing the Fluteis an essential and entertaining read. After this, it will discuss the implications of adapting Mozarta€™s music for a different instrument to that his pieces were conceived on, and some difference between stylistic aspects used by the performers of these two examples.
The 5th, in G, I played in that fancy Stube-Academie, the last one, the one in D, sounds absolutely great on Steina€™s Piano Forte.
However, in using the right pedal on todaya€™s instruments, the performer should always remember that the clarity of texture, phrasing and articulation must never be obscured (Banowetz, 1985, 136). Finally, not all recordings on period instruments are going to be reliable references of Mozart style. Finally, some conclusions will be drawn to establish the key aspects to consider whilst listening to these kind of recordings.
The device by which you control the action by pressing with your knee is so much more perfect in his pianos than in the instrument of anyone else.
Some of them can propose questionable ideas of interpretation, so it is important to be careful in this respect.
All I need to do is touch it, and it works instantly; and the moment you remove your knee even a little, therea€™s not the slightest vibration of sound. In addition, recordings on modern pianos can help to understand the style, and together with the period sound, suggest and develop creative ideas for performance. We got to the choire, I began a Praeludium, he broke into a broad smile; then I played a fugue.



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