Organic spray cherry fruit fly,paragon professional pest control products,tiny red mites on wood,black ants in house how to get rid of them - Plans On 2016

Category: Where Do Bed Bugs Come From | 14.06.2013
Western Cherry Fruit Fly is native to North America, and has been found in the Pacific Northwest states since the 1940's. Western cherry fruit fly is native to North America, and has been found in the Pacific Northwest states since the 1940's. This fly has a single generation per season, emerging from the soil under the host tree for about eight weeks, with emergence peaking around sweet cherry harvest time. Each female may deposit 100 to 300 eggs under the fruit skin over a period of thirty days, with highest activity during the first fourteen days after mating (Frick, 1954). The first instar larva is a typical legless and headless fly maggot, about 1 to 2 mm in length. Most cherry fruit fly in the Pacific Northwest USA are found in non-commercial sweet or tart cherry trees planted in home orchards. Cherry growers are often advised to hang traps in their orchards to monitor CFF populations, and document emergence. The advent of the US Federal Food Quality Protection Act has caused special concern to sweet cherry growers, as the two products most commonly used to control cherry fruit fly, azinphos-methyl and carbaryl, are receiving special regulatory attention during the evaluation process, due to their very common usage on high-consumption crops. Growers continue to spray every week to ten days, depending on product used, until harvest is completed. Based on total acres treated (each acre can be treated more than once per season, and each treatment is added to the total) bait application is now the most commonly used control method in this major cherry production region. Dimethoate can control the larvae developing inside the fruit, and is most effective when applied within a week after harvest.
As biological controls have been ineffective to date, reducing the potential impact of cherry fruit fly control has recently centered on the assessment and registration of alternative spray control products. The GF-120 bait has also proven very effective and practical as a control for CFF on home garden cherry trees. After a one to three day feeding period near the surface, the first instar maggot mines to the center of the fruit, where it remains, near the seed, for most of its development. Few cherry fruit flies will complete their life cycle if all fruit is picked and removed from the orchard each season early in the traditional harvest period. Commercial growers begin spraying when first fly emergence is detected on infested sentinel trees, or when temperature-driven phenology models (Jones, et al.,1991) indicate emergence has commenced in the region.
Usually, one or two sprays are applied post harvest to disrupt the attack on unharvested fruit.
Organic orchards use only the bait, though other products are registered and organically acceptable. Products that kill flies both by contact and residue are generally applied by air-blast sprayer every 10-14 days.
It is, perhaps, the most successfully controlled tree fruit pest in the Pacific Northwest USA.


Most Pacific Northwest growers have never seen a cherry fruit fly, and have no method to determine if they exist in their orchard in low numbers. Usually, only one egg is inserted into each fruit, unless the population on the tree is very high, and no alternative hosts are near. Pest populations can be greatly reduced in a region by organized efforts to identify and treat or remove these wild or neglected host trees.
Alternative, effective, and environmentally acceptable cherry fruit fly control materials and methods continue to be researched and developed. Horticultural summer weight mineral oils at 1 percent solution, sprayed weekly, controlled cherry fruit fly on heavily infested trees, but dulled the skin of the fruit, rendering it commercially unacceptable. Though they are rarely found in commercial orchards, cherry fruit fly is the primary insect pest of sweet cherries in the region. Even though they are rarely found in commercial orchards, cherry fruit fly is considered the primary insect pest of sweet cherries in the region. Almost all emerging adults stay on the closest host, but will disperse if there is no fruit on the tree, or if the host has been removed.
Many isolated cherry trees remain free of infestation due to the complete removal of fruit each season by birds. Baits have no immediate action on the cherry fruit fly on the tree, so should be first applied a few days prior to predicted emergence and maintained on the foliage continuously. Most newly registered products have pre-harvest spray intervals of seven or more days, leaving the grower with few choices near and during harvest. Quarantine agreements between the region and other states or countries result in a zero tolerance for cherry fruit fly larvae in packed fruit (See table below). Quarantine agreements between the region and other states or countries result in a zero tolerance for cherry fruit fly larvae in packed fruit.
The adults live on the host tree, consuming micro-organisms and pollen grains from the leaf surfaces, aphid excretions, and cherry fruit wounds.
About three days prior to leaving the fruit, the larva burrows to the fruit surface, where it cuts one to three 1 mm holes in the skin. These fruit are sufficient to maintain endemic populations of this pest in the orchard, unless control is continued post-harvest.
There is no evidence of resistance to any insecticide in the Pacific Northwest cherry fruit fly population.
Due to a zero tolerance for infestation due to quarantines, despite the development of safe and effective alternative cherry fruit fly control materials, intensive spray and baiting programs are likely to continue as the major management approach. Washington State Department of Agriculture inspectors are stationed at each cherry packing facility during the harvest season to check fruit for infestation as it comes to the packinghouse, prior to acceptance, and again after packing. When nearing the end of its third instar, the maggot emerges from the fruit and drops to the orchard soil surface.


The only pheromone the female cherry fruit fly produces is a repellant, most likely used to indicate to others that an egg has been deposited into a specific fruit. If all of the fruit is removed from an isolated tree or orchard for two consecutive seasons prior to the time larvae emerge from the fruit, the trees become free of the pest until reintroduction. Baits cannot prevent at least some egg deposition by a mature female cherry fruit fly that migrates into the orchard from near-by infested trees. Biological controls are lacking, and true IPM is impractical, as quarantines have no acceptible level of fruit infestation.
Female cherry fruit fly often create feeding sites by wounding the fruit with their ovipositors, without inserting an egg.
The advent of the US Federal Food Quality Protection Act has caused special concern to sweet cherry growers, as the two products most commonly used to control this insect, azinphos-methyl and carbaryl, are receiving special regulatory attention during the evaluation process, due to their very common usage on high-profile crops. If fruit is abandoned due to rain cracking, and post harvest pest management is neglected, cherry fruit fly populations often greatly increase and control is more difficult the next several seasons. It is likely that adjustments in pre-harvest interval would greatly restrict the usefulness of these products for pest control in sweet cherries, as the target pest is most present near the harvest period. However, single larvae are found during inspections of over 100,000 tons of fruit produced in Washington State's 35,000 acres (14,000 hectares) of sweet cherries from one to ten times per season. They can fly several hundred meters searching for a new host, but most remain near their emergence site.
After dropping out of the fruit, the larvae rapidly seek out a place to burrow into the soil, penetrate to a depth of 1 to 6 inches, and pupate. Attempts by the author (and others) to control populations of cherry fruit fly by the placement of numerous traps in infested trees have not been successful.
Alternative, effective, and environmentally acceptable cherry fruit fly control materials and methods are being researched and adopted. When a larva is found, the entire load of infested fruit is rejected, and all other fruit from that grower is intensively inspected for signs of cherry fruit fly. Most egg laying occurs after the early to mid-season cultivar fruit begins to turn yellow-green.
Egg deposition starts in green fruit about the same time on the later varieties (Frick, 1954), so fruit development stage should not be used as a timing method for first spray covers.



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