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Category: Where Do Bed Bugs Come From | 03.07.2013
Worldwide, bees are respected for their duties which involve pollinating flowers and making honey, two things that are important for human beings. But, bees soon turned out to be specialized at this job and today, are much more efficient than any other insect, in terms of pollination.THE ANATOMY OF A BEEA diagram of a bee's anatomic structureThe bee's body is made up of the head, the thorax and the abdomen. Bees have two antennae on their head consisting of 13 segments (in males) and 12 (in females) and 5 eyes; 3 of which are 'ocelli' and the rest – compound eyes.
The mouths of bees contain a pair of mandibles (jaws), a glossa (tongue) and a labrum and two maxillae (lip like structures that support the 'Proboscis'). Bees use this proboscis to feed on the flower's nectar which gives them energy, and pollen which provides them protein and other nutrients.
While some species have short wings, making flight difficult or even impossible, there are no wingless bees. In 2005, Michael Dickinson and his colleagues at Caltech studied the flight of honey bees with the assistance of high-end cinematographic equipment and a giant robotic bee. Other researchers have compared the aerodynamics of bees to that of helicopters.BEES AND THE ART OF FLOWER POLLINATIONA bee collecting pollen from a flowerOne third of our food supply depends on insect pollination. In other words, if it weren't for bees, food wouldn't be available in such supply as it is today. All bees have a 'Scopa' (to store the pollen during travel) - some have it on their legs, others on the ventral abdomen and honey bees and their relatives have a modified pollen basket on their legs. While many bees gather pollen from a wide variety of plants, some 'Oligolectic' bees focus on particular plants that contain nutritious floral oils rather than pollen. Stingless bees such as vulture bees don't gather any plant elements for food and feed on carrion.As adventurous as it may seem, frequent trips to flowers can be very risky.
Female honey bees are required to produce more eggs to make up for these losses.THE SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEES Most bees live in communities, while there are a few loners. The most advanced type of community among honey bees, stingless bees and bumblebees is the 'Eusocial' society, where the group consists of a mother (queen bee) and her daughters (workers).

Honey bee hives encounter their annual peak in the springtime and can contain up to 40,000 bees.There are more than 20,000 different species of bees in the world, most classified into 7 or 9 major families. In the Northern hemisphere, the Halictidae bees are the most common, but are often confused for wasps or flies. The most popular bee is the European Honey bee.As mentioned above, not all bees live in colonies. There are some species like the Eastern carpenter bee, alfalfa leafcutter bee, orchard mason bee and hornfaced bee that prefer to live alone. However, these bees are important to the act of pollination, because they collect the nectar and pollen for their young (larvae). These bees construct nests in trees, tunnels or boxes (provided by gardeners), lay their eggs in separate compartments or cells, provide food (usually a combination of nectar and pollen) and then seal the entrance.
The adult usually dies after building a couple of nests.Some species of solitary bees construct their nests close to other solitary bees and this grouping is called an 'Aggregation' to distinguish it from the social 'Colonies'.
There are also communal groups where many female bees may construct a common nest, but build individual cells and provide separately for their eggs. The main reason for this is that the frequent use of the single entrance by different bees can ensure better protection from predators.DIFFERENT TYPES OF BEESA BumblebeeBUMBLEBEESBumblebees are eusocial in a manner similar to hornets. The queen bee starts her own nest and by summer, the nest contains anywhere from 50-200 bees. Bumblebees who sought shelter in honey bee hives in winter months were found dead by the beekeepers, suggesting that they may have been stung by the honey bees. Bumblebees are yellow and black in colour.A Honey beeHONEY BEESHoney bees are small bees and are typically black in colour. These bees are social and their colonies consist of the main leader – the queen bee, drones that are fertile males and the many female bees that are workers.
The workers collect the nectar, produce honey and take care of the queen and the offspring.An Africanized Honey beeAFRICANIZED HONEY BEESThese bees are also known as 'Killer Bees' and were the result of an experiment conducted by 'Warwick Estevam Kerr' to cross breed European and African honey bees.

However, many queen bees escaped from his lab in South America and spread throughout the American continent.
These bees will defend their territory more aggressively than the European honey bees.A Cleptoparasitic beeCLEPTOPARASITIC BEESThese bees are also called 'cuckoo bees', because their behaviour is similar to that of cuckoo birds. Sometimes, these females may kill and replace the pollen collector in her own nest!A Nocturnal beeNOCTURNAL BEESThese bees possess enlarged ocelli that are very sensitive to light and dark. Some live in deserts where it is very hot during the day.A Carpenter beeCARPENTER BEESCarpenter bees are so called because they can make tunnels in wood, after which a pile of sawdust is found near the entrance.
These bees are solitary and unsocial.A Ground beeGROUND BEESGround bees or Mining bees make their homes in the ground and choose areas that have shade and loosened earth.
These bees are black in colour.An Orchid beeORCHID BEESOrchid bees are brightly coloured and appear metallic.
It is said that these bees are dependent on orchid flowers because they both evolved at the same time. Male orchid bees collect the floral oils from flowers and use them to attract mates.HONEY PRODUCTIONWhen bees collect the nectar from flowers, they carry it back to their hives in loads of 40 milligrams. While they do this, they fan their wings over the honeycomb's cells that are filled with honey, retaining the newly produced honey's sugars and aromatic oils, while adding enzymes from the bees' mouths.
This is because some spore-forming bacteria that cause 'Botulism', may cling onto the bees' bodies and be transported to the hives filled with honey, thereby entering the honey.

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