The piano is a unique instrument, with the largest range of pitches of any musical acoustic device.
But this is no simple relationship, like that of a vibrating tuning fork touched to your dining room table. The Musician's Guide to Acoustics, by Murray Campbell and Clive Greated, Dent and Sons l987 (ISBN 0-460- 04664-6), pp. I mention this technical study here, because there are so many factors which affect tuning of the instrument, more in fact that a proper tuning can deal with. Now I want to talk about the dilemma which confronts every piano student or professional pianist. To repeat: The pianists faces the dilemma of operating a very complicated instrument with a complex musical program, and often must divert attention to the score and away from the final sound output.
Most of us have our piano tuned twice a year, roughly when the house heating system goes on, and when it goes off. This document describes keys you may find on your keyboard and some of the functions available when keys are used in combination with each other.
Despite all letter keys having a capital letter on them, pressing them on their own produces a lower case letter.  Capital letters are produced by pressing and holding down the Shift key and then pressing the corresponding letter on the keyboard. These keys usually run along the top of the keyboard, and are marked F1 to F12.  Many packages have defined these keys to be used as shortcuts for commonly-needed actions but you rarely need to use them. Situated on the right of the keyboard, these keys have numbers and control functions on them. If the NumLock key is not pressed, it means that the other items marked on these keys are operational. When using word processors, the 'up arrow' moves your cursor up one line of typed characters at a time, the 'down' arrow moves it down one line of typed characters at a time. The Home key moves the cursor to the beginning of the current line of typed characters, the End key moves it to the end. Some of these keys are used in conjunction with other keys to perform specific tasks within software packages. This key is used to send the cursor to the beginning of the next line (for instance when typing text in a word processing package).
Hold down this key and press a letter, to get an upper case letter, or press any other key, eg a number, to get the symbol above it.  Some keyboard shortcuts also use the Shift key. Primarily used to cancel a command (instead of pressing Enter) or to escape from a process which may be in an odd state.
Used in conjunction with other keys to carry out functions specific to your computer system. Used to produce the third character located on the key above the Tab key.  Hold this down and press the key above Tab. Allows the numeric keys to be used on the numeric keypad, rather than the cursor control keys.


Used by the operating system and applications - actions variable depending on program used. Sends a copy of everything on your current screen to the Windows Clipboard.  From here you can paste it into an application, eg a Word document.
These keyboard instruments all differ in the sounds they make, the number of keys they have, and how the keys a€?feela€?, especially in terms of sensitivity to touch and volume. The difference between "just playing a song" and really "making music" is knowing how to express yourself on the keys. In the early l9 th century the use of the cast-iron frame for stringing was introduced in the US, which stabilized much of the force of the steel strings, as compared to previous pianos which were plagued by the expansion and contraction of wood members under compression. The instrument itself involves an action with several thousand moving parts, a wood soundboard supported by ribs connecting to a rigid case, and the soundboard itself which under pressure from strings resting on two separate bridges, resounds and transmits the sound to the elastic air medium. Some of the factors affecting the final sound are inherent in the strings, case and soundboard, others are related to the human hearing apparatus, and many of the characteristics of piano sound are inexorably tied to the qualities of the individual instrument.
It seems hardly necessary to mention this, but the wrest plank changes its hold on the pins so slowly over the years, that the gradual loosening may not be immediately apparent. If you are a light user the action may outlast you, actions are generally well built and very strong, and the occasional sticking key can be dealt with without much trouble.
If you ask your tuner how long his tuning will stay correct, he may tell you till next spring or fall, and in a general sense that is right. If you practice long hours daily on a mis-tuned piano, even one slightly off from a fine tuned instrument, you are accustoming your hearing to hearing mis-tuned sounds and intervals as normal. In this situation he or she (and she actually hears more acutely) ignores the tuning, and fails to rejoice in the lovely sound of a properly tuned instrument. These generally consist of punctuation (including accents and quotes) and mathematical symbols.
This facility is often used by data entry operators who need to input vast amounts of numerical data by touch. PgUp is an abbreviation for Page Up, and moves your cursor up one page, and PgDn moves it down one page. The decimal point key beneath the number 3 key also has a Del function, allowing deletion of items at the current cursor position.
It is also used to finish a command and tell the computer to execute the command just typed. You can also click and drag to highlight text and then press the Backspace key to delete text. Setting tab positions allows you to move the cursor to defined positions, for instance when typing figures in columns. Also used to enter ASCII codes, including non-English characters, by holding down the Alt key and entering the number from the numeric keypad.
Num Lock mode is activated by pressing the key once and is indicated by a light on the panel above the numeric keypad.


Iron made tuning much more stable, but the case and soundboard have all the propensities of wood to change in response to changes in heating and the seasonal humidities. Tuning can only do so much, even when resorting to intentional mis-tuning of certain tones to avoid annoying overtones in the harmonic series.
But in sheer honestly, he should tell you that a week later there will be changes, and in a month it would not be suitable for a concert or a recording.
No violinist faces this problem, in an unfretted instrument or with the human voice the mind makes things sound right even as they are made, intervals automatically true themselves, even beyond the compromises of Equal Temperament. Most of us have had to play the piano just as it stands, ignoring ringing sounds until they cross the threshold of tolerance, or until the tuner comes on his schedule.
These characters are obtained by pressing and holding down the Shift key before pressing the required key. To use the numeric option, press down the NumLock key above the 7 key.  There is usually a light above the numeric keypad that lights when the NumLock key has been pressed. The arrows are known as cursor control keys (the cursor is the flashing bar on the computer screen that shows your current position). By holding down the Shift key then pressing Tab, you can move to the previous tab position. Scroll Lock mode is activated by pressing the key once and is indicated by a light on the panel above the numeric keypad. You can also click and drag to highlight text and then press the Delete key to delete text. So it is usual for pianists who are concerned with keeping their instrument in relative tune to have the piano tuned twice a year, first when in spring the air becomes more humid, and again in the fall when the effect of a heating system starts to shrink wood parts.
Compared with this necessary attention to detail of sound, the pianist tends to become a rough and crude listener. When you have finished typing the numbers you want you can press the NumLock key again to release it (and turn the light off).  You would do this if you want to use the other options on these keys (see Cursor control keys). That will be a very different piano from the piano he has been practicing on while preparing for the concert, it will sound clearer and cleaner, the harmonies will be the best that Equal Temperament can offer, and the sound will be better to his ears. Raising the level of acoustic attention and pleasure should be the aim of any musical endeavor.
Hence the remark of a professional pianist that the only piano he play on which is properly tuned is the one at his concert.



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Comments to «Picture of piano key notes»

  1. EMRE writes:
    Effort, and relies heavily on parental keys.
  2. karabagli writes:
    Preferences characteristic of the epoch of digital.