Parallel Minor Modal Interchange ChordsModal interchange is the borrowing of chords from another key center. Extended EndingEndings often involve the addition of chords prior to the final cadence to the I chord.
Gospel VampKeith Jarrett has composed more than a few tunes made up of little more than a two bar gospel vamp.
Ubiquitous Bebop LickUbiquitous means "everywhere" and that is exactly where you will find this lick.
He adjusts the lick slightly with a Db instead of a D natural on the third note and plays it over a Dbmaj7 chord. Red Garland: A Little Bit Swing, A Little Bit BebopComing of age in the mid 1940s, Red Garland had one foot in the Swing camp (pre 1945 Big Band jazz) and one in the sharply contrasting modern Bebop movement (post 1945 small group jazz). Embellish a Melody with Approach PatternsA great way to get started using approach patterns is to experiment with them on a familiar melody. Negotiating Tricky Progressions with PatternsThe chord changes to Lady Bird are not too difficult to improvise over. Chord Tone SoloingChord tones on strong beats are the backbone of a harmonically strong melodic line.
Freshen Up A Progression with Functional SubstitutesCompare the spelling of the three chords, Cmaj7, E-7 and A-7.
Motivic DevelopmentThere is perhaps no more striking use of motivic development than in Beethoven's Symphony No. Special Function Dominant ChordsDominant chords in a blues progression function differently than do "regular" dominant chords.
Custom Play-alongs from your Sibelius Notation FilesJamey Aebersold practically invented the play-along and his collection can't be beat.
Visualizing ChromaticismOnce you are able to improvise harmonically specific lines the next challenge is to incorporate chromaticism into your solos.
Tensions, Ice Cream, Sprinkles and Fudge SauceOther than improvisation, tensions are what make jazz sound the way it does. These exercises for the jazz pianist (or any musician for that matter) are as technical as they are practical.
Please watch the first exercise of this jazz piano technique series before continuing with this lesson by clicking here. Here's an excellent Herbie Hancock line I transcribed from his solo on Orbits by Wayne Shorter. It offers all of the possible alterations to the dominant seventh chord: b9, #9, #11, b5 and b13. The saxes respond with a 1357 arpeggio with a chromatic approach from below in response to the vibes call.

Or I should say he had one hand in each style.Red Garland's right-hand lines are clearly modern. Your predilection for melodic ideas is what makes you, "you." Your "sound" is the manifestation of your musical personality that is borne out by your harmonic and melodic preferences. And to improvise fluently over these chords you need to know how to recognize these progressions.
In fact, a simple line of chord tones on strong beats played with interesting rhythms can yield a spare but effective improvised line.
5.Watch Improvising with Motivic Development to learn how to integrate this technique into your solos.
Instead of sounding unstable and in need of resolution, dominant chords in a blues setting are at rest. Tensions are the upper structures of a chord, 9, 11, 13 and their alterations (b9, #9, #11, b13) that, when added to a chord (especially dominant sevenths), enrich the chord's sound. This standard is easily the highlight of the disc which also includes three other tunes, each one written by one of the band members. Even though you may be tired of hearing your ideas day after day, they are new to your listeners. One critical element of ii-V-I progressions is that the chords move in perfect 5ths.Therefore, in order to be able to identify these ubiquitous chords you need to know what a perfect 5th is both in notation and in sound. You've got a lot of time to linger on each chord and the keys are not too difficult to manage.But take it at a good clip (at bpm=170 like Hank Jones does on his 2008 release Our Delight) and the turnaround can sneak up and bite you. Take Hank Mobley's opening line of his solo over the tune Remember from his 1960 Blue Note release Soul Station. They posess a dominant structure (a tritone) but don't have dominant function (need to resolve) and are said to be special function dominant chords.See if you can hear the difference.
But what if you've just written a tune in Sibelius and want to hear how it will sound with a jazz trio- NOW?3 clicks gets you an instant play-along file that you can jam with in seconds.Your masterpiece has been created. Chromatic literally means "color" and using chromaticism is the technique of incorporating notes from outside the key of the moment into your improvised lines. There is a an analogy I like to use to demonstrate the use and effect of tensions: ice cream. From here he just repeats the pair for two more octaves.He plays a similar lick in the A section of his solo to the tune.
Check out this completely chromatic line from the B section of the first chorus of his solo over the tune It Could Happen to You from Miles Davis' 1956 release Relaxin' with the Miles Davis Quintet.
Embrace your "same old licks" as your unique musical fingerprint.For instance, take Tommy Flanagan. In the first measure the G and the Bb are approached chromatically from below (F#-G; A-Bb).

It is two measures of two increasingly tricky dominant chords per bar: C7 - Eb7 - Ab7 - Db7.
Here is a perfectly fine lick that isn't chromatic- it is totally diatonic- meaning "from within the key." All of the notes belong to the same key, in this case C, which is arbitrarily defined as the color brown. To learn more about that lick as well as other improvisational techniques that he uses watch Improvising Over Just in Time.
But don't count out 11 just because it gets a bad rap for ruining the sound of the major third in these chords.
Once you are aware of this lick you will notice it all over the place.I was watching Live at the Village Vanguard Volume 1, an excellent DVD which chronicles a 1989 Freddie Hubbard Quartet gig at the Village Vanguard, when I noticed Cedar Walton quoting the infamous Ubiquitous Bebop Lick during his second chorus on Ron Carter's tune Little Waltz. You could coast over them and hit it hard on the next chorus but there is an easy solution to sound good over this or any thorny progression: use patterns to overcome problem chord changes.
With the exception of two approach notes (the Eb on the and of 2 in measure 1 and the Db on the and of 2 in measure 2) he improvised a lyrical first statement to his solo with nothing more than chord tones.
Here is a line which incorporates chromaticism, one with a lot of color, that uses notes foreign to the key that require the use of accidentals, as demonstrated here by the multi-colored notes. In the key of C the Cmaj7, E-7 and A-7 are all tonic sounding and the D-7 and Fmaj7 are both subdominant sounding chords.Since the chords in each group are related and sound similar they can substitute for one another in a progression. Listen to Charlie Christian comp over the tune Air Mail Special (Good Enough to Keep) with the Benny Goodman Sextet and the instrumental background riffs of Count Basie's band during Lester Young's solo over the tune Honeysuckle Rose on Count Basie's Complete Decca Recordings. This property is the basis of the reharmonization technique called functional substitution. Chromaticism can be accomplished by using approach patterns, 1-4 note chromatic cells that smooth the transition from one chord to the next. Red Garland's transitional style demonstrates performance aspects of both the Swing Era as well as the Bebop style.
You can also incorporate chromaticism with the use of various chorscales- lydian, wholetone and the whole-half scales are just two choices of many. As you play through tunes, substitute like-sounding chords for one another to revitalize the harmony.
It has a tritone (dominant structure) but not dominant function (need to resolve) so it is at rest.
The Bb7 in measure 4 is a secondary dominant and has typical dominant function- the need to resolve. So go ahead and release the tension- play the Eb7!Reharmonizing the blues progression with secondary dominants is common to the jazz blues progression.

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