The piano is a wonderful and important instrument to use especially for the R&B and Neo Soul genre.
Before we get into the mixing, it is very important to understand the role of the piano in your track. For an acoustic type track, the piano needs to be bright and stand out for example a POP type of track. Using a bandpass filter it is always a good idea to sweep across the frequency spectrum to look for the problem frequencies. When choosing a compressor it is important that it leaves the piano sounding as natural as possible so it doesn’t mess up the timbre. Chords will typically need a compressor setting with a fast attack and medium to long release, whereas a solo may need a fast to medium release.
When I’m trying to draw it WaveShaper starts to growl like crazy in spite of play button of FL Studio is not activated. Check out stories about tours by PreSonus artists, love letters and videos from customers, and more. One of these days, we’ll be in your town—and this calendar will tell you when, where, and what we’ll show you.
Solutions, training, and lesson plans for educators in music technology and music performance. Our extensive knowledgebase can save you hours of troubleshooting and messages to technical support.
An equalizer, or EQ, is a filter that allows you to adjust the volume level of a frequency, or range of frequencies, within an audio signal. The parametric EQ and semi-parametric EQ are mainstays of recording and live sound because they offer continuous control over their parameters. The EQ in the Eureka™ is a good example of a fully parametric hardware EQ, offering control of gain, center frequency, and Q for all of its three frequency bands. In a true semi-parametric EQ, the gain and frequency are adjustable but the Q and bandwidth are fixed at a preset value. In the Star Trek television shows and movies, Q is a recurring character with super powers, played by actor John de Lancie.
In equalizers, Q is the ratio of center frequency to bandwidth, and if the center frequency is fixed, then bandwidth is inversely proportional to Q—meaning that as you raise the Q, you narrow the bandwidth. A narrow bandwidth is also useful in boosting desirable components of an instrument’s sound, such as the attack on a drum. Some multiband parametric EQs offer low and high bands that can be switched to shelving filters.
A graphic EQ typically consists of a bank of slider controls used to boost or cut fixed frequency bands (see Fig.
You can add clarity and fullness to any instrument in a mix by attenuating (cutting) or boosting certain frequencies. If you are using a fully parametric EQ, such as the PreSonus Pro EQ plug-in, we suggest that you play with the Q setting when a high or a low Q is suggested, in order to find the right width for the instrument or mix. Of course, the right EQ setting for any given instrument will depend upon the overall mix and the tonality of the instrument. Of course, those old-school component-style graphic EQs have pretty much gone the way of the cassette deck.
Unfortunately, understanding how an EQ works and using it properly is a much more elusive concept.
Electronics manufacturers have their own ideas about what a piece of gear should sound like, but EQ lets you have your say. The first thing you want to try … is to decrease the level of a frequency, rather than increase. The graphic EQ – which is what we’re going to focus on here – looks like a graph (no kidding!) with frequencies on one axis and decibels (dB) on the other.
All sounds – everything you hear – are essentially vibrations, which we can visualize as waves moving up and down at different speeds, or frequencies. Every pitch a music instrument plays has a core frequency measured in hertz (Hz), which is like a speedometer reading for the waveform. Since all of the sound you’ll ever hear lives in this 20Hz-20kHz zone, those are the numbers that will border your typical EQ. Almost any pro sound engineer will tell you that the first thing you want to try with EQ is to decrease the level of a frequency, rather than increase.
As promised, we’ve provided a breakdown of the frequency spectrum to help you get your head around which sounds live where. Adding EQ around the middle of the 200Hz-800Hz spectrum can add a bit of oomph to richer tones, including the lower end of vocals. This is commonly referred to as the presence zone, and leads into the highest range of pitches produced by most natural instruments.
Raising or decreasing the level at the lower end of this register can help bring some vibrance and clarity, adding a tighter attack and a more pure sound. Although Apple hasn’t abandoned its obsession with thinness, it has said goodbye to the long and lean look it gave to previous nano generations. Unfortunately dubbed the "fatty" by many, the new nano has been made shorter and wider to accommodate the (comparatively) large 2-inch display that takes up half of its slightly tapered anodized-aluminum face.
The front casing seems resistant to both fingerprints and scratches; the same cannot be said for the mirrored chrome back. That aside and true to Apple’s standards, the 3G nano is solidly built and nice to look at. The edges of the face are a tad sharp, making it uncomfortable to cradle with one hand, but the player is so light (only 1.74 ounces) that holding it with two fingers isn’t an issue. I don’t think any major manufacturer makes a thinner player, but several make smaller ones. Much in the same way that "MP3 player" has become synonymous with " iPod" to most mainstream consumers, the family of players cannot be regarded independently of their infamous click wheel.
The touch-enabled wheel is responsive to even the lightest touch of the thumb, and the circular motion required for adjusting the volume and scrolling through menu items and media content is natural and comfortable.
Since the click wheel is the only control on the nano, there’s nothing on either side or the top of the player.
On the bottom are the hold switch (to disable the click wheel), universal dock connector (for charging, syncing, and connecting to any number of accessories), and the headphone jack. Apple’s new split-pane user interface is similar to the Creative-patented one it used in all of its previous players, except that now it’s split in half. The classic menu is shown on the left, while an image relevant to the highlighted menu item is shown on the right. Keeping in mind that sound quality is incredibly subjective, my ears report that they are satisfied with the nano’s output.
Depending on what kind of music you’re listening to, the EQs can moderately improve or drastically worsen the sound quality. Music is sorted by ID3 tag and can be viewed by artist, song title, album title, and even Cover Flow.
An unlimited number of on-the-go playlists can be created directly on the nano by selecting an album or song and holding down the center button until the title flashes. Even though scrolling through long lists of songs is quick and easy on the nano, finding exactly what you’re looking for is made even quicker and easier through the handy Search feature.
The nano’s 2-inch display isn’t designed for watching epic movies, but for music videos, TV shows, and the occasional movie, it’s quite lovely. Colors are more saturated and vibrant in person, but even when a video (Inside the Actors Studio from 2005, if you’re curious) is paused and a picture of the nano screen is taken with a digital camera, the quality is still great. The nano may not have the FM radio or voice recorder that has long been available on other DAPs, but it does have a host of other extras to round out its feature set nicely.
As with videos, images look great and in some cases pretty spectacular on the nano’s 2-inch display.
None of them will threaten even the lamest titles in your PSP or DS Lite collection, but they’re mildly entertaining for when you have a few minutes to kill.
The nano can sync PIM data with Address Book and iCal on a Mac and Windows Address Book and Outlook 2003+ on a PC.
Calendar events, contact information, and appointments can also be added manually when the nano is connected to a computer in external disk mode.
Everything synced or manually added to the player can only be edited through the use of a computer.
Not much to say about the clocks feature other than that it’s there and that a seemingly limitless amount of new clocks can be added. The stopwatch is technically designed for use when exercising or running laps, but I use it for things like timing page load times on mobile browsers.
It’s a little bonus that isn’t seen on most other companies’ players, and I find it to be pretty useful. The nano’s li-ion battery is non-removable and rated for up to 24 hours of audio and 5 hours of video playback time, depending on screen brightness, file format, bitrate, and other variables. The third-generation Apple iPod nano is a significant upgrade over the previous generation, not only in terms of design but also in features.
Whether you should buy the touch or the nano depends on your specific needs and how you plan to use the player. You mentioned that in transfering content there are some non sanctioned walkaround programs.
It sort of feels like a laptop touchpad: a bit smoother, perhaps, but there’s still a slight “grippiness” to it that prevents your thumb from slipping off.
Hey, Jenn that was so great in information and really helped me pick what ipod i would like to get.


No, this version of the nano does not have that feature, but the new one (fourth-generation) does. I’m about to buy the 8gb model of the itouch, just been looking around for the cheapest on-line that I can get but with delivery etc it works out pretty much the same at the apple store , where at least on there you can get it engraved which I think I will opt for now.
Once you identify this, you can either cut of boost the frequencies in order to get the perfect sound. The compression should be just enough to take out the high peaks only while preserving the natural tone and timbre of the piano sound. Select saw as the oscillator shape for each three oscillators and set the coarse tune to -24 semitones for each. Add some kick drum sample  to a new Sampler Channel, add a new pattern to the Playlist and create a steady 4-to-the-floor beat.
Also, go wild with the pitch automation envelopes and test out different Pitch Knob Range -settings for even more radical pitch slide changes.
He has been producing music with computers over a decade on such styles as trance, downtempo, ambient & experimental electronic using FL Studio.
We’ve posted dozens of videos explaining the features of our products and how to get the most from them. In its simplest form, an EQ will let you turn the treble and bass up or down, allowing you to adjust the coloration of, let’s say, your car stereo or an iPod. It can also be used to adjust a sound system to account for the acoustical response of a room or an outdoor venue.
These types of EQ offer continuous control over the audio signal’s frequency content, which is divided into several bands of frequencies (most commonly three to seven bands). With more than three bands, you can get even more precise, as with the ProEQ plug-in for Studio One™ (see Fig. A variation on the semi-parametric is the quasi-parametric EQ, which typically provides full frequency and gain adjustment but only two or three Q settings. While he may serve as a sort of equalizer in the show, after a fashion, this Q has nothing to do with audio equalizers. Q is by far the most useful tool a parametric EQ offers, allowing you to attenuate or boost a very narrow or wide range of frequencies within each EQ band. For instance, a kick drum resonates somewhere between 60 to 125 Hz but the attack of the kick drum is much higher, at 2 to 5 kHz.
Broad and narrow bandwidths (low and high Q, respectively) are usually used in conjunction with one another to achieve the desired effect. In others, such as the EQ in the Studio Channel, the low and high bands are shelving filters, while the mid band is fully parametric. These very low bass frequencies are felt, rather than heard, as with freeway rumbling or an earthquake.
Because this range contains the fundamental notes of the rhythm section, any EQ changes will affect the balance of your mix, making it fat or thin. In general, you will want to emphasize the lower portion of this range and deemphasize the upper portion.
This frequency range is partly responsible for the clarity of a mix and provides a measure of control over the perception of distance.
While this range controls the brilliance and clarity of your mix, boosting it too much can cause some clipping, so keep an eye on your main meter. So how do you find the best and worst each instrument has to offer and adjust them accordingly?
Most engineers start building their mix with the drums and work from the bottom up (kick, snare, toms, high hat, overheads). Your mix will have better separation and more clarity when each instrument’s EQ is set so that it shines through the mix.
And of course, adjusting the wrong frequencies can make an instrument shrill, muddy, or just downright annoying. For some of us, those rows of sliders arranged into a kind of smiley face are an icon of the ’80s – remember the one Tom Cruise was forbidden to touch by his stoic dad in Risky Business?
But the EQ lives on in digital form, found in everything from smartphones and tablets, to wireless speakers, and even streaming services like Spotify.
You don’t want to pull a Tom Cruise and just shove every slider to the max – that’s going to sound terrible. Or perhaps you listen to a lot of EDM, but the treble is too sharp and needs to be pulled back. The technology first took off as a piece of analog electronics, initially used in recording studios before making its way into the home. Whether analog or digital, an EQ is used to adjust  different elements of sound to achieve an end result that appeals to the listener.
If used properly, EQ can smooth out sound for just the right touch, whether that means adding some beef to the low end, taking away some bite from the treble, or anything in between. From left to right you’ll find “sliders” that allow you to adjust certain frequency bands up or down along the dB scale.
Hertz measures how many times (the frequency) a wave completes an up and down cycle in 1 second. And moreover, most of the pitches your ears really focus on live between 60Hz and 4kHz – that’s the meat of the music.
When you move a slider up or down on an EQ, you are increasing or decreasing the loudness of that particular frequency. Now that you’ve got a grip on what your EQ does, it’s time to start playing around with making adjustments. Expanding too many frequencies can make the music sound muddled, and with a little shift here and there, you can subtract a bit of the irksome sound, and get closer to what you’re looking for. While these probably won’t give you the exact sound you’re looking for, they can be handy for getting you started. If you’re ever stumped, this guide can help you drill down to the offending (or lean) frequency and make a more effective adjustment. Somewhere down here is where your subwoofer will make that eerie sound of deep space in sci-fi movies, and this region can add some serious, unearthly power.
The foundational, big-hitting lower register rests in this domain, including the heavy punch of the kick drum, and even lower tom drums and bass guitar. Boosting the lower end of this scale can make the music sound more forward, as if pushed a little closer to your ears. If things are a little too sharp, or causing some pain after listening for too long, lowering the bottom end of this register can help out quite a bit. The bottom registers continue to affect the higher overtones of instrumentation, and synth effects from electronic music can pop around in that region as well.
Shown here is a clean recording of solo acoustic guitar, which gives a very useable result.
Here you can choose to listen in stereo, or to just one channel, or to mix the channels with optional phase reverse to give a "karaoke" (vocal elimination) effect. Various preset speed buttons are provided for convenience, but you can have any speed from 5% (one twentieth speed) to 200% (double speed) by using the slider or the text entry box. It doesn’t show in the picture above, but the player picked up at least 20 scratches from just being placed on top of and picked up from a smooth table. There’s no official documentation on the number of supported colors, but I think it’s 262K.
Photos, videos, and album art make use of the Ken Burns Effect seen on Apple’s iMovie, Windows Movie Maker, and other software.
Although a valid argument can be made that the iPod ecosystem forces consumers to conform to it, it also eliminates the guesswork often involved in ripping, converting, and transferring media to portable devices. I’ve never been particularly impressed with the audio on any iPod, as I find it to be less rich and full than other players, but it’s still good and perfectly acceptable for most users. I usually use the "off" setting, as it’s too much of a hassle for me to switch EQs between songs. These playlists can be saved on the player, but editing, renaming, and deleting them requires the use of a computer. Other niceties of the player’s audio features include permanent and on-the-fly music shuffling, song ratings, and lyrics display. In addition to external disk use, it has a photo viewer, games, light PIM functions, clocks, alarms, text viewer, and stopwatch.
Slideshows with transitions (random, cross fade, fade to black, zoom out, wipe across, wipe center)? Only files saved in .txt format are compatible, and the nano must be enabled as an external disk to accept documents that are dragged and dropped onto it. Its inclusion or omission wouldn’t make or break a device, of course, but I like that it’s there.
I haven’t run any drain tests, but based on my usage of the player over the past few weeks, Apple’s estimates seem about right. This one just doesn’t have that “omg it’s so thin I want it I want it give it to me now!” appeal, personally speaking anyway. I just recently purchased the ipod 3g 8gb, love it, one hint of info for many of the potential buyers out there is that when they say xp and vista they really mean it this time. Now if you are the type who buy gadgets to show off, feel superior or cannot stand the peer presure, then go ahead and throw your bucks…moron. But i have noe queation……does the ipod nano have a thing where you shake it and it shuffles the music?
I do think it’s quite pricey for what it is but I’ve gone for cheaper mp3 players in the past and they just don’t compare, there are a few models of something online being passed off ad itouch’s but they aren’t i have something similar to that and although you can get mp4’s wma and mp3’s on them the most irritating part is the use of the touch screen and the fact you don’t have any software to use with it, you can’t make play lists from existing music you have to create folders to do so.
Also, the type of kick drum sample you’re using to trigger the sidechain effect makes a difference how it will sound. With a very narrow bandwidth, you can isolate the offending frequency (usually around 1 kHz) and remove, or reject, it.


By setting a narrow bandwidth and boosting the attack a bit, you can achieve a punchier kick drum without overpowering the rest of the mix. Low-pass shelving filters pass all frequencies below a specified cutoff frequency, while attenuating all the frequencies above the cutoff.
A well-designed graphic EQ creates an output frequency response that corresponds as closely as possible to the curve displayed graphically by the sliders. Graphic EQs with half as many bands per octave are generally used when less precision is needed. Because of this innovative design, the curve fitting-process is capable of very steep transitions, and unlike conventional, analog graphic EQs, what you see is what you get.
Boosting the range from 250 Hz to 500 Hz will accent ambience in the studio and will add clarity to bass and lower frequency instruments.
Each instrument resonates the most in a specific frequency bandwidth, so if you are working on your kick drum mic, start with the lowest band of the EQ. If every instrument is EQ’d to have the same effect, it will lose its identity in the mix. If you are working particularly hard on one instrument, your ears will be quite literally numbed to that frequency range. The following table offers suggestions for frequency ranges that should be boosted or cut when shaping the sound of commonly used instruments.
OK, so an EQ isn’t an actual superpower, but it can get you closer to the sound you’re looking to get out of your gear … if you know what you’re doing. Many of us listen while commuting or exercising, where ambient noise can have a nasty effect on how our music sounds. Whether you’re looking for more punch, a warmer sound, or bass that will rattle your innards, an EQ can help you dial in the sound that suits you best. Bass frequencies start on the left, with midrange frequencies in the middle and treble on the far right. It’s important to know that small db adjustments can have a big effect on the sound, so tread lightly.
Go ahead and start playing some music that you are really familiar with, pull up your EQ, and move some sliders up or down to hear in action what you’ve been reading about. That’s not to say an increase in a frequency range isn’t necessary at times, but you should always start with subtraction. It’s also normal that you may have to boost the overall volume after reducing any frequencies.
Once you’re more intimately familiar with what frequency manipulation does, you can dive into this much more advanced flavor of equalization.
Below are guidelines, not steadfast rules, and your own auditory input is what makes this process all the more personal and enjoyable. However, you would very rarely want to add more of this sound, and taking away from here can help give the music more overall clarity. Moving up towards the 200Hz line begins to affect the very lowest boom of acoustic guitars, piano, lower brass and strings.
Adding EQ around the middle of this spectrum can add a bit of oomph to richer tones, including the lower end of vocals, deeper notes from synthesizers, low brass and piano, and some of the golden tones from the bottom of an acoustic guitar. Adding some juice can give things a metallic touch, and can wear down your ear quickly if pushed. Towards the top is where things start to space out into less tangible definition, moving away from what you can hear more towards what you can feel. Part of one chord has been selected, and above the piano keyboard you can see a spectrum analysis of this selection. There are preset EQ settings on the right, for removing or soloing particular parts of the frequency spectrum. For instance if you select the Tenor Sax preset (as has been done here) then concert Bb will be named as C.
Speed change does not normally affect pitch, but "Analog lock" will lock the two together : useful if you want to simultaneously correct the speed and pitch of something that was recorded on analog media running at the wrong speed.
Previous generations of iPods had 64K-color displays and this one is noticeably brighter and more colorful.
My younger sister is getting the green 8GB 3G nano for x-mas, and i now know how to help her and explain all of the features. This propietary machine has hundreds of problems to get it running on any PC with XP or Vista. Having had an old skool ipod in the past I think it’s the best choice for size and all round ability. For most purposes, a Q control accomplishes the same thing as a bandwidth control but they are not identical. We have a kick drum that has a great, big, low-end sound centered around 100 Hz and an attack hitting almost dead-on at 4 kHz.
A high-pass filter does the opposite, passing all frequencies above the specified cutoff frequency while attenuating everything below.
Designers of analog EQs must carefully choose the bandwidth of the filter and decide how the bandwidth should vary with gain and how the filters are summed or cascaded. With a carefully drawn, smooth curve, the StudioLive EQ will have almost no frequency ripple.
In general, you should not make drastic amplitude adjustments to any particular frequency bands.
Sometimes that EQ setting you’ve been working on for 15 minutes is not the right choice, so move on.
Remember, these are just suggestions; these frequencies may need to be adjusted up or down depending on the instrument, room, and microphone. You’ll find out soon that small adjustments can have a pretty wild effect on how things sound.
Remember, too, that any change in EQ will not only affect the frequency range you’ve chosen, but also how the rest of the frequencies interact with each other.
For instance, if you want more bass and treble in general, you can pull down some of the midrange sliders. Some EQs, such as the one built into iTunes, will actually show you what the curve looks like when you select a preset.
If the music is too darned heavy, or not heavy enough down low, a bit of an adjustment here will help. Adding a little push here can give more clarity to vocal consonances, as well as acoustic and electric guitar, and piano. That shimmering resonance at the tip of a cymbal crash floats around in the regions of this space.
However, there are very few points in which you’d want to affect the sound much around 14kHz or above — many older listeners won’t be able to even hear these sounds. The green blobs indicate notes detected, and there are some chord guesses in the box at the right, which correspond to these notes.
You can also see the original and altered tempo of the track displayed at the bottom : this depends on you placing beat markers first. Viewing angles are pretty good as well, though with a screen of this size, you probably wouldn’t hold the player anywhere but directly in front of you.
You can git WMA on there but you have to convert them first, i choose not to use the i store for buying mp3’s i use amazon that way you can actually use them on any other mp3 player you have an your not limited to having the files as ACC files. By notching out the offending frequency, you can remove the problem without removing the instrument from the mix.
In this example, you would use a broad bandwidth in the low-frequency band, centered at 100 Hz, and a narrow bandwidth boosted at 4 kHz.
Instead, make smaller, incremental adjustments over a wider spectrum to round out your final mix. For more information about the effects of boosting and cutting various frequencies, see Fig.
But in reality, most humans’ hearing tops out around 15kHz or 16kHz – the older you are, the less treble you can hear.
These sounds, which primarily live in the 10kHz – 14kHz neighborhood aren’t something that your ears naturally latch onto, but they have an effect on the sound as a whole, so it’s important to keep that in mind when messing around with that section of the treble band.
Since decibels use a logarithmic scale, a 5-10 dB change represents a dramatic increase or decrease to a particular frequency band. Moving to the 800Hz region, you’ll start to affect the body of instruments, lending more weight with addition, or lightening the load with subtraction. If sharp consonants are popping out at you like the bite of a snake, cutting a few dB from around 5-7kHz can solve the issue, and save you some pain and suffering.
If you want to boost a bit of space in the belfries of the music, you can add some level here.
All in all I think if you can afford the i pod, go for it, you don’t have to have the touch as the new nano is just as good just lacks the swoosh interface.
In this way you are accentuating the best and downplaying everything else this particular kick drum has to offer. Then it’s time to get more targeted with your adjustments, and for that, you’ll need to know what each frequency sounds like.




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