Wood Stain Guidelines,Woodcraft Inc Morristown Tn,Old Woodworking Bench,How To Build A Potting Bench From Recycled Lumber - You Shoud Know

Staining wooden furniture isn't just a matter of stripping off one finish and applying another.
Whatever type of stain you're using, the most important part of the process is getting the color you want. NGR StainsNGR stain, either alcohol- or spirit-base, is applied like water-base stain, but this type of stain dries so quickly that it can be hard to apply.
After stripping, examine the piece of furniture for surface and structural problems –- burns, stains, cracks, loose veneer. Preparing the wood takes both time and elbow grease, but it's vital to the success of your refinishing job.
The choice woods are prized chiefly for the beauty of their color and grain; the common furniture woods are less desirable not because they don't work as well but because they don't look as nice. If part of the grain is too light, use an artists' brush to apply more stain to the lighter areas. Use a medium-size new brush to apply NGR stain, flowing it on quickly and evenly along the grain of the wood.
Antiques, whether hardwood or softwood, are often beautiful simply because the wood has acquired a patina that new wood doesn't have. If not, and if you have a sample of the stain color you want, take it to the paint store and have a color mixed to match. You may end up spending more time on this step than you did on of the other furniture refinishing stages, but your results will be worth the effort.Staining wooden furniture can be a big job, filled with the apprehension that you might ruin the piece.
Bleaching can also be used to even the color of a piece of furniture made with two or more woods.
It can lighten the darker wood to match the lighter one.Before you use bleach on any piece of furniture, make sure the wood is suitable for bleaching. In the following sections, we wiil walk you through the entire staining process -- bleaching, sanding, staining, and sealing.
Some woods don't accept bleach well -- cherry and satinwood, for instance, should never be bleached. Mix small amounts of stain at first; then, starting full-strength and thinning the stain gradually with the proper solvent, test the stain on scrap wood until you have the right color.
Let the stain dry completely before finishing the wood -- about half an hour for alcohol-base stain and about one hour for methanol- or other spirit-base stain.LighteningDark wood can be lightened with stain for an interesting light-dark effect. Let's get started with some questions you'll have to ask yourself before you begin staining.First, take a good look at the piece of furniture. It can pull together a two-wood piece, restore color to bleached areas and change or deepen the color of any wood. Some woods, such as bass, cedar, chestnut, elm, redwood, and rosewood, are very difficult to bleach, and some -- notably pine and poplar -- are so light that bleaching makes them look lifeless. Lightening is not recommended for fine woods because it covers the natural color and grain of the wood; as a last resort, though, it can be effective.
Staining is not always advisable, but it can solve a lot of problems.Before you stain any piece of furniture, take a good look at it. Lightening works best on open-grained wood; the effect of a lighter color is produced because the grain is filled with a light or white pigment.
If it's made of cherry, maple, mahogany, rosewood, aged pine, or any of the rare woods, the wood should probably not be stained; these woods look best in their natural color.
And the rare woods -- mahogany, teak, and the other choice woods -- seldom benefit from bleaching.
If the piece is made of two or more woods, you may have to mix stain separately for each wood, but this is often not necessary.When you're satisfied with the stain color, mix enough stain to treat the entire piece of furniture.
The lightening agent is sometimes thinned white oil-base paint, but more often it is pigmented oil stain.Apply the oil stain as above, and let it set to achieve the desired effect. If the wood is light, with a relatively undistinguished grain, it may benefit considerably from a stain. Common woods that are easy to bleach, and may benefit from it, include ash, beech, gum, and oak.Choosing a BleachNot all bleaching jobs call for the same type of bleach. Do not mix brands or types of stain, and do not change brands or types in the middle of the job.
Wipe off excess stain, and let the stained wood dry completely.Post-Stain TreatmentAny stain, even an oil-base stain, may raise the grain of the wood slightly. It's better to have stain left over than to run out of stain with one table leg or chair arm to go.Whatever stain you're using, it's best to go carefully. If necessary, remove this slight roughness when the stain is completely dry, but smooth the wood very carefully to avoid removing the stain.

If you're not sure the color is right, thin the stain to lighten it and apply several coats of stain until the color is as deep as you want it.
It works well for blotchy areas and for slight overall lightening, but it won't change the color of the wood drastically.
Always test the stain in an inconspicuous spot, and stain the least conspicuous surfaces first. It may take longer this way to get the effect you want, but the only way to salvage a badly applied stain is to bleach it out and start over.To prevent drip marks and uneven color, turn the piece of furniture so that the surface being stained is always horizontal. To smooth wood treated with water-base or NGR stain, sand it very lightly with fine-grit sandpaper. If you're working on a large piece and this isn't practical, start at the bottom and work up. The type of wood determines the preparation -- open-grained woods should usually be filled; some woods may need special treatment.
You're not likely to encounter this problem unless you have a piece of furniture commercially stripped because lye and ammonia, the chemicals that discolor wood, are not recommended for nonprofessional use. Always work quickly, applying stain smoothly and evenly over the entire surface.Pigmented or Penetrating Oil StainsApply pigmented or penetrating oil stain with a clean brush, flowing stain evenly along the grain of the wood. If you want a darker color or a more pronounced grain pattern, go ahead and stain it.Once you know what type of wood you are working with, it will be easier to choose a stain that will enliven and restore the wood. Oxalic acid must be used on the entire surface of the wood, because in most cases it also bleaches out old stain. If it is, you may have to bleach or stain the less conspicuous wood -- usually the less expensive one--so that it matches the main surfaces.Finally, look at the color and texture of the stripped wood. Let pigmented oil stain set for about 10 to 15 minutes, until the surface of the stain starts to turn dull, then firmly wipe off the excess stain with a clean cloth dampened with stain.Penetrating oil stains work more quickly than pigmented ones. Wipe off the excess immediately for a light color, or let it set as long as 15 to 20 minutes for a darker color.Oil stain can be modified to some extent if you don't like the effect. If the wood is too dark, soak a clean cloth in turpentine or mineral spirits and rub the wood firmly and evenly along the grain.
Most finishes can be applied over most types of stain, but polyurethane varnish cannot be applied over some stains. If you want to use a polyurethane finish -- and this type of finish is both good-looking and very durable -- look for a stain that's compatible with polyurethane. If you can't find a compatible stain, you'll have to apply a clear penetrating resin sealer over a noncompatible stain. Several brands are available.Bleaching TechniquesWhatever bleach you use, remember that the results are permanent -- you may be able to restain if you make the wood too light, but uneven bleaching is very hard to remedy. If part of the grain is too light, use an artists' brush to carefully apply more stain just to the grain.Let the completed stain dry for about 24 hours. Varnish can be applied over this sealer if you want a shiny finish.The second consideration in choosing a stain is the job you want it to do.
If the color isn't dark enough, repeat the staining procedure.Water-base StainsWater-base stains should be used on clean, bare wood or on new wood. The most commonly used furniture stains are based on pigments mixed in oil or turpentine, or on aniline dyes mixed in turpentine, water, alcohol, or a volatile spirit.
The bleach must penetrate the wood evenly.Before applying the bleach, test it on a scrap piece of the same wood or on a hidden part of the piece of furniture. Apply stain with a new brush, flowing it on quickly and evenly along the grain of the wood. Other types of stains include varnish stains, sealer stains, and organic stains.Pigmented Oil StainsThe pigmented oil stains are nonpenetrating.
Before you prepare a piece of furniture for staining, make sure you're familiar with the special characteristics and requirements of the stain you plan to use. In general, bleaches act quickly on soft woods and slowly on hard woods.Bleaching isn't difficult, but it does require some precautions -- bleaches are fairly strong chemicals.
Try not to overlap your strokes; a double layer of stain will dry twice as dark as a single one.
It's better to use several thinned coats of stain than one dark one to minimize brush overlap marks.Water-base stain can be adjusted if you're working on relatively small surfaces. They are inexpensive and easy to apply, but unless the grain of the wood is very open, they usually blur or mask the grain pattern.These stains usually don't work well on hardwoods but can be used for slight darkening on close-grained hardwoods, such as maple. To apply water-base stain by this method, flow it onto the surface liberally; then wipe off the excess, stroking along the grain with a clean cloth.
Well, before you can start staining or even sanding, you might have to do something about discolorations in the wood's surface.

The intensity of the color is determined by the length of time the excess is left on the wood; wipe immediately for a light color or let the stain set for a darker shade. Pigmented oil stains are applied by wiping and are removed after the desired color is achieved.
The intensity of the color is controlled by the length of time the stain is left on the wood. Drying time can be long, and the stain must be well sealed to prevent bleeding through the finish. Apply the bleach along the grain of the wood, wetting the surface evenly and thoroughly; there should be no dry spots and no puddles.
Let the bleach work as detailed below.After bleaching, wipe the wood clean with a damp cloth. To remove any residue, neutralize the wood thoroughly; use an ammonia solution for oxalic acid, a borax solution for laundry bleach or two-part bleaches.
Wash the bleached wood thoroughly with the appropriate neutralizer; be careful not to overwet it. Then, working quickly to prevent water damage, rinse the wood with clean water and dry it thoroughly with a soft cloth. They can be used for slight darkening on close-grained hardwoods, such as maple.Penetrating oil stains are applied by wiping and are removed after the desired color is achieved.
Drying time is relatively long, and the stain must be well sealed to prevent bleeding through the finish. The colors are rich and clear, but they fade over time.NGR (Non-Grain-Raising) StainsThe NGR stains consist of aniline dye mixed with denatured alcohol or a volatile spirit, such as methanol. Alcohol-base stains fade over time and must be sealed well to prevent bleeding; they cannot be used with shellac. Finally, neutralize the treated wood with a solution of 1 cup of borax dissolved in 1 quart of hot water. Spirit-base NGR stains don't fade or bleed, and they produce a more uniform color.Alcohol- and spirit-base NGR stains dry very quickly. Make sure you prepare enough bleach to treat the entire surface or piece of furniture.Apply the acid solution evenly to the wood, brushing it on along the grain to cover the entire surface. NGR stains are recommended for use on hardwoods, especially close-grained woods, where oil stains would not be absorbed properly. They should not be used on softwoods.Varnish StainsVarnish stain is a nonpenetrating stain, consisting of aniline dye in a varnish base. It is used by manufacturers to finish drawers, backs, and other hidden parts because it's inexpensive and no further finish is required, but it looks cheap and is generally not recommended for refinishing.Sealer StainsThe sealer stains are nonpenetrating mixtures of dye in a varnish, shellac, or lacquer base. No further finishing is required.Organic StainsSeveral organic-base stains can be made for use on pine and other woods.
The most common organic stain uses tobacco as the color, but stains can also be made from bark, roots, tea, berries, and other natural sources. These stains are interesting, but they're not recommended unless you're an accomplished refinisher.Using the right staining techniques can save you time and help you avoid messes. One treatment usually bleaches the wood completely, but if the wood isn't light enough, treat it again.
Wipe the bleached wood clean with a damp cloth, and then neutralize it with a solution of 1 cup of borax dissolved in 1 quart of hot water. Rinse the wood with clean water, and dry it thoroughly.Post-Bleach TreatmentTreatment with any bleach raises the grain of the wood, even when the piece of furniture has already been thoroughly sanded.
To prevent the raised grain from affecting the finish, it must be resanded to the level of the wood surface after the wood is dry.After bleaching, let the piece of furniture dry for at least two days. Because there may still be some chemical residue in the wood, wear a breathing mask and use a vacuum to remove sanding dust. Wipe the wood clean with a tack cloth.One other complication of bleaching, especially with laundry bleach, is that the wood may be left with a whitish or grayish color.
This is not serious; it indicates that the bleach has dried out the fibers of the wood surface. The grayish cast will disappear completely when the finish is applied.You're almost ready to start staining your furniture, but there's one more crucial step. Before you can apply any sort of finish to wood, you have to prepare the surface by sanding it down.

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