Anniversary-Year Biographies

As part of the anniversary-year program, members of the
Anniversary Committee prepared biographical sketches of
twenty-seven members of the Club. The focus was on ear-
lier, now deceased members of the Club, although an exception
was made in the case of two then-living members—Orville T.
Bailey and Elmer Gertz. These biographical sketches were read at
the Club's meetings during the year (in the order and on the dates
indicated below) and, with some minor editing and revisions, are
included here in their entirety.

Orville T.  Bailey

This biographical sketch and that of Elmer Gertz immediately fol-
lowing were presented, as tributes to these two members on the occasion
of the commencement of the Club's one-hundred-twenty-fifth season at
the Fortnightly of Chicago.

Orville T. Bailey was born on May 28, 1909, in Jewett, New
, located in the upper Catskills, at a resort run by his mother,
a school teacher. His father was a sheriff. An only child, he started
first grade at age four in a rural one-room schoolhouse. After grad-
uating from a small village high school, he entered Syracuse Uni-
versity, where he earned Phi Beta Kappa honors. He received his
medical degree in 1932 from Albany Medical College, graduating
at the top of his class. His residency at the Harvard University hos-
pitals was followed by three years of study as a member of the
Harvard Society of Fellows and by a year at Cambridge Univer-
sity in England as a Guggenheim Fellow.
    As an associate and assistant professor at Harvard Medical
from 1946 to 1951, Dr. Bailey helped to develop neu-
ropathology as a medical subspecialty. Accepting an offer from
Indiana University in 1951, he set up a laboratory at the medical
school devoted solely to neuropathology. In 1959 he was brought
to the University of Illinois Medical School by Percival Bailey (no
relation) and Eric Oldberg, neurosurgeons, who were also mem-
bers of the Chicago Literary Club. Dr. Bailey was a member of the
staff of Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, Cook
County Hospital, and the Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
Throughout his career, he trained many doctors, lectured and
consulted throughout the United States and abroad, conducted
critical research in the field of neurology, and published more
than 140 articles. He was the recipient of numerous awards from
major medical institutions and organizations.
     Dr. Bailey was a member of the Chicago Literary Club from
1961 until his death on September 21, 1998. He served as chair-
man of the Committee on Officers and Members from 1970 to
1972 and as president in 1975-76. He was a member of the Cen-
tennial Committee and also served as a member of the Anniver-
sary Committee for this, the Club's one-hundred-twenty-fifth,
season. He presented ten papers, two of which were published, in-
cluding his presidential address. Migration and Nemesis.

October 5, 1998


Elmer Gertz

Elmer Gertz was born on September 14, 1906, in Chicago, Illi-
nois, the son of a merchant. He entered the University of Chicago
following graduation from Crane Technical High School and re-
ceived his law degree from the University of Chicago Law School
in 1930. He entered private practice with a Chicago law firm sev-
eral months later.

As a lawyer, Mr. Gertz was known nationally for his devotion to
civil liberties and individual rights causes, having handled, among
others, cases involving Nathan Leopold, Jack Ruby, and Henry
Miller's novel Tropic of Cancer. He was active in civic affairs in
Chicago for nearly six decades, and in 1969 was elected a delegate
to the Sixth Illinois Constitutional Convention, chairing its Bill of
Rights Committee. He was the founder and president of the Civil
War Round Table of Chicago and of the Shaw Society of Chicago,
and was instrumental in the creation of the Auditorium Theatre
Council. An avid reader, and widely traveled, he was also the au-
thor of more than fifteen books as well as countless articles for
newspapers and periodicals and had written several plays for
radio. He was awarded the State of Israel Prime Minister's Medal
in 1972 and was the recipient of numerous other awards, honors
and citations for his professional achievements and public service.

Mr. Gertz was a member of the Chicago Literary Club from
1961 until his death on April 27, 2000. He served as chairman of
the Committee on Arrangements and Exercises in 1968-69, chair-
man of the Committee on Officers and Members in 1976-77, and
president of the Club in 1977-78. He presented twenty papers, the
first in 1961, the year in which he became a member, and the last,
entitled The Best Is Yet To Be, in October 1997.

October 5, 1998


William Le Baron Jenney

William Le Baron Jenney, architect, engineer, teacher, land-
scape and urban designer, was born on September 25, 1832, in
Fairhaven, Massachusetts.

Jenney studied architecture in Paris from 1859 to 1861, and his
classical training influenced his later works. He returned to the
United States and served with distinction in the Civil War from
1861 to 1865 as an engineering officer. He left the Federal army
with the rank of major, practiced engineering and architecture in
Chicago from 1868 to 1905, and taught architecture at the Uni-
versity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, from 1876 to 1880.

Jenney is widely credited with the successful application of skele-
ton construction, a development that made possible the modern
skyscraper. His design for the Leiter Building in Chicago (1879) was a
first step in this direction, more fully implemented in the
Home Insurance Company Building in Chicago (1884-85). The
Home Insurance Company Building, enlarged in 1891 and demol-
ished in 1931, is generally considered to be the first tall building sup-
ported by an internal frame or skeleton of iron and steel rather than
by load-bearing walls and the first to incorporate steel as a structural
material. Among the architects who worked under Jenney and made
his approach the foundation of the Chicago School were Louis Sul-
livan, Daniel Burnham, John Wellborn Root, and John Holabird.
Jenney's other Chicago buildings include the Manhattan Building
(1889-90), said to be the first sixteen-story structure in the world
and the first in which wind-bracing was a principal part of the design;
the Fair Store (1891-92); and the second Leiter Building (1889-90),
which became Sears, Roebuck & Company's Loop store.

Jenney joined the Chicago Literary Club in 1878. He presented
three papers: The Fossils of History on April 16, 1883; Personal Rem-
iniscences of Vicksburg
on December 14, 1885, and An Age of Steel
on October 27, 1890.

October 19, 1998


William Rainey Harper

William Rainey Harper was born in New Concord, Ohio, on
July 26, 1856, the son of a storekeeper. Referred to by one writer
as a "child genius," Harper entered Muskingum College at age
ten. Following graduation, he worked as a clerk in his father's gen-
eral store. At age eighteen, he received a Ph.D. from Yale.

Several years later. Harper was given a professorship at the Bap-
tist Union Theological Seminary in Morgan Park, where he taught
Hebrew and biblical scholarship. While there, he met Thomas
Goodspeed, who was a trustee of the "first" University of Chicago
that had been founded on land donated by Senator Stephen A.
Douglas. Goodspeed attempted to get Harper to assume the pres-
idency of the institution, which was then in financial difficulty, but
Harper returned to Yale as a professor of the Bible. Goodspeed later
prevailed on John D. Rockefeller to commit to the funding of
a new University of Chicago, and Rockefeller himself persuaded
Harper to become its president.

As president. Harper was dedicated to the spread of learning
far and wide in the service of mankind. His principal vehicle was
a program called the University Extension that called for lectures
for college credit at locations throughout the city and for corre-
spondence courses for students throughout the world. So suc-
cessful was Harper at attracting scholars to the university that it
was said to be the only institution in the history of higher learn-
ing to spring into existence with a world-renowned faculty. He
managed, as well, to include women on the faculty and in admin-
istrative positions, and fully a quarter of the students were female.
When he brought Amos Alonzo Stagg to the university to start a
football program (Stagg had been a former student of Harper's at
Yale), he replied to faculty critics of the move that "the university
of Chicago
believes in football. We shall encourage it here." So
abundant was his energy, so forceful his intellect and his pres-
ence, that the newspapers of the time referred to the institution as
"Harper's university."

Harper became a member of the Club June 7, 1892. He
presented two papers: Art Among the Hebrews (May 16,1898) and
Semitic Literature as Illustrated by the Code of Hammurabi (January
30, 1905). At age forty-nine, learning that he had incurable
cancer. Harper nevertheless continued to shoulder his responsi-
bilities as president of the university until his death on January 10,

November 2, 1998

Two other Literary Club members played important roles in the
founding of the University of Chicago. Charles L. Hutchinson led the
effort to raise funds locally to secure the Rockefeller gift. Additionally,
when the university opened, Martin A. Ryerson was president of the
board of trustees, and Hutchinson was the university's treasurer.
Among other things, they were responsible for the architectural design of
the campus. Both of them devoted the remainder of their lives to the
welfare of the institution.



Paul Howard Douglas

Paul Douglas was born in Salem, Massachusetts, on March 26,
1892. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Bowdoin College in
1913 and later received a Ph.D. degree in economics from Co-
. After serving on several college and university
faculties, he went to the University of Chicago, becoming a full
professor of economics five years later in 1925. He authored sev-
eral books, including Wages and the Family, Real Wages in the United,
States, 1890-1926, The Theory of Wages,
and Ethics in Government.
In 1951 he was elected president of the American Economics As-

    In the 1920s and 1930s Douglas served on state commission on

unemployment in Pennsylvania and New York, and in Illinois he drafted
state legislation on unemployment, public utility regula-
tion, old age pensions, and housing. During the New Deal days he
acted as adviser to the National Recovery Administration.

From 1939 to 1942 he served as a Chicago alderman from the
Fifth Ward while he lived in Hyde Park. He then enlisted as a Ma-
rine private at the age of fifty in 1942, training with a platoon at
Parris Island whose average age was nineteen years. He rose to the
rank of lieutenant colonel, saw action in the South Pacific, and was
discharged after receiving the Bronze Star and being wounded on

    In 1948 Douglas was elected to the U.S. Senate on the Demo-

cratic ticket, serving three terms until 1966, when he was defeated

for re-election by Charles Percy. During his Senate years he fought
continuously for social and economic reforms and was a strong
supporter of civil rights. In 1951 the Washington, D.C., press corps
named him the nation's best senator. As a senator, Douglas was
active and constructive in formulating legislation in the fields of
labor, social security, and banking and currency. His memoir; In

the Fullness of Time, appeared in 1972. He died in Washington,
, on September 24,1976.

Douglas became a member of the Chicago Literary Club in
1939. He presented three papers: Some New Material on Robert
Owen and Robert Dale Owen in 1942, The Future of the Pacific in
1946, and Culture and Character in 1949.

November 9, 1998


David Swing

David Swing was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on August 23,1830,
the son of an Ohio River steamboat skipper. Both of his parents
came to this country from Germany. His father died of cholera in
1832, and he was raised by his mother, a devoted Christian woman
whose influence and teaching marked his life and career. He grad-
uated from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, in 1852. After two
year's study of theology in Cincinnati, he returned to his alma
mater to teach Latin and Greek.

Swing was called to the Westminister Presbyterian Church of
Chicago in 1866. His sermons there attracted people from every
part of the city, regardless of church affiliation. When his congre-
gation later united with the North Presbyterian Church, he be-
came pastor of the unified Fourth Presbyterian Church, serving
that congregation from 1871 to 1874. In October 1871, the Great
Chicago Fire destroyed the homes of all but two of his congrega-
tion as well as the church building itself. The scattered congrega-
tion began meeting in Standard Hall and later moved to the

McVicker's Theatre to accommodate the growing number of peo-
ple coming to the services.

Swing resumed preaching at the rebuilt Fourth Presbyterian
Church in 1874. Later that year heresy charges were brought
against him by the Reverend Francis L. Patton of the Chicago
Theological Seminary. The resulting trial was followed in news-
papers throughout the country. Although he had the support of a
large part of his congregation, the bitterness of the struggle led
him to resign his pastorate. Within a week of his resignation, and
with the support of many of Chicago's leading citizens, some of
whom were members of the Chicago Literary Club, arrangements
were made on his behalf for the immediate establishment of a
new church. A forceful intellect and a popular theologian, he was
 referred to by an admirer as "the Emerson of our American pulpit."

Swing was a member of the Chicago Literary Club from 1874,
the year of its founding, until his death on October 3,1894. He was
the first chairman of the Committee on Arrangements and Exer-

cises and, according to Frederick Gookin, had been offered the
presidency of the Club on several occasions. He presented twelve
papers, including A True Love Story, presented on November 13,
1893, which was the first paper to be published by the Club.

November 16, 1998


Thomas Elliott Donnelley

Thomas Elliott Donnelley was born in Chicago on August 18,
1867. Following his graduation from Yale in 1889, he joined his fa-
ther's printing business. He was elected president of R. R. Don-
nelley & Sons Company upon the death of his father in 1899 and
served as its chairman from 1934 to 1952. He also became chair-
man of the Reuben H. Donnelley Corporation following the death
of his brother, Reuben, in 1929.

Donnelley headed the family business during a period of excep-
tional growth and opportunity for the firm. While in England in
1907 to negotiate the company's first contract to produce the En-
cyclopedia Britannica, he learned of a school for printing apprentices
in France. He arranged to visit the school, was impressed by what
he saw, and in 1908 founded the Donnelley Apprentice School in
Chicago, one of the earliest schools for apprentice training in the
country. During World War I he served as chairman of the pulp
and paper division oftheWar Industries Board. In 1964, in a speech
before the Graphics Art Council of Chicago, Henry Luce; the founder of
Time magazine, paid tribute to Donnelley for his dedication to his craft
and for his lofty ideals, recalling their meetings
during the six-to-eight-week period in 1927 when the company’s
first contract to print the magazine was negotiated.

Donnelley joined the Chicago Literary Club in 1901 and served
as chairman of the Committee on Publications during the 1906-07 season.
He presented six papers during his fifty-four years as a
member of the Club.

November 23, 1998

Over the years the Chicago Literary Club has enjoyed a special re-
lationship with R.R. Donnelley
& Sons Company. In addition to this
anniversary book, they were the printers of the Club's first history,
The Chicago Literary Club: A History of Its First Fifty Years (pub-
lished in 1926),
The Chicago Literary Club, 1924-1946 (published
in 1947), the Club's centennial volume.
The First Hundred Years:
1874-1974 (1974) and its reprint in 1998, as well as many of the pub-
lished papers of the Club.


Lorado Taft

Lorado Taft was born in Elmwood, Illinois, on April 29, 1860.
He studied at the University of Illinois, obtaining his bachelor's
degree in 1879 and his master's in 1880. He attended the Ecole des
Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1880 to 1883. In 1886 he became an in-
structor at the Art Institute of Chicago, influencing a whole gen-
eration of younger sculptors in the Midwest. He continued to
teach at the Art Institute until 1907 and was the founder of its de-
partment of sculpture. Taft also taught at the University of
from 1893 to 1900 and again in 1909. Later he was a
non-resident professor of art at the University of Illinois.

As a sculptor, Taft became recognized for his public monuments
and allegorical works. He won awards at the World's Columbian
Exposition in 1893, the Pan-American Exposition in 1901, the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904, and the Panama-Pacific
Exposition in 1915. His works include the Fountain of Time at the
University of Chicago, the Fountain of the Great Lakes at the Art
Institute, the great statue of Black Hawk overlooking the Rock
River near Oregon, Illinois, and the Washington Memorial in Seat-
tle. Other works may be found elsewhere throughout the country.
Taft also wrote extensively on the history of art, including his fa-


mous book. The History of American Sculpture, which was last reprinted in 1975.

   Taft became a member of the Chicago Literary Club in 1889
and resigned in 1900. He delivered five papers: Paris from a Mansard:
Experiences of an American Art Student, Facial Expression
in Nature and Art, Some Surprises of the Art Palace, The Entire
History of An from its Earliest Beginnings,
and Clothes, An and Other
Taft died in Chicago on October 30, 1936.

November 30, 1998


Ernst Wilfred Puttkammer

Ernst Wilfred Puttkammer, the only child of a second son of a
Prussian noble family, was born January 31, 1891, in Chicago. His
parents took him to Mackinac Island for the summers; their original
cottage grew into a large Victorian summer house, and figured
prominently in Puttkammer's life and the lives of his descendants..

Well-traveled and educated by tutors and then at Princeton, he
was well-versed in Latin, Greek, French, German (in which he
was bi-lingual) and English, and was fond of music and history.
Not particularly interested in painting, he was known to have measured
the artistic merit of various paintings of St. Sebastian by the
numbers of arrows piercing the martyr's body. He developed a
major collection of American stamps and the world's most com-
prehensive collection of German Empire stamps, and eventually
gave them to the Smithsonian Institution

After Princeton Puttkammer attended the University of Chi-
cago Law School where he earned his degree cum laude as well as
being elected to the order of the coif, then was sent to France as
a private in the American Expeditionary Force. He served as a
front-line observer of enemy gun positions and troop movements.

    On returning to Chicago, Puttkammer practiced law for a year and
then was asked by the University of Chicago Law School to
take a temporary post teaching criminal law. This position lasted
thirty-six years. He was known and appreciated by his students for
speaking concisely and accurately. He seldom raised his voice; his
choice of tone and words were more effective. I [Manly W. Mum-
ford] learned this when I had to tell him that I had previously re-
served the Cliff Dwellers for a private party, and had mailed the
invitations for the same date and time that the program chairman
of that club carelessly arranged for him to deliver a lecture.

Puttkammer wrote The Administration of Criminal Law, a major
text on the subject. To learn how the criminal law really worked,
Puttkammer went through the Police Academy as if a recruit.
Then he wrote an effective handbook advising police about their
rights and the rights of their suspects. Much of his writing was
done at Mackinac, among grading examination papers and proof-
reading the Chicago Literary Club's yearbook.

Puttkammer married Helen Baum November 28, 1931, and
begat a daughter, Helen Lorna and a son, Charles Wilfred. The
daughter married Francis H. Straus II. This note is based on the
paper, A Victorian Man in Our Time, presented by Straus to the
Chicago Literary Club on March 15, 1982.

Puttkammer joined the Chicago Literary Club in 1923 and de-
livered nineteen papers, of which three were published; he deliv-
ered two Ladies' Night papers. He traveled widely and often. In
late 1977 he and his family toured Germany and France, and then,
early in 1978, he and his wife went on a long cruise, during which
he died on a ship in the middle of the Indian Ocean.

December 7, 1998


Frederick William Gookin

Frederick William Gookin was born in Ludlow, Vermont, on
August 2, 1853. He was educated in Joliet, Illinois, in the public
schools and under private tutors. He started his career in banking
in 1870 as a messenger and teller at the First National Bank of
Joliet and progressed through a number of positions with other
banks. He was assistant city treasurer of Chicago in 1901-02.

Gookin had a deep interest in Japanese history and culture,
particularly Japanese art. He was a life member of the Asiatic So-
ciety of Japan, a member of the Japan Society of London, the Japan
Society of New York and the Societe Franco-Japonaise de
Paris, and an honorary life member of the Ukiyoe Society of
Japan. In 1913 he became curator of the Buckingham Collection of
Japanese Prints at the Art Institute of Chicago.

Gookin was the author of a large number of articles, on subjects
ranging from Japanese art to banking and family genealogy. He is
best known to us, however, as the author of the Club's first history,
The Chicago Literary Club: A History of Its First Fifty Years, cover-
ing the period 1874 through 1924. Skilled with a brush as well as
the pen, Gookin for many years also embellished the Club's year-
book covers and pages and other Club publications with designs
of his own creation. In recent years some of these delightful minia-
ture works of art have been incorporated as design elements in pa-
pers published by the Club.

Gookin became a member of the Literary Club in 1877. He
served as recording secretary and treasurer for a period of forty
years, from 1880 to 1920, and as president during the 1921-22 sea-
son. He presented twenty-one papers during his nearly sixty years
of membership. One of them—Our Defective American Banking
System: A Diagnosis and Prescription,
presented November 2, 1908
—was published by the Club. Gookin died January 17, 1936.

January 4, 1999


Herman H. Lackner

Herman H. Lackner was born in Evanston, Illinois, on June
20, 1912. He possessed a unique educational history. In a news-
paper interview several months before his death, he said that he
flunked Montessori kindergarten because he drank the paint water
and that he failed to graduate from North Shore Country Day
(Winnetka, Illinois) for "ditching" football. He attended
Harvard University for two years, where his studies were cut short
by the Depression. He then studied at the Armour Institute of
Technology (now the Illinois Institute of Technology), but left be-
fore graduation because of "a difference of opinion with the dean
on educational theory."
    Despite his educational background, Herman earned his archi-
tect's license, a profession that had dominated his interests from
childhood, and went to work for General Houses, a Chicago
building firm. In 1940 he joined the architectural firm of Holabird
& Root. Some two years later he enlisted in the Seabees and spent
the war years working on the construction of bases on Guadal-
canal and other Pacific islands and in the Philippines. Following
his return to the United States in 1945, he opened an office in
Winnetka, where for the next fifty-three years he concentrated on
designing new homes and renovating existing homes. His consid-     
erable reputation was based on the updating of classic homes in
the North Shore area.

Lackner became a member of the Chicago Literary Club in
1955. He was president of the Club during the 1968-69 season and
also served as recording secretary for sixteen years. He was an ac-
tive member of the Centennial Committee and was largely re-
sponsible for compiling the appendices to The First Hundred Years.
At the time of his death, on June 26, 1998, he was a member of
the committee preparing for the celebration of the Club's one-
hundred-twenty-fifth anniversary.

For those who knew Herman, his friendly presence at our
weekly meetings perhaps transcended his many contributions to
the Club. His genuine interest in people was always evident in his
conversation and his actions. Experiences gleaned from his trav-
els to a host of foreign destinations and his wide-ranging intellec-
tual interests made him a popular participant in the Club's liter-
ary exercises. During his forty-three years as a member, he
presented twelve papers, one of which. Day by de Senectute, was
published by the Club.

January 11, 1999


Irving Kane Pond


Irving Kane Pond, a Chicago architect, was born in Ann Arbor,
, on May 1, 1857. He was educated in the Ann Arbor
public school system and graduated from the University of Michi-
in 1879.
    Coming to Chicago after graduation, he worked with William
Le Baron Jenney and S. S. Beman and was head draftsman in
Beman's office during the construction of the town of Pullman. In
1886 he became a partner with his brother Alien, also a member
of the Chicago Literary Club, in the firm of Pond & Pond. Both
brothers were interested in measures for civic and social better-
ment and were the architects for Hull House, the Chicago Com-
mons and the Northwestern Settlement as well as social settle-
ment buildings and institutional buildings in other cities.

Pond was president of the American Institute of Architects in
1910-11. He was the author of three books, a frequent contribu-
tor to architectural journals, and wrote art and architectural crit-
icisms and reviews for The Dial. He was one of the founders of the
Cliff Dwellers and was its president in 1934-35.

Pond was a member of the Literary Club from 1888 until his
death in 1939—a total of fifty-one years. He served as chairman of
the Committee on Arrangements and Exercises in 1900-01 and
was president of the Club in 1922-23. Pond presented twenty-six
papers, one of which was published. The title of his last paper, pre-
sented on October 17, 1938, a year before his death, was Do Chil-
dren Think?

January 18, 1999


Geza de Takats


Geza de Takats was born in Budapest, Hungary, in 1892. He re-
ceived his M.D. degree from the University of Budapest in 1915,
following which he received three more years of post-graduate
surgical training at the same university. He was an exchange as-
sistant at the surgical clinic of the University of Copenhagen in
1920 and was granted a traveling fellowship in Medical Education
from the Rockefeller Foundation from 1923 to 1924.

In 1925 Dr. deTakats moved to Chicago and established the first
vascular disease clinic at the Northwestern University Medical
. He served as head of that clinic until 1935, when he was ap-
pointed chief of the vascular disease clinic at the University of lllinois,
where he remained until 1960. In 1952 he was appointed
Clinical Professor of Surgery at the University of Illinois. In the
same year, after having joined the surgical staff of St. Luke's Hos-
pital, he was appointed chief of the surgical staff there from 1952
to 1954. He also served as chairman of the cardiovascular labora-
tory at the same institution. From 1958 to 1975 he was a member
of the newly merged surgical staff of the Presbyterian-St. Luke's
Hospital and became Rush Professor of Surgery, Emeritus, in 1971.

Dr. deTakats held honorary memberships in many surgical so-
cieties in this country and in several surgical societies in Europe.
He served as president of the Society for Vascular Surgery in 1953,
president of the North American Chapter of the International
Cardiovascular Society, 1952-54, president of the Chicago Surgi-
cal Society, 1954-55, president of the Chicago Heart Association,
1962-63, and president of the International Cardiovascular Soci-
ety from 1965 to 1967. In 1967 he received the Lincoln Award of
the American Hungarian Studies Foundation.

Dr. de Takats was the father of vascular surgery in Chicago.
Citing this fact. Mayor Richard J. Daley proclaimed December 2,
1976, as "Geza de Takats Day" in Chicago to coincide with a
Northwestern University seminar on vascular disease being held
at the time in his honor.

Dr. de Takats was the author of books on local anesthesia,
thromboembolic disease and vascular surgery. He also contributed
over 250 papers to scientific journals. In addition, he authored
several books that were privately published, including Breach of
Etiquette and Other Stories.

Geza deTakats became a member of the Chicago Literary Club
in 1963 and served as its president in 1971-72. He presented nine

January 25, 1999





Charles Lawrence Hutchinson

Charles Lawrence Hutchinson was born in Lynn, Massachu-
setts, on March 7,1854, the oldest of five children. Following
business reverses in Lynn, his father lived in Boston for a short time
and then came to Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In 1858 the family
settled permanently in Chicago, where the elder Hutchinson be-
came a grain dealer and later extended his business activities to
meat packing and banking, becoming one of the richest men in the

Hutchinson attended Chicago High School, which was then
the only high school in the city. During his high school years, he
devoted considerable time to assisting his father in his business ac-
tivities, and following graduation, his father prevailed upon him to
forego college and join him as a business partner. Hutchinson's
principal business interest was banking, and in 1886 he became
president of the Corn Exchange Bank, one of the leading banking
institutions in the city at the time. Two years later, in 1888, when
he was only thirty-four years of age, he was elected president of the
Chicago Board of Trade.

Though successful in business, Hutchinson is known to us
principally for his civic and humanitarian endeavors. One of the
original founders of the Art Institute of Chicago, he became its
president in 1882, at the age of twenty-eight, and held that posi-
tion for the remainder of his life, a total of forty-two years. He
played a significant role in the 1893 World's Columbian Exposi-
tion and was later instrumental in the founding of the University
of Chicago
, where he served as a trustee and as treasurer. As an
indication of the incredible scope of his commitment to the ad-
vancement of human welfare, he was actively involved in more
than one hundred civic and charitable organizations. Of these or-
ganizations, he was, at one time or another, the president of six,
the treasurer of twenty or more, and a director or trustee of forty.

Hutchinson was a member of the Chicago Literary Club from
1884 until his death on October 7, 1924. He was president of the
Club in 1907-08. During his forty years as a member, he pre-
sented seventeen papers, many of them (if their titles are a true in-
dication) on the subject of art.

February I, 1999



Arthur Goldberg

Arthur Goldberg was born in Chicago's Maxwell Street area in
1908. He received his law degree from Northwestern in 1930,
graduating summa cum laude, and practiced law in Chicago until
1948. During World War II he headed the labor desk in the Office
of Strategic Services.

Goldberg founded his own law firm after the war, but from
1948 to 1961 his career was principally identified with the labor
movement. He served as general counsel for the CIO from 1948
to 1955 and for the United Steelworkers of America from 1948 to
1961. He played key roles in uniting the CIO with the AFL and in
expelling the International Brotherhood of Teamsters from the
AFL-CIO for corruption.

In 1961 President Kennedy appointed Goldberg secretary of
labor and in 1962 appointed him to the Supreme Court, where he
assumed a strong pro-human rights role. At President Johnson's
request, he left the Court in 1965 to become U.S. ambassador to
the United Nations. Resigning from that position in 1968, he re-
turned to the practice of law, in New York City, and in 1970 was
defeated by Nelson Rockerfeller in the race for the governorship.
He was later a professor of law at Columbia University and Amer-
and served as chairman of the Center for Law
and Social Policy for a period often years. He also served as chair-
man of several presidential commissions, including those on equal
opportunity employment and youth employment.

Goldberg was the author of several books—AFL-CIO, Labor
United, Defenses of Freedom,
and Equal Justice, the Warren Era of the
Supreme Court.
In 1976 he was appointed by President Carter as
special ambassador to the Human Rights Conference in Belgrade.
At the time of his death in 1990, former Supreme Court Chief Jus-
tice Warren Burger was quoted as saying, "He was a man of prin-
ciple and wholly compassionate, a complete human being who
never lost sight of the human dimension of the great problems that
confront society."

Goldberg became a member of the Chicago Literary Club in 1945.

 He presented two papers: From Ulysses to Hecate County in
1947 and Human Rights and the Belgrade Conference, which was
read before the Club by Elmer Gertz in 1978.

February 15, 1999


Henry Regnery

    Henry Regnery was born in Hinsdale, Illinois, on January 5, 1912.
He graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technol-
ogy in 1933 with a B.S. in mathematics. He then spent two years at
the University of Bonn, Germany, and upon his return to this
country in 1935 spent two years studying economics at Harvard
. Shortly thereafter, as a member of the American
Friends Service Committee, he helped start and subsequently ran
a knitting mill in western Pennsylvania to provide jobs for unem-
ployed coal miners.

In 1947 Mr. Regnery founded the Henry Regnery Company
book publishers. His company became an early voice for the con-
servative movement in this country, publishing, among other
works, William Buckley's God and Man at Yale and Russell Kirk’s
The Conservative Mind. He was also personally acquainted with
and published works by many midwestern modernist poets. An
author and writer himself, his own books include Creative Chicago:
From the Chap-Book to the University,
a study of Chicago's cul-
tural community, and a history of the Cliff Dwellers entitled The
Cliff Dwellers: The History of a Chicago Cultural Institution.
A lover
 of music (he played the cello), Mr. Regnery enjoyed a long asso-
ciation with the American Conservatory of Music as a member and benefactor.

Mr. Regnery became a member of the Chicago Literary Club
in 1966 and served as an officer of the Club at various times in the
1970s, i98os, and 1990s. He presented twelve papers, three of
which were published by the Club—Wyndham Lewis: The Writer
Against His Time, A Prophet Without Honor in His Own Country:
Francis F. Browne and THE DIAL,
and To Edit or Not to Edit, a
consideration of the revised edition of Theodore Dreiser's Jennie

March 1, 1999


Edward Gay Mason

Edward Gay Mason was born August 23,1839, one of five sons
of Roswell B. Mason, the mayor of Chicago at the time of the
Great Fire (1871). Four of the five sons, including Edward, were
members of the Literary Club. Edward graduated in 1860 from
Yale, where he was editor of the Yale Quarterly, and later became
a member of the Yale Corporation.

Mason practiced law in Chicago with his brother-in-law. Henry
G. Miller, who was also a member of the Literary Club. He was
sometimes called to Europe in connection with his practice and
would use those occasions to fill trunks with German toys to bring
home for his children. While in England on business in the fall of
1871, the Great Fire consumed his office and its contents.

As president of the Chicago Historical Society, Mason was in-
strumental in that organization's erecting its large stone building
on Dearborn Street. He published numerous articles on Illinois
history and was working on a book on the subject at the time of
his death. He left enough material for an eight-volume work,
which was published in 1901 by Herbert S. Stone & Company as
Chapters from Illinois History.

Mason had thirteen children who lived past childhood, ten of
them boys all of whom went to Yale. Before that, these ten boys at-
tended a private school which had a scale of tuition that dimin-
ished with each additional pupil from a family, in consequence of
which the tuition for one of the ten boys was zero. That boy was
known as the "free" Mason.

Mason was a member of the Chicago Literary Club from 1874,
the year of its founding, until his death in 1898. He was presi-
dent of the Club in 1878-79. He presented ten papers, three
of which dealt with the history of Illinois: Old Fort Chartres, The
March of the Spaniards Across Illinois, and A Chapter from a History
of Illinois.

March 15, 1999


Edgar Lee Masters

Neither Edgar Lee Masters nor Melville Weston Fuller, whose bio-
graphical sketch follows that of Masters, was an active participant in
the affairs of the Club. Neither served as an officer of the Club, and,
between the two of them, they presented only a handful of papers. They
were included in our anniversary program primarily because of the
renown they achieved in their respective fields.

Edgar Lee Masters was born in Garnett, Kansas, on August
23, 1869. He moved to Illinois as an infant and during his child-
hood years lived in small towns of the Sangamon valley. He
studied German, Greek and law for one year at Knox College, and
in 1892, when he was admitted to the Illinois bar, moved to
Chicago. There he spent approximately twenty-five years as a suc-
cessful attorney, eight of them in partnership with Clarence Dar-

During his years as a lawyer. Masters wrote and published two
collections of verse and seven unproduced plays. Spoon River An-
the book for which he is best known, was published in
1915. As a result of the success of this book, he gave up his law
practice in 1923 and moved to New York City, where he spent
most of the rest of his life.

Spoon River consists of 244 first-person dramatic monologues
by a variety of residents of a typical small Midwestern town, who
speak from their graves in the mythical Spoon River cemetery.
The book was an instant success and went through nearly seventy
editions during Masters's lifetime alone. Selections from the book
are included in virtually every anthology of American poetry,
and many of them have been adapted for stage and television
presentation. Together with Carl Sandburg and Vachel Lindsay,
Masters was responsible for the "poetic renaissance" that arose in
 the Middle West during the second decade of the twentieth cen-

Masters died in a convalescence home in Melrose Park, Penn-
sylvania, on March 5, 1950. He was a member of the Literary
Club from 1911 to 1916. He presented two papers. Of all our
members, past and present, he is perhaps alone in being remem-
bered for his literary achievements.

March 22, 1999


Melville Weston Fuller

Melville Weston Fuller was born in Augusta, Maine, on Febru-
ary 11, 1833. He graduated from Bowdoin College and briefly at-
tended Harvard Law School. He was a newspaperman in Augusta
for a time, was admitted to the bar in 1855, and practiced law in
Chicago from 1856 to 1888.

Fuller was a prominent member of the Chicago bar, but was
unknown nationally. In 1888, however, he was appointed chief
justice of the United States Supreme Court by Grover Cleveland.
Other members of the Court at that time were such prominent ju-
rists as Oliver Wendell Holmes and John Marshall Harlan. Al-
though not as forceful an intellect as either of them, Fuller devel-
oped a reputation as an impartial and skilled administrator of the
Court's business. Holmes referred to him as the best presiding
judge he had ever known.

Fuller wrote two important opinions during his tenure on the
Court: one that narrowly construed the Sherman Antitrust Act of
1890 and another that declared unconstitutional the federal in-
come tax act of 1894. While serving as chief justice, he was also a
member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague for
ten years. A biography of Chief Justice Fuller, written by Willard
L. King, another member of the Literary Club, was published in

Fuller was a member of the Club from 1878 until his death on
July 4, 1910. He presented two papers and participated in two
conversations. A magnificent oil portrait of Chief Justice Fuller
may be found in the art collection of the Union League Club of Chicago.

March 22, 1999


William M. R. French

William M. R. French was born in Exeter, New Hampshire, on
October 1, 1843. He graduated from Harvard in 1864 and served
for about a year as a volunteer in the Northern Army. He later
took a course in civil engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology. He moved to Chicago in 1867.

French practiced civil engineering and landscape gardening in
Chicago for about ten years. His interest in art, however, led him to
begin lecturing and writing on the subject, and in 1878 he became
secretary of the Chicago Academy of Design. Several years later, in
18 85, he became the first director of the Art Institute of Chicago, a
position that he held until his death twenty-nine years later.

   French was a founding member of the American Association of
Museums and served as its president in 1907-1908. He was also the
art editor of the Chicago Tribune for a number of years. He was the
 brother of the famed sculptor Daniel Chester French, whose
work included the Minute Man statue, the statue of John Harvard
in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the statue of Abraham Lin-
coin in the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

French was a member of the Literary Club from 1874, the year
of its founding, until his death on June 3, 1914—a total of forty
years. He served as president of the Club during the 1912-13
 season and presented fifteen papers.

March 29, 1999


James Nevins Hyde

James Nevins Hyde was born in Norwich, Connecticut, on June
21, 1840. He graduated from Yale University in 1861 and, shortly
after beginning his medical studies at the College of Physicians
and Surgeons in New York City, entered the U. S. Navy as an as-
sistant surgeon. He performed so well in this capacity, especially
in his care of yellow-fever patients during the Civil War, that he
was cited by the secretary of the navy. After the war ended he
served on the Ticonderoga under Admiral Farrugut until his resig-
nation from the Navy, following which he obtained a medical de-
gree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1869.

Dr. Hyde moved to Chicago in 1873 and began his teaching ca-
reer in dermatology—the first such teacher in Chicago—at Rush
Medical College
. After also serving on the medical faculty of
Chicago Medical College (later Northwestern University Medical
School), he was appointed Professor of Skin and Venereal Disease
at Rush Medical College. Dr. Hyde held this post for thirty-one
years, being appointed chairman in 1905. He also served in ad-
ministrative positions and on the board of trustees at Rush. In
addition, he was a dermatologist on or consultant to the staffs of
six Chicago hospitals and served for eight years as lecturer at the
University of Chicago.

Dr. Hyde was a founder, and twice president, of the American
Dermatological Association. In 1901 he became a founder of the
Chicago Dermatological Society, serving as its president in 1901
and 1908. He was an excellent clinician and teacher and was the
first physician to recognize the critical relationship between sun-
light exposure and the development of skin cancer. He authored
a widely read textbook entitled A Practical Treatise on Diseases of the
which went through eight editions from 1883 to 1909. With
Frank Montgomery he also published A Manual of Syphilis and
Venereal Diseases.
He was the author of over one hundred scientific
papers, and his varied interests included the Episcopal Church (as
chorister and teacher) and the writing of poetry and literary es-

Dr. Hyde was elected to membership in the Chicago Literary
Club in 1875, a year after the Club was founded, and served as
president in 1889-90. He delivered twenty papers during thirty-
five years of membership. He died suddenly on September 6,
1910, presumably of heart disease.

April 5, 1999



Franklin MacVeagh

Franklin MacVeagh was born on a farm in Chester County,
. He graduated from Yale in 1862 and earned a law
degree from Columbia University in 1864.

MacVeagh practiced law in New York City from 1864 to 1866.
He moved to Chicago in 1866, where he established a whole-
sale grocery company. In 1874 he was the president of the Chicago
Citizens' Association, an influential civic improvement organiza-
tion of that day. He was a Democratic nominee for U.S. senatoi
in 1894, but lost the race in the state legislature. MacVeagh be-
came a Republican two years later. He served as secretary of the
treasury during the administration of William Howard Taft.

MacVeagh became a member of the Literary Club in 1874 anc
served as president in 1906-07. He presented nine papers. A
member of the Club for sixty years, he died on July 6, 1934. He
was the last survivor of the eighty or so men who became mem-
bers of the Club in the year of its founding.

April 12,1999


Arthur Alois Baer

Arthur Alois Baer was born in Chicago on November 26, 1896.
He graduated Phi Beta Kappa from the University of Chicago in
1918. He intended to become a writer, but in 1920 took over the
management of the family dry goods department store in Beverly,
. He managed the store successfully for almost twenty-five
years, selling it in the mid-1940s. In the early 1920s Baer had
joined the board of directors of the Beverly Bank, then a small,
struggling local institution. After selling his dry goods store, he
took over the management of the bank on a full-time basis and
built it into a strong regional bank.

Baer's philanthropic activities equaled or perhaps exceeded his
business interests. He was intensely devoted to his alma mater, the
University of Chicago, and was a member of its board of trustees.
He had a lifelong interest in art and was a founding member of the
Beverly Art Center, where an art competition was named in his
and his wife's honor. He was also a trustee of Morgan Park Acad-
emy and in 1968 was named "senior citizen of the year" by the
Chicago Park District.

Baer's wife, Alice Hogge Baer, was a constant companion in his
endeavors. For health reasons, her early education took place at
home. Her father was a close friend of William Rainey Harper,
president of the University of Chicago. She attended the univer-
sity and graduated in three years with the class of 1904 at age
eighteen. After graduation, she taught at Calumet High School,
where Baer was at one point her student.

Baer became a member of the Chicago Literary Club in 1944.
He became chairman of the Committee on Rooms and Finances
in 1959 and, with the exception of the year in which he was pres-
ident of the Club (1966-67), held that position until his death in 1975.
Baer was also chairman of the Centennial Committee. He
presented nine papers during his thirty-one years as a member.
After his death, Baer's wife donated twenty-five thousand dollars
to the Club, the largest gift in its history.

    Baer's quiet devotion to the Club was legendary. On April 26,

1976. the Club established the Arthur Baer Fellowship Fund in his
memory. The purpose of the fund was to provide a one-year mem-
bership for a promising candidate who would enjoy the Club and
contribute to its proceedings. So admired and respected was Baer
that contributions from members far exceeded what was necessary
for this purpose.

April 19, 1999


Roscoe Pound

Twenty or so years ago, looking through our centennial history, I
was dumbfounded to learn that Roscoe Pound had been a member of
the Chicago Literary Club. Pound was dean of the Harvard Law School
from 1916 to 1936 and was still a presence there in the 1950s. I
had never associated him with our own city, but discovered later that
he had taught here for a brief period in the early years of the century.
--Clark L. Wagner

Pound was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, on October 27, 1870.
He studied botany at the University of Nebraska, earning his un-
dergraduate degree in 1888, at the age of eighteen, and a doctor-
ate in 1897. Interrupting his studies in botany, he left Nebraska for
a year in 1889 to study law at Harvard Law School. He passed the
bar on his return to Nebraska a year later and went into private
practice. Several years later he became commissioner of appeals in

the Supreme Court of Nebraska, at the same time also teaching
law at the University and becoming dean of the College of Law in

1903. All the while he stayed immersed in the field of botany, as a
researcher, author and administrator. He subsequently served a
a professor of law at Northwestern University, from 1907 to 1909,
and at the University of Chicago, from 1909 to 1910.

Pound returned to Harvard Law School as a professor in 1910.
Six years later, still one of the newest members of the faculty, he
was appointed dean of the Law School, a position he held for
twenty years. Shortly after his retirement as dean, he received one
of the first of Harvard University's "roving professorships," whidh
entitled him to teach in any faculty of the University. Ten years
later he went to China, at the invitation of the Chinese govern-
ment, to begin the task of reorganizing the Chinese judicial sys-
tern. In connection with this task, he began studying Chinese,
having already mastered French, German, Italian, Spanish, San-
skrit, Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and some Russian.

Pound was one of the three American jurists best known to
scholars of modern jurisprudence throughout the world. The
other two were Justice Holmes and Justice Brandeis. His twenty
years as dean of Harvard Law School have been regarded as the
School's golden age. In 1938 he was listed as one of 1000 leading
scientists in the United States. As of 1940, he had been credited
with 773 books, articles and addresses, and twenty years later, as
he entered his 90s, he was still a productive scholar. Erwin Gris-
wold, the dean of Harvard Law School in the 1940s and 50s and
also one of Pound's students at Harvard, considered Pound an
authentic genius and remarked on one occasion that Pound could re-
cite from memory entire legal articles and court cases, including
accompanying footnotes.

Pound became a member of the Literary Club in 1910, the year
in which he taught at the University of Chicago, and remained a
member until his death in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on July i,
1964. He held no offices in the Club and delivered only one paper.
This remarkable man was in Chicago for only a brief period of
time, but stayed long enough, in any event, to leave his name in the
Club's annals.

April 26, 1999


Payson Sibley Wild

Payson Sibley Wild is known to us primarily as the author of the
Club's second printed history, covering the years 1924 to 1946. As
the Club approached the end of its one-hundred-twenty-fifth season, the
Anniversary Committee issued this brief biographical sketch as a trib-
ute to Wild for his many contributions to the Club.

Payson Sibley Wild was born in Craftsbury, Vermont, on May
25, 1869, the son of a Congregationalist minister. He received his
early education at St. Johnsbury Academy. Following graduation
from Williams College in 1891, he went into teaching. He married
Caroline Peabody in 1895 and moved to Chicago in 1899.

Shortly after coming to Chicago, Wild founded the Princeton-
Yale preparatory school, which later merged with the Harvard
preparatory school. He was by profession a classical scholar and
a frequent contributor to classical journals. He is remembered by
many as a favorite contributor, for nearly forty years, to Bert Le-
ston Taylor's column "Line 0' Type or Two" in the Chicago Tri-
and a book containing some of his contributions was pub-
lished in 1918.

Wild was a member of the Club from December 2, 1902 until
his death on February 6,1951, a total of forty-nine years. He was
president of the Club in its 1915-16 season. In 1920 he succeeded
Frederick Gookin as recording secretary and treasurer and held
these twin positions for thirty years. In addition to writing the
second history of the Club, he presented nineteen papers. Four of
them were selected for publication, a number equaled by only one
other member.

May 3, 1999


William Frederick Poole

William Frederick Poole was born on December 24, 1821, in
that part of old Salem, Massachusetts, that is now the town of
Peabody. He received his secondary education in both public and
private schools and entered Yale in 1842, Because of financial con-
siderations that required him to leave college to teach for three
years, he did not graduate until 1849.

While at Yale, Poole published a periodical index for the library
of one of Yale's literary societies. This was the forerunner of Poole's
Index to Periodical Literature,
which eventually became the index
that all of us are familiar with today. In 1851 he became an assis-
tant in the library of the Boston Athenaeum and was later the li-
brarian of the Boston Mercantile Association. He returned to the
Boston Athenaeum in 1856, where he was head librarian for thir-
teen years, and made it into one of the largest libraries in the na-
tion. From 1871 to 1872, he was librarian of the public library of
Cincinnati, and there became a member of the Cincinnati Liter-
ary Club.

Poole came to Chicago on January 1, 1874, as the first librarian
of the city's new public library, which soon ranked as the largest
circulating library in the country. In 1887, he was invited to orga-
nize a new reference library provided for under the will of Walter

Newberry and held the position of librarian at the newly formed
Newberry Library until his death seven years later.

In all of his assignments, Poole was an innovator in library
methods and administration, and his many contributions in the
field were adopted in libraries throughout the country and abroad.
He was also a respected speaker and writer on American history,
particularly the Colonial period and the history of the early West,
and in 1888 was elected president of the American Historical As-

Poole was a member of the Chicago Literary Club from 1874
until his death, in Evanston, on March 1, 1894. He served as pres-
ident of the Club in 1879-80 and presented ten papers. Accord-
ing to Frederick Gookin, Poole brought with him to Chicago the
constitution and by-laws of the Cincinnati Literary Club and may
justly be regarded as the "father" of our own organization.

May 10, 1999


Robert Collyer

Robert Collyer was born on December 8,1823, in Keighly, Eng-
land, the son of destitute parents. At the age of eight, he went to
work in a cottonmill in Yorkshire, working there as a loom-tender
until he was fourteen. He then became an apprentice to a black-
smith and followed that trade for many years.

Following the death of his first wife on February 1, 1849, leav-
ing one son, Collyer's thoughts turned increasingly to religion.
Although brought up in the Church of England, he became a
Methodist and began preaching while still working as a black-
smith. He married again on April 9, 1850, and set sail for Amer-
ica the same day. He obtained work as a blacksmith in Shoemak-
ertown, near Philadelphia, and was soon accepted as a Methodist
lay-preacher. During those years he became a strong abolitionist.

Collyer increasingly found himself out of line with the orthodox
doctrines of Hell, Total Depravity, and the Atonement, and was
expelled from the Methodist Church in January 1859. One month
later he was called to Chicago as minister-at-large to the First
Unitarian Church
. There he was ordained as a Unitarian minister
and founded and became the first pastor of the Unity Church,
where he was an immediate success. Twenty years later, in 1879,
he accepted a call to a church in New York City and remained
there until his death.

Collyer was a founding member and the first president of the
Chicago Literary Club. He presented eight papers, five of them
after he had left Chicago for New York City. With only two years of
formal schooling, a child of "workhouse" parents, this one-time
blacksmith gained widespread prominence as a minister, author
and speaker. He was an outspoken advocate for social justice
throughout his life and worked tirelessly to promote the welfare of
the lower classes. His death on November 30, 1912, was cause for
great mourning in this city, where he first gained national attention.

May 17, 1999

This brief biography of Robert Collyer was read at the closing meet-
ing of the anniversary year. The reading was followed by the unveiling
of the newly restored portrait of Collyer that has been in the Club's pos-
session for more than one hundred years. The restored portrait bears out
the description of Collyer contained in the Dictionary of American Bi-
"Large and tall, he had a massive head crowned with an
abundance of gray hair, and his ruddy face of almost classical sym-
metry expressed the strength, sweetness, and light of his character.”