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House Wiring for Beginners gives an overview of a typical basic domestic mains wiring system, then discusses or links to the common options and extras. For these reasons and more, one should not carry out safety critical work based solely on wiki content. Anyone installing wiring should also understand some basic safety issues not discussed here. Junction box loop in, where the termination and feed connection are done at junction boxes, and cables run to switches and lamps from there.
Split load CUs have become popular in recent years, and ubiquitous since 2008 with the introduction of the 17th edition of the wiring regs. Some wiring work can be carried out with just a section of a CU turned off, perhaps retaining access to light and power while working. The split load arrangement means both RCDed and non RCDed loads can be supplied from the one CU.
The 17th Edition of the wiring regulations impose more frequent requirements to install RCD (or RCBO) protection than the previous 16th Edition.
RCDs reduce the risks of injury from electric shock (they don't eliminate it completely), however they can also introduce reliability and issues of their own if not used in an appropriate way. With a supplier provided earth connection, the most common historical arrangement was a split CU with a RCD on one side, and no RCD on the other. With a local earth rod, the situation is different in that all circuits must be RCD protected, since a local earth rod is not usually a sufficiently good earth on its own to clear all earth faults. Where RCBOs are used, they are fitted in the non-RCD side of the CU, and supply circuits needing RCD protection.
Neutrals for circuits protected by different RCDs (or those from an RCD and non RCD protected circuit) must not be mixed. The same principle is true for RCBOs, each RCBOed circuit needs to have its neutral connected to the RCBO neutral and not elsewhere. Historically, installations using a supplier earth connection will run some circuits directly off the non RCD side of a CU. All socket circuits, should have RCD protection since Plug-in are the source of almost all electrocutions. Modern installations will typically provide additional RCDs so that vulnerable circuits (i.e. One ring circuit per floor is a fairly common arrangement, but by no means the only option. Spurs are permitted, but sockets should be included in the ring rather than spurred wherever practical. Spurring sockets prevents the easy later addition of more sockets in some positions, as a spur may not be spurred off a spur. Recommended: 2x double sockets at each of 4 locations (in or near corners) + a double socket at side of single bed, or a double socket at each side of double bed. Recommended: 2x double sockets at each of 4 locations (in or near corners) + 1-3 double sockets where PC or AV equipment is to be used.
Recommended: 2x double sockets at each of 4 locations (generally near corners), plus anything from 2 to 6 double sockets where computer or other business appliances will go. Filament lamp failures can trip MCBs, so fuses have an advantage over MCBs for lighting circuits, as they rarely nuisance trip on bulb failure. With loop-in wiring, the cable from the ceiling rose to the switch has 3 conductors, namely earth, unswitched live and switched live. So beware, if you take down a rose without paying attention to which wire is which, and you re-connect all the blacks or blues together, your fuse or MCB will trip. The permanent lives and switched lives of the circuit use the single core and earth cable (type 6241Y).


This run starts from the MCB and loops between the lightswitches to provide a permanent live and earth to the lightswitches. The neutral cable is a double sheathed cable (6181Y with a blue inner sheath) that runs from the CU neutral busbar and from light fitting to light fitting (there will only be one neutral at the end of the circuit).
It makes it easier to put light fittings up as there are less cables to mess with at the fitting. Two way switching means having two or more switches in different locations to control one lamp.
In some older properties (typically wired in or before the mid 1960s), its not uncommon to find lighting circuits without an earth wire. Bathrooms (or rooms with showers) are "special locations" in the language of the wiring regulations. Electrical fittings in the bathroom in zone 0 must conform to IPX7 or better, and must be of an extra low voltage type. Electrical fittings in the bathroom outside of the zones do not need to confirm to any specific IP rating, but must be appropriate for the circumstance in which they are used. Until the introduction of the 17th edition of the wiring regulation, sockets were not permitted in a bathroom at all, unless they were either a transformer isolated shaver socket, or sockets to power extra low voltage devices, both of which are permitted in Zone 2 or outside. An electric shower will be fed on its own high current cable, fed from its own MCB on the RCD protected side of the CU. Modern kitchens often have a high concentration of electric appliances, many of them high power consumption devices.
All in one electric cookers (oven, hob & grill in one unit) are fed by a high current cable from the CU, typically on a 32A MCB.
Complete rewires and a number of other electrical jobs are now covered by Part P of the building regulations. In fact, a couple days ago an architect from Texas suggested we format our csi division pages (division 04) so that, visually, it is easier to find the section you are looking for. So, your great ideas will save you and your fellow AEC professional time and make you more efficient.
This article is an introductory overview rather than a complete A to Z on rewiring, and assumes some basic electrical knowledge.
Sometimes these are run from the main CU, but often from a timeswitch controlled dedicated CU (with either a separate "off peak" electricity meter, or a dual tariff meter). It works in co-ordination with circuit breakers MCBs, Fuses, and RCDs to ensure that an electrical supply can be disconnected quickly in the event of a fault. Those that don't (generally country houses several miles from the nearest town), use a local earth rod instead.
Each electrical circuit in the house takes its earth connection from the CU earthing block. In general, ANY cable which is buried less than 50mm below a wall's surface AND is NOT mechanically protected, or wired in one of a number of specialised cable types that incorporate an earthed screen must have 30mA trip RCD protection. Generally the RCD side is used to supply sockets and shower, with most other items on the non-RCD side.
RCBOs allow individual circuits to be protected by their own RCD without any risk that a fault in an unrelated circuit could cause it to trip. Mostly rings are used, as they use less copper for most circuit layouts, they have safety advantages over radial circuits (sometimes debated), can provide more power, and cover more floor area per circuit. These use a ring of cable (ie a loop), so that at the CU 2 cables are connected to the MCB instead of 1.
Spurs also prevent the addition of more sockets at existing spurred positions, whereas a practically unlimited number of sockets can be added where a socket is in the ring. These use a single cable from CU to socket, then a single cable to the next socket along the line etc.


Recommended numbers are inevitably a matter of opinion, and are only recommended as a starting point for consideration. 1 socket somewhere out of easy reach in zone 3 if you wish to use an appliance in the bathroom (eg washing machine or dehumidifier).
Given the tendency for electricity use to rise over the years, an overrated feed cable may prove useful in time.
For a dedicated horticulturalist, fluorescent lighting, a couple of splashproof double sockets positioned at head height or above, and a 13A socket for discharge lighting can all come in useful. If it goes to the bulbholder, this is called loop-in wiring, and the ceiling rose then uses four sets of connections instead of 3, the extra one being a switched live. Regs conformance requires that brown sleeving be fitted over the neutral coloured conductor at each end of the switch cable since it is being used as a live.
Light switches are usually wired with standard T&E, which means the switched live wire will be black (existing installs) or blue (new installs) - this should be marked with live coloured tape or sleeving (though alas this is often missing).
Care should be taken if you have such a circuit to ensure that only appropriate light fittings and switches are used. Usually this is a 6A MCB, but lighting is less likely to cause problems if run on a 5A fuse. This is because they are places where people are particularly vulnerable to serious injury from electric shock (due to being wet and barefoot).
A common option is to have the supply fed through a 100mA time delayed RCD, the output of which goes to a split CU with RCD on one side.
Its also common to have a ring dedicated just for sockets in the kitchen since that is where you will find many of the highest power consuming appliances in a modern house. Bear in mind the number of sockets wanted has risen greatly over the years, and can only be expected to rise further.
Radials use more copper on most circuits, though less cable on physically long narrow shaped circuits. A shaver socket at the sink is an option, but plugging items in outside the room is probably better practice.
Most metal light fittings and switches will require earthing, but those marked with the double insulated symbol do not need an earth connection. Ideally the non-earthed circuit ought to be re-wired, or at least have a RCD installed to protect it. Exterior cabling must be appropriate for use outside (many cable types degrade under prolonged exposure to sunlight for example). Connection is also made to each of the protective earth wires in each circuit that feeds an appliance in the bathroom (e.g. Most hobs require their own high current feed, but some are available that incorporate load limiting switching, and are designed to be run on a 13A plug. This is not an ideal arrangement, as a large earth leakage fault on the non-RCD side will cause complete power failure, and sometimes inability to reset the power. However if the area served is large, more 5A or 6A circuits would in most cases be preferable. This is called equipotential bonding and is designed to minimise exposure to dangerous voltages that may be present during electrical fault conditions. It is permitted to place equipotential bonding connections immediately outside the bathroom if necessary. Note equipotential bonding can be omitted if all the circuits that enter the bathroom are protected by RCD(s) with trip thresholds of 30mA or less.



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