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Worldwide an estimated one in five couples will experience difficulty conceiving or carrying a baby to full term. A brief look at the theories underlying Traditional Chinese and Naturopathic medicine and how they can be applied pre and post conception.
Doctors also say that there are no clinical conditions that can be associated with ovarian cysts.
In the Chinese medicine philosophy it is generally considered that ovarian cysts are a result of the phlegm, dampness and also blood stasis.
Invariably the Chinese herbs to cure ovarian cysts are Cinnamon bark and cooked Rehmannia. In Chinese Medicine, treatment for Ulcerative Colitis first begins with understanding the pathology of each individual person’s case.
Steven (name change for patient’s anonymity) was diagnosed with Ulcerative Colitis and had symptoms for six years ago. Acupuncture is the insertion of small thin needles into certain points located on the body’s surface. When a person has a health issue, understanding the root issue, followed by treating the specific root issue, helps the body heal naturally. Mostly importantly, it is a non-invasive way to help treat health conditions. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, hot flashes normally occur because of an insufficiency of fluids called “yin”. I treat many women who are trying to get pregnant after being on the birth control pill for many years. If you are trying to get pregnant or have been on the birth control pill for many years, going off the pill for a year before wanting to actually try to get pregnant will allow one to address any issues that may be present.
I often recommend to my patients who have been on the birth control pill for many years to stop it and let their period resume. If you are on the pill for painful menstruation, acne, irregular menstruation as well as other types of health issues, there are other options that you can seek out.
An easy tip at-home treatment that you can do to reduce nasal congestion from allergies is a mint vapor steam. When you are going through IVF it is not only an emotional roller coaster ride but also can be financially draining.  You are looking for everything to help boost your chances of getting pregnant.
During the retrieval, when the eggs are retrieved from the ovaries to be fertilized, I like to see patients before their retrieval for acupuncture. In my practice, along with a full interview and medical assessment, tongue diagnosis is one of the main tools I use to understand my patients’ state of health. The size of the tongue can indicate if there is a deficiency in blood or fluids in the body, which can be seen in insomnia, anxiety, and headaches. The color of the tongue indicates if there is heat, a deficiency of yang, or stasis andstagnation in the body, which can indicate pain, menstrual cramps or irritability. Scallops, which are crevices on the sides of the tongue, can indicate digestive system issues, edema or fatigue.
Her diagnosis in Chinese Medicine was anxiety due to heart blood and spleen qi deficiency. The first thing to notice in this case was the size of the tongue, which was small.
The physiology behind her tongue diagnosis was her spleen, which is one of the main organs in the digestive system. In order to truly heal patients of health disorders, it is important to understand the emotional aspect that may be a causative factor to why their individual health issue came about.
Fright affects the heart organ, which can manifest in a similar manner to the heart disorders seen in too much joy.
Developing a keen sense of awareness to your body enables you to understand how emotions can affect your overall health. In IBS, the digestive system is not functioning efficiently and therefore gas, bloating, cramping, constipation, diarrhea or both appear.  In Chinese Medicine, there are differences in symptoms that constitute different treatment protocols.
This type of condition presents with patients who experience diarrhea and stomach pain that is relieved by pressure. This type of condition presents with severe pain that is relieved by warmth, this type of presentation also is accompanied with constipation.
This type of condition presents with an urgency to defecate with diarrhea that is odorous with gas and bloating as well as a burning sensation when one takes a bowel movement. The beauty of Chinese Medicine is that it specifically treats the individual and that is why it is so effective. Background: To determine the mechanism by which the flavonoid glycoside astragalin (AST) reduces ovarian failure in an aged rat model of menopause.
AcknowledgmentsThis work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. Those who are frequently visiting different restaurants have probably noticed the green garnish that is served on the side of the plate in every meal. In case you didn’t know, lung cancer has become the most common cause of cancer deaths in the US. PubMed magazine published a study two years ago about the ability of a compound found in parsley to eliminate up to 86% of cancer cells placed in a Petri dish. What is even more interesting is the fact that dried parsley that is frequently used while cooking probably contains more apigenin that fresh parsley. Another study conducted by Chinese scientists in 2005 has shown that this flavonoid prevents creation of lung cancer cells. People who are following traditional medicine are not surprised by these results because parsley has been used for centuries because of its healing properties. As a matter of fact, parsley was first cultivated some 2.000 years ago in the Mediterranean not because of cooking purposes, but for its health benefits. One of the main reasons why parsley is so effective are the ingredients found in it – B-complex, vitamin A, C, K, iron, essential amino acids, chlorophyll, magnesium etc. According to the previously mentioned study published in PubMed, various studies including the one with parsley suggest that there is a strong connection between lifestyle, environment and cancer. Cut 15 grams of parsley roots in small pieces and add 1 cup (250 ml) of hot water over them.
If you want to feel the positive effects you should have three cups of parsley tea every day. These are only some of the reasons why you should enjoy a tea made of parsley roots and leaves on a daily basis! Throw Away Your Glasses By Using Only THIS One Ingredient to Increase Your Vision Up To 97%!
The reasons for this range from conditions such as Endometriosis or Polycystic ovarian syndrome to the more insidious "unexplained infertility".
In clinic he uses an integrated approach combining Dietary therapy, Herbal medicine and Acupuncture alongside and tailored to fit in with whatever treatments a patient may be receiving. Many women get ovarian cysts and it is not something to be afraid of as usually they are not serious. However, woman who have these cysts complain of a dull pain in their abdomen and a sense of the abdomen being full. That is when you do something over and over again or everyday, the human body’s natural reaction is to adjust to the routine and also get used to it. In fact, I love to treat digestive system disorders because Chinese Medicine is such an effective treatment for people who suffer from Crohns disease, IBS as well as Ulcerative Colitis. He would go to the bathroom up to 12 times per day, even getting up in the middle of the night.
In Chinese Medicine, the spleen, which helps absorb nutrients into the blood stream, was weak. There are hundreds of points throughout the body and each point influences the body’s internal dynamics in a different way.To create homeostasis within the body,  a combination of points is used to release a therapeutic affect on an individual. The reason I love acupuncture and why I practice, is because I believe in healing people by treating the root issue and not just covering up symptoms. When patients first come into my office for an initial consultation, I go through their health history, and ask many questions in order to understand what types of imbalances are present.Since the body works as a whole, if someone came to me for digestive system issues, factors such as sleep, anxiety, stress, as well as their energy level, gives me input to the root of their digestive system issues. The most important thing I tell patients is that treatments work on a root level so as they feel better, the main goal is to change any lifestyle habits in order to truly transform their health and prevent their health issues from coming back.
In Chinese Medicine, cow’s milk is heavy on the digestive system,that is why many people get stomach pain while consuming milk.
It always amazes me that there is not enough information that is given to women in regards to the pill.
The combination of hormones work to inhibit ovulation, as well as increase cervical mucus, which makes it harder for sperm to pass through.  That is how it works to inhibit pregnancy. Acupuncture has been used for thousands of years to treat infertility and now it used as an integrative approach for women undergoing assisted fertility treatments such as IUI and IVF.
This helps to bring blood flow to the ovaries and remove any obstructions such as dampness or blood stasis to help fertilization take place. Influence of acupuncture on the pregnancy rate in patients who undergo assisted reproduction therapy.
Most patients are embarrassed to stick out their tongues or they wonder what I am doing staring it.
Geographically, the center of the tongue is the digestive system or spleen and stomach region.
A thin coat or lack of coat can suggest a lack of fluids in the body, as seen in insomnia, anxiety, and menopause.
Disorders seen with a cracked tongue are skin or vaginal dryness, shortened menstrual flow, poor memory, insomnia and PMS.
Because the spleen is one of the main organs that nourish energy, fatigue appears when it is weak.
She felt more centered and she had a dramatic increase in energy.  As a result, her tongue body began to change. People who worry all the time can experience digestive system disorders such as IBS, bloating or gas. In Chinese Medicine, the kidneys are the organs responsible for development of the body, bone structure and reproductive development. Although joy is an emotion that most people like to experience, an excess of the emotion can affect the heart because it can lead to sorrow. Examples include heart palpitations, poor concentration and memory, or waking up suddenly at 5am.
Ultimately, we need to treat not only our physical ailments, but also emotional imbalances in order to truly heal the body and treat the root cause of certain ailments and disease.

Some of the symptoms associated with IBS are abdominal cramping, urgency to defecate, gas, bloating, loose stools, constipation or stools that alternate from loose to constipation. Stress makes the symptoms worse.  They may experience pain in the lower left abdominal region as well as constipation. As treatment is aimed at reducing and clearing symptoms, the factors that are causing the digestive system to become imbalanced need to addressed such as lifestyle, stress and eating habits.
Methods: The in vivo effect of AST on granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis in aged female rats was determined using flow cytometry. IntroductionReproduction senescence is a naturally occurring phenomenon that occurs in all female mammals, regardless of species [1].
We often leave that garnish untouched because it looks more like a decoration, but you should definitely start eating it. As a matter of fact, the number of deaths caused by lung cancer is equal to the sum of the next three deadliest cancers – pancreatic, breast cancer and colon cancer. This compound is actually a flavonoid called apigenin that can also be found in oregano, celery, thyme, oranges, chamomile, artichokes and coriander and in certain types of red wine. According to the same study, using apigenin in a combination with anti-tumor medications can lead to some amazing results when it comes to stopping cancer growth.
Back in those days parsley was used for kidney stones problems and 2000 years later an advisory panel created by the German government has suggested the use of parsley as a good way to prevent and heal kidney stones. This means that although in some cases the risk of cancer is inherited, people and their behavior can influence its formation too.
Parsley is a well-known diuretic and excellent remedy used for kidney stones remover and it also cures urinary infections. While this book does examine the basic theory and practice of Allopathic medicine as it relates to gynaecology much of the focus is placed on Naturopathic or Traditional Chinese methods of preventing and treating many of these common gynaecological conditions. Majority of the women, at some point in their lives, are likely to have cysts in their ovaries. Also there is a lot of advice given to women with this problem on how they should eat and what diet to follow. Peony is also used when traditional Chinese doctors feel that the ovarian cyst is a secondary condition to infertility.
Sometimes, the body starts rejecting the function like when you attempt to do something in the same fashion you get severe pain and this is called tendonitis where the tendons in your body are swollen and inflamed.
I am currently going to focus this article on the treatment of Ulcerative Colitis and Chinese Medicine.
Many people can come to me with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis but they may have different treatment approaches because the root issue of their individual case is different. Once I understand the underlying issues of their digestive system issues, I form an acupuncture treatment protocol. Many people do not realize that hot flashes can occur even when perimenopause is not taking place. When our body is balanced and homeostasis is at an equilibrium, we should not feel hot nor cold.
Many females are prescribed the birth control pill for a variety of reasons-birth control, PMS, reduction of painful menstruation, hormonal acne, as well as to help regulate their cycle.
Acupuncture and Chinese Herbal Medicine are successful natural treatments for many women’s menstrual disorders such as hormonal acne, PCOS, painful menstruation, irregular menstruation and PMS. So I am going to educate you on what I look for by observing the tongue and how the tongue is used as a gateway to your health. Therefore, it is a great diagnostic tool to understand the health of the internal organs as well as the overall health of the human body. To name a few, a quivering tongue can mean energy deficiency of the spleen or digestive system.
A thick coat can be seen in such disorders as depression, ovarian cysts, fatigue, fibromyalgia and headaches. Supportive evidence of blood insufficiency was also seen in the central cracks of the tongue.
When the spleen is deficient it cannot properly produce sufficient blood to the heart and therefore, when the heart is not properly nourished anxiety and insomnia are present. Each emotion is normal to experience, but an exuberance of any one emotion can affect certain organ systems in the body and result in health disorders. Health disorders that may develop as a result of fear include urinary problems, back issues, menstrual disorders or sexual disorders.
Physical manifestations may be heart palpitations, excessive laughter, poor concentration and memory. People with spleen and kidney yang deficiency can experience cold hands and feet and feel generally cold. Different herbs and acupuncture treatments are used with each condition as well as dietary recommendations in order to not only treat the symptoms but to further prevent them from appearing. In vitro, the effects of AST on cultured GCs were investigated using the MTT proliferation assay and western blot assays.
For women, the transition to the menopause is characterized by a progressive decline in fertility associated with the loss of ovarian follicles, a reduction in oocyte quality, age-related defects in the uterus, as well as changes in neuroendocrine function [2,3]. This is not something that is exclusively related to lung cancer, because apigenin is effective in cases of ovarian, breast, pancreatic and colon cancer too.
In addition, a folk recipe in China suggests using a mixture of parsley, peppermint and celery for better eyesight. Parsley has the ability to improve oxygen intake, increase the antioxidant levels in the brain, keep the blood pressure on a perfect level and remove fungal and bacterial infections in every part of the body.
So, you should think twice before you leave that piece of parsley on your plate or what you eat in general. The whole focus of this approach is that it allows you to play an active part (and take positive control) of your own treatment. However, the presence of it is known only during uterus scans either by chance or for possibly identifying ovarian cysts. If the diet is followed along with taking the Chinese herbs, then the results could be positive and effective. When yin fluids are insufficient or depleted, the cooling unit is lowered; therefore, heat rises and hot flashes can occur.
In many cases, women start the pill at an early age and continue it throughout their 20’s. Initially I treat the acute symptoms such as sneezing, itchy and watery eyes, nasal congestion and sinus headaches.
The sides of the tongue are the liver and gallbladder region and the upper region and tip of the tongue are the lung and heart organ systems.
A hammer shape tongue can indicate emotional disorders and an enlarged tongue may indicate digestive system issues.
Using my diagnosis I treated her with acupuncture and an herbal prescription called Gui Pi Tang as well as gave her some dietary recommendations to follow. Her skin tone was not as pale and she had a better overall complexion. This is an example of how tongue diagnosis reflects the overall health of the body and can be used as a diagnostic tool when treating a patient. For example, a spleen deficient diagnosis would call for boosting the digestive energy since it is weak.
Results: Aged rats had significantly higher GC apoptosis as compared with young female rats.
Women who have been diagnosed with polycystic ovarian disease also have ovarian cysts in their uterus. The aim of treatment is to help restore the gut’s ability to absorb nutrients properly and reduce inflammation. The spleen also hold’s blood in the blood vessel, so when the spleen is deficient, blood can show up in the stools. Goats milk also contain many nutrients and is soothing to the stomach, which is why it is a great alternative to those who cannot consume cow’s milk. After the symptoms go away, I treat the root condition of what is causing the allergies to manifest.
Sinus washes are good too, but be careful because water can get stuck in the nasal passageways and exacerbate your symptoms. As I observed her tongue, it appeared small and pale with cracks in the center as well as scallops on the side of the tongue. The scallops indicated extra fluids in the body due to a weak digestive system, which is due to a spleen qi deficiency. First, we need to identify what the digestive system does and what happens when it does not function properly and then understand the effectiveness that Chinese Medicine has on this disorder. Investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of ovarian failure that precipitate menopause include assessments of follicle aging and granulosa cell apoptosis [2,3]. Mucus was a clear indication that he had pathological fluids that were not being properly distributed in his body. Her hormone panel showed the she had high FSH and told her she was going through early stages of peri-menopause. It contains less vitamin b 6 and b12 so it is important to fortify one’s diet in those nutrients if goat’s milk is consumed.
I often see these types of cases in my office, my patients who are trying to get pregnant after being on the pill for some time. Along with this herbal formula, acupuncture points would be specific to nourishing and tonifying the digestive system.
Follicular ageing is characterized by the impairment of specific functions of oocytes and granulosa cells (GCs), as well as general cellular dysfunction, including reduced mitrochondrial activity, energetic failure, and changes in gene and protein expression [2,3]. He prescribed her Hormone Replacement Therapy in order for her to menstruate and reduce the hot flashes she was experiencing.
The great news is that since my son has switched over to goat’s milk his eczema immediately went away. In certain cases, there are underlying issues such as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome that can cause irregular menstruation. In liver qi stagnation types of IBS, the treatment protocol is to move the liver energy, which creates the pain in the lower left quadrant in the abdominal region. Significant increases of serum E2 and P4 levels, as well as altered levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Since GCs are involved in the conversion of androgens to estrogens, as well as progesterone synthesis, a reduction in their number and function leads to reduced levels of endogenous E2 and P4 and hence, menopausal symptoms [4,5].

He wanted to keep up her estrogen levels so that she would not suffer from bone loss which can lower when estrogen lowers.
I explained to her that it would take some time to restore her hormones in order for menstruation to take place. Goat’s milk is a great alternative for babies are individuals who are lactose intolerant or have food allergies due to milk.
With this diagnosis, I normally base my formula on Xiao Yao San which relaxes the liver and moves stagnation as well as tonifies the digestive system. The death of GCs by apoptosis triggers follicular atresia, and it appears that both E2 and IGF-I suppress apoptosis in GCs during follicular atresia [4,5]. After 8 sessions, he had experienced no blood or mucus in his stools and bowel movements were reduced to 1-2 x per day and they were solid as opposed to loose.
Louisa went off HRT and began a blend of Chinese herbal medicine that was tailored specifically to her body. Furthermore, if there are issues that occur, it can go undetected for years until a woman finally goes off the pill. Acupuncture points are used to open the flow of energy in the digestive tract and decrease stress, which is the primary component that causes this condition.  As each diagnosis is clearly treated, certain foods are also given to my patients in order to start balancing their digestive system.
Conclusions: AST enhanced ovarian function in aged female rats by increasing E2 and P4 levels, and reducing ovarian GC apoptosis via a mechanism involving Bcl-2. Granulosa cells are the main source of estradiol, and IGF-I increases the secretion of estradiol from GCs [5]. Annexin V Apoptosis AssayFollowing the experiments above, the remaining cells in 12-well culture plates were harvested after removing the medium and apoptosis was determine using the annexin V assay as described above. In three months time, his energy is “amazing”, he now exercises, he can eat almost anything he wants and he does not suffer anxiety. When Louisa (name changed due to patient anonymity) came to see me, she was on HRT therapy for two years. These data demonstrate a new pharmacological activity for AST, as well as a novel mechanism of action, and further suggest that AST may be a new therapeutic agent for the management of menopausal symptoms. Thus, therapies that reduce GC apoptosis and increase endogenous E2 and P4 levels represent novel therapeutic options for menopausal women.In the US, menopause occurs in women between the ages of 40 and 60 years, with an average age of ~52 years [1]. She expressed her concerns of being on it for the rest of her life and wanted a more natural way to deal with her hot flashes.
Her menstruation came back in three months and she no longer experienced being warm nor had any signs of hot flashes. Approximately 55%–75% of women entering menopause exhibit both vasomotor and neurological symptoms, including hot flushes, sleep disorders, irritability, depression and anxiety, which when severe, can cause a significant decline in their health and quality of life [1,6,7]. I gave her a list of dietary recommendations as well as recommended a reduction of stress and increased sleep which are critical to restoring fluids.
What is the most important thing after treatment is shifting or changing behaviors that led him to his digestive system getting weakened. Treatment with hormone therapy (HT) has been the gold standard for menopause, however HT has been associated with an increased risk of adverse events, including a transitory increased risk of heart disease, and increased risk of endometrial or breast cancer [8,9,10,11,12]. I felt this was an important step in her overall health and reproductive health in a natural way. After additional incubation for 24 h, the cells were washed twice and then processed with 20 ?L of NP-40 lysis buffer containing protease inhibitors.
Chinese Medicine offers a holistic approach to treating Ulcerative Colitis and the most important aspect of treatment is treating the root issue and not just covering up symptoms.
Preventive Services Task Force has published a recommendation against the routine use of HT for the prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women [12]. As a consequence, many women worldwide are looking for safe and effective alternative therapies to manage their menopausal symptoms.Herbal medicines, including traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), are used in most countries worldwide for the management of menopausal symptoms [13,14,15,16,17,18,19]. Ten to 20 ?g of whole cell extract from each well was loaded on each corresponding lane of 4% to 10% polyacrylamide gel.
In a pilot observational clinical trial, we have demonstrated that treatment of menopausal Chinese women with a TCM formula named Menoprogen (MPG) that contains five medicinal herbs, including Morus alba L. The Tricine-SDS-PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out with the voltage setting at 60 V for the concentrated gel and 150 V for the separating gel.
A wet-transfer system (Mini Trans-Blot Cell, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.) was used to transfer the protein contents from the gel to the membrane (PVDF, 200 mA for 60 min). Furthermore, in an aged rat model of menopause, treatment with the same TCM formula, reduced ovarian granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis via a mechanism involving IGF-I, and thereby enhanced the levels of endogenous of E2 and P4 in these animals [14,19,20,21].In an attempt to identify the active chemical constituents of the MPG formula that may be responsible for these effects on granulosa cells, we have investigated some of the primary chemical compounds present in M. The ECL chemical luminescence method was employed to detect and analyzed the target protein using the Gel Image Analysis System and ChemiDoc MP Imaging System (Bio-Rad). The main flavonoid glycosides include quercetin, astragalin, isoquercetin and rutin [16,17,18]. Changes in protein level were determined using the Bio-Rad’s stain-free technology and presented as fold of the normal group. In this work, we demonstrate that purified astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside; Figure 1), a flavonoid glycoside that isolated from M.
This compound appears to be one of the active chemical constituents in the MPG formula, and responsible, at least in part, for its pharmacological effects on menopausal symptoms. Since traditional Chinese herbal medicines are usually complex mixtures of multiple herbs, it is likely that there are multiple compounds in the MPG formula that have efficacy, and some may be synergistic.
The limitation of this study is that we are measuring the effects of only one compound in this work. In addition, enhancement of endogenous estrogens by AST may contribute to the development of estrogen-responsive cancers. Moreover, the data suggest that low doses of AST were superior to Progynova in reducing apoptosis. However, interestingly published reports suggest the opposite, that in fact AST, a compound present in many plant species, has chemopreventative and anti-cancer effects [26,37,38,39]. Obviously prior to any human study, further toxicological testing would be needed to confirm these results. However, this work also demonstrates a number of important general points that are pertinent to the investigation of treatments for menopause.
First, the ovaries of aged female rats undergo many of the changes that are also observed in human ovaries during menopause, making the aged rat model an excellent model for this type of study.
Second, follicular atresia and GC apoptosis may be suppressed by treatment with estradiol or AST, which has positive implications for fertility research.
Finally, in terms of menopause, the naturally occurring flavonoid AST has a very novel mechanism of action in that it is not directly estrogenic, but works indirectly by suppressing GC apoptosis in aged female rats, thereby reducing ovarian failure and increasing the natural production of E2 and P4.
An increase in endogenous hormone levels would reduce menopausal symptoms, thus indicating that AST alone may be potential treatment for menopause. AST Increases GC Proliferation in Cultured GCsThe effects of AST on cellular proliferation of cultured GCs were quantified using the MTT assay (Figure 6).
After a 24 h treatment with increasing concentrations of AST, a concentration-dependent decrease of apoptotic cells was observed (Figure 8). DiscussionSince the publication of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002 [6,7], there has been an increased interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments for menopause, including herbal therapies. However, reviews of the clinical literature indicate that the evidence supporting the use of herbal medicines for the treatment of menopause is inconclusive and often contradictory [22]. Furthermore, the mechanism(s) by which most herbal therapies act to reduce menopausal symptoms remains elusive, although several hypotheses have been suggested [23]. Understanding the mechanisms of action of herbal medicines, as well as the active chemical constituents responsible for these effects will lead to better quality herbal products and more adequately designed clinical trials, as well as a better understanding of the patient populations that should be recruited for such studies.
Since 2008 we have been investigating a TCM herbal formula Menoprogen (MPG) [14,15,16,17,18,19], which has been shown to reduce menopausal symptoms and the Kupperman index in Chinese women [15]. This formula contains five medicinal and food plants, and has been used in China for centuries to treat menopausal symptoms [14,15,16,17,18,19]. In our previous work, we have shown that the mechanism of MPG is very novel in that it does not act as a phytoestrogen, but works indirectly by reducing GC apoptosis via a mechanism involving IGF-1. By reducing GC apoptosis, MPG enhances GC viability and the production of endogenous E2 and P4, which in turn reduces menopausal symptoms [14]. However, the active chemical constituents of the formula had not been previously identified. Previous studies of AST have shown that this compound has anti-inflammatory, anti-autophagy, anti-apoptosis, antioxidant, and anti-atopic effects [24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31].
However, AST has not previously investigated for its effect on ovarian failure or GC apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate that AST inhibited GC apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, thereby maintaining the viability of GCs and enhancing their production of endogenous E2 and P4, and reducing ovarian failure in an aged female rat model of menopause. Thus, its mechanism of action is similar to that of MPG, suggesting that AST is at least one of the active chemical constituents of the MPG formula.
In support of the anti-apoptotic effects of AST, Cho et al., [28,29] have reported that AST reduced apoptosis in BEAS-2B epithelial airway cells by modulating oxidative stress-responsive MAPK signaling [28].
Our results support those of Qu et al., [27] who demonstrated that AST reduced apoptosis in heart tissues of rats after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.
This group also used western blot analysis and showed that the reduction in apoptosis in heart tissues by AST was due to a significant reduction in Bax, and an increase in Bcl-2 protein levels [27].
In our work, we found AST did not decrease Bax protein expression, and only increased Bcl-2 levels. This may be explained by the fact that we were using different cell types than Qu et al., [27], and the methods used were slightly different.
Forty of these rats were 14 months old (250–300 g), while the other eight were 4 months old (180–220 g). The animal protocols were approved in accordance with the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act of 1986 and its associated guidelines, number A11062. The ageing female model was established using a vaginal cytological technique involving an extended estrogenic cycle, continuous estrous, and repeated fake pregnancy in cells.

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