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11.02.2015

The team spent many early mornings and late nights getting the platform ready and we can’t wait to hear your feedback! Christina Boyle on KODAK HIRES LAW FIRM FOR RESTRUCTURING ADVICE, IS THE END NEAR FOR THIS 131-YEAR OLD COMPANY, OR IS BANKRUPTCY NEXT? Q: A key investor in my business has suggested that I hire a consultant to do a SWOT Analysis to help plan for the future.
The purpose of a SWOT Analysis is to help you build on your business' strengths, minimize and correct the weaknesses, and take the greatest possible advantage of potential opportunities while formulating a plan to deal with potential threats. It's a good idea for every business to perform a SWOT Analysis on occasion, especially if you are doing strategic planning, contemplating a change in direction or formulating new strategies for distribution, marketing and sales. Larger corporations are most likely to hire professional firms to perform such analyses, primarily due to the complex nature of big business. For a smaller business, however, a professional SWOT Analysis can be an exercise in overkill. You can perform a simple SWOT Analysis with a #2 pencil and a fast food napkin, but to get a truly accurate view of your company's SWOT factor I suggest you do things a bit more formally (and without the aid of condiments). Any other aspect that adds value to your business and makes it stand out from the competition. Opportunities are those things that have the potential to make your business stronger, more enduring, and more profitable. Once you have filled in all four quadrants, you can use this information to create strategies that will help you make the best of the information learned. Now that you know your weaknesses you can formulate strategies to overcome them so you can pursue opportunities. Whether you use a consultant or create a SWOT Analysis on your own it is important to remember that a SWOT Analysis is a subjective analysis tool that can be strongly influenced by the opinions of those performing the analysis. As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below. Eurosurveillance remains in the updated list of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).
Bacillus anthracis infection (anthrax) has three distinct clinical presentations depending on the route of exposure: cutaneous, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax. Anthrax is a worldwide endemic zoonotic disease, particularly of herbivores, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive rod. Anthrax is a rare human infection in Europe and animal cases are sporadic and uncommon [3].
Injectional anthrax infection is unnatural and more severe than cutaneous anthrax infection, distinctive in its clinical presentation, course and management. This comprehensive literature review of all injectional anthrax cases reported so far, aims to present an inclusive view of this novel clinical entity in order to improve clinicians' awareness and knowledge base. A total of 70 laboratory-confirmed cases of injectional anthrax were reported among heroin users in Europe [4,6,8-11;14-26]. The first and largest cluster of cases took place during 2009–2010 and consisted of 126 cases (54 laboratory-confirmed cases, 35 probable cases and 37 possible cases). The second cluster of cases started with the reemergence of a total of 15 cases during June 2012 in six different European countries [9-11,14,15, 25,26]. The following cases of confirmed ’injectional anthrax’ were only reported in December 2009 among heroin users in Scotland and Germany [5-7], marking the start of the 2009–2010 injectional anthrax outbreak, that eventually included 126 cases (54 laboratory-confirmed cases, 35 probable cases and 37 possible cases) in Europe.
Few cases were laboratory-confirmed in England (5 cases, 4 fatal) and Germany (2 cases, 1 fatal). The average age of the 119 injectional anthrax cases in Scotland was 34 years (range 18-55 years), with more males than females in all case categories [8]. Since anthrax is rare in Europe and all cases occurred in drug users, it was assumed that the 2009?2010 outbreak was caused by a contaminated batch of heroin, even though microbiological analysis of heroin samples from a variety of sources in Europe failed to detect contamination with anthrax spores [8, 25].
Clinical data from 13 case reports describing 18 confirmed cases is summarised in Table 3 [4,6,14-23,25] and presents several common features. Sixteen of the 18 published cases presented with severe soft tissue infection originating in the injection site one to ten days post injection [4,6,14-20,22,25]. None of the published cases showed the typical signs of cutaneous anthrax – a black crusted painless lesion, known as eschar [4,6,14-23,25]. When documented, imaging and soft tissue exploration revealed edematous muscle and subcutaneous tissue (with or without necrosis) and serous discharge with no localised collection, pus or abscess formation [4,17-20,25].
According to the HPS report, 22 of 40 laboratory-confirmed cases in Scotland described non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain [8]. Presenting with respiratory symptoms such as dyspnoea and pleuritic chest pain was extremely rare and was attributed to disseminated disease and sepsis in two cases, according to the HPS report [8]. Fourteen of 42 Scottish laboratory-confirmed cases reported neurological symptoms of variable degree [8]. Clinical information about cases diagnosed since June 2012, is limited to three published case reports regarding five confirmed cases [14,15,25] (Table 3) and a brief description of the single case diagnosed in France [26]. Among 16 reported cases presenting with soft tissue infection, four patients demonstrated haemodynamic stability [16,18,20], one of them despite evidence of B.
Patients lacking signs of soft tissue infection, who presented with other signs of systemic infection, meningitis or peritonitis were usually misdiagnosed and rapidly deteriorated due to lack of appropriate treatment [21,23,24] (Table 3). Following admission, two of the reported cases developed pleural effusions, one associated with pulmonary edema [19] and the other associated with pneumonia [15]. Diagnosis of injectional anthrax was based on traditional microbiological methods as Gram stain and cultures of tissue, blood, peritoneal fluid or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at higher risk of developing diverse forms of infections, among those, soft tissue infection is a well-known complication of parenteral drug use, though anthrax infection of injection sites was considered very rare before the 2009?2010 injectional anthrax outbreak [30,31]. Thus, although the 2009?2010 injectional anthrax outbreak has constituted the largest cluster of severe bacterial infection among IDUs in Scotland in a decade, with a rate of 1.96 confirmed anthrax infections per 1,000 heroin users in Scotland [8], overall B. Another unprecedented outbreak among injecting heroin users took place predominantly in Scotland between April and August 2000. During the 2009—2010 outbreak informative materials were distributed to drug addicts, recommending drug users to stop using heroin and to ask for medical help in case of symptoms. Injectional anthrax presents a challenge for physicians often due to lack of evident case clusters, unfamiliar clinical presentation and severe course of disease. The predominantly systemic nature of injectional anthrax requires different management than cutaneous anthrax. In March 2010 the HPS published interim clinical guidance for the management of suspected anthrax in drug users [36]. According to the US CDC guidelines for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment, systemic illness cases that were exposed to aerosolised spores should be treated for 60 days due to the potential for delayed germination of B. Complementary treatment with corticosteroids may be beneficial for patients with edema, especially of the head or neck, with evidence of anthrax meningitis or of vasopressor-resistant shock [29]. The main constraint of this review arises from the incomplete information, a limited number of case reports and the variable degree of clinical description that do not allow additional analysis or prognostic indicators assessment regarding clinical presentation and recommended management. The erratic emergence and severe clinical course of injectional anthrax present a challenge for clinicians. Tamar Berger contributed to the literature search, data collection, analysis and interpretation and writing of the first draft. Adi Avniel Aran and Michael Kassirer contributed to the data interpretation and writing of the first draft. Public Health England website - Health Protection topics – Anthrax: Information on 2012 outbreak. Disclaimer: The opinions expressed by authors contributing to Eurosurveillance do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) or the editorial team or the institutions with which the authors are affiliated. Just a little over a year after we launched the Internal Medicine Question Bank, we are thrilled to be announcing the launch of our second product.
We offer learning materials for Internal Medicine, Family Medicine, and Physician Assistant certification and re-certification exams.
A SWOT Analysis is a written exercise that can help you clarify and focus on the specifics that make up the four areas that most affect your business.
For your money you will get an impressive, detailed report that will make for great show at your next investor or board meeting and a wonderfully expensive door stop the rest of the time. I recommend that you involve all the key players in your business, including management, employees, your attorney, accountant, even your spouse. Weaknesses are those areas in which your company does not perform well or could stand improvement.
For example, once you have identified your strengths you can better use them to determine which opportunities to pursue and to help reduce your vulnerability to potential threats.
Knowing your weaknesses can also help you establish a defensive plan to prevent your weaknesses from making your business particularly susceptible to external threats. For small businesses especially it is imperative to keep the analysis simple and to the point.
The infective form is usually the spore, a stable form that can survive in certain environments for decades [1]. This has resulted in a delay in diagnosis, inadequate treatment and high fatality rate among reported cases [8-11]. Articles resulting from these searches and relevant references cited in those articles were reviewed by TB starting with screening of abstracts followed by full text review where relevant.
Apart from one case reported in the year 2000, all cases were reported starting as of December 2009. The outbreak centered in Scotland with 119 cases: 47 laboratory-confirmed cases (13 fatal), 35 probable cases (1 fatal) and 37 possible cases. It appeared that all injection routes of heroin, as well as smoking or snorting had been implicated during the outbreak, though the mode of abuse was not well documented in most reports. Moreover, a retrospective serological pilot study in two German regions conducted in 2011 failed to discover additional anthrax cases among 288 heroin users [27]. There seems to be no risk for health workers or for the general population [4,6,8,10,14-26]. The possibility of deliberate contamination was not eliminated but seemed unlikely due to the affected population [8]. Among laboratory-confirmed cases in Scotland from the 2009?2010 outbreak, whose symptoms were recorded as present or absent, 39 of 42 cases presented with skin or soft tissue involvement [8]. Fever, leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) were not consistent features of patients presenting with soft tissue infection [4,8,15,16,20,24,25]. There are two reports on an unusual presentation of acute abdominal pain and peritonitis due to groin heroin injection [21,25]. Nausea and dyspnoea were also evident in one patient from Germany during the 2012?2013 outbreak [15].


A small number of injectional anthrax patients presented with signs of progressive systemic infection and meningitis.
It appears that the clinical presentation and course were similar to those described in the 2009?2010 outbreak [9-11,14,15,25,26] (Table 3). When reported, most cases presenting with soft tissue infection were treated with supportive treatment and antibiotic regimen with or without surgical intervention. AIG) provided by the United States’ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an investigational new drug (IND). When reported, delay ranged from three to 12 days post admission to hospital [6,19,25] or a first visit to a clinic [4]. Clinicians were alerted and the police reinforced its attempts to interrupt the heroin distribution networks [8]. Unlike cutaneous anthrax, injectional anthrax is typically a systemic infection with high mortality rate (Table 4).
In cases of naturally occurring cutaneous anthrax, oral antibiotic treatment with fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin) or doxycycline is usually sufficient [29, 35]. In accordance to it, the appropriate management of cases with soft tissue infection should include i.v.
However, this review of injectional anthrax cases aspires to serve as a source of knowledge on this recently described and distinctive infection, in order to encourage early recognition, diagnosis and management of future cases and allow further evaluation of diagnostic methods and management of this important pathogen.
The optimal management of injectional anthrax necessitates a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment.
Preliminary case report of fatal anthrax in an injecting drug user in North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, December 2009.
National Anthrax Outbreak Control Team: An outbreak of anthrax among drug users in Scotland, December 2009 to December 2010. Anthrax infection among heroin users in Scotland during 2009-2010: a case-control study by linkage to a national drug treatment database. Two anthrax cases with soft tissue infection, severe oedema and sepsis in Danish heroin users. Risk assessment: Anthrax cases among injecting drug users Germany, June-July 2012 - Update, 13 July 2012.
Anthrax among heroin users in Europe possibly caused by same Bacillus anthracis strain since 2000.
Centers for disease control and prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults. A decade of spore-forming bacterial infections among European injecting drug users: pronounced regional variation.
Lethal outbreak of infection with Clostridium novyi type A and other spore-forming organisms in Scottishinjecting drug users. Neither ECDC nor any person acting on behalf of ECDC is responsible for the use that might be made of the information in this journal. An idea that came to us after speaking with subscribers and followers has finally now come to fruition! The introductory price means you can get access to all 1,500+ mnemonics and 200+ visuals for $50 for an entire year! Typically, a consultant will charge up to $100 or more per hour to perform a detailed corporate SWOT Analysis and most large companies consider this money well spent as a good SWOT Analysis can reveal otherwise ignored factors that might increase the company's bottom line or help avert future losses. I don't mean to belittle the value of a professional SWOT Analysis for small businesses. My wife often gives me insights into my business just from listening to me talk at dinner. Since 2009, anthrax has emerged among heroin users in Europe, presenting a novel clinical manifestation, ’injectional anthrax’, which has been attributed to contaminated heroin distributed throughout Europe; before 2009 only one case was reported. Humans usually acquire anthrax infection by occupational exposure to contaminated animals or animal products such as hides, wool, hair and bones or by ingesting contaminated meat. Prior to 2009 only one case of injectional anthrax had been diagnosed, in Norway in 2000 [4].
The Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases (ProMED-mail) reporting system was searched by the terms ’anthrax AND heroin’ until 31 December 2013 and by the term ’anthrax’ from 1 December 2009 to 31 December 2013 and all relevant reports reviewed. Incidents appeared during two distinct time periods, forming a bimodal distribution (Figure). The main part of published data on injectional anthrax describe patients from this outbreak [6,8-11,16-22,24 ]. Only few case reports regarding five confirmed cases exist concerning this second cluster of cases. They described a confirmed case of anthrax in a 49 year-old, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative, heroin-injecting drug user in Norway [4]. Of the 47 confirmed cases of anthrax in drug users in Scotland, only two denied injecting at all, lacked visible injection sites and reported using heroin only by smoking.
The authors did not find an association between sharing injecting equipment and anthrax infection, aligned with the hypothesis that the heroin itself was the source of contamination and explaining the higher risk among patients with longer injecting history [12].
However, since June 2012 new cases have reemerged in Europe, including Denmark, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom (UK): England, Scotland, and Wales [9-11]. The estimated median time from the presumed ‘culprit’ injection to hospitalisation was three days [8]. The minority of reports provided patients' history of past blood-borne infections or immunological status including HIV status (Table 3 and HPS report  [8]), conditions which may also have contributed to the diminished inflammatory response. This was described in one case report of a patient with prolonged headache, confusion and coma [23]. However, nine patients showed progressive soft tissue infection and systemic complications such as coagulopathy, rapid deterioration to septic shock, toxaemia and multi-organ failure [4,6,14,15,17,19,20,22,25]. The antibiotic regimen varied among cases: anthrax infection was not clinically suspected in eight patients and treatment covered other, more common, causes of severe soft tissue infections [4,6,15,20,22,25].
According to the HPS report on the 2009?2010 outbreak, of the 119 Scottish cases, 14 were treated with i.v. This probably contributed to the adverse outcome of eight fatalities among 18 published cases [4,6,14,15,19,21-23,25]. Nevertheless, injectional anthrax should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a heroin user presenting with severe soft tissue infection at an injection site, with a progressive course, that does not respond to customary antimicrobial agents aimed to treat most common pathogens causing soft tissue infections, especially in the context of epidemiological link to other injectional anthrax cases in the area. The reoccurrence of 15 injectional anthrax cases since June 2012, most likely caused by the same B. This may be attributed to the deeper and greater inoculation of spores, higher rates of septicaemia, delayed diagnosis and to factors specific to drug addicts including delayed medical consultation, malnutrition, presence of concomitant diseases such as HIV infection and defective immune response. However, the progressive clinical course of injectional anthrax, frequent systemic involvement and high fatality rate necessitates early and aggressive management.
Inhalational exposure to aerosolised spores should be considered in cases of smoking or snorting of contaminated heroin.
Clinicians should be extra vigilant when examining a heroin user presenting with either severe soft tissue infection at an injection site, signs of severe sepsis or meningitis with or without evidence of soft tissue infection, evidence of intracranial bleeding on a computed tomography scan or symptoms of inhalational anthrax.
After many months of design, development, and content review and creation, we’re thrilled to finally introduce the Medical Mnemonics platform. If you’re already a subscriber on the Knowmedge platform, simply log in to your account and you’ll see a free trial subscription waiting for you! It's just that smaller companies can learn as much from their own efforts as that of an expensive consultant. Eurosurveillance is listed there as a ‘green’ journal, which means that authors can archive pre-print (i.e. During 2012 and 2013, new cases of injectional anthrax were diagnosed in Denmark, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom.
The spores may infect the host through different routes and lead to a variety of clinical presentations depending on their route of entrance: cutaneous (the most common form of infection), gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax. The distribution of cases demonstrates a bimodal appearance of two clusters: over 100 cases were diagnosed between December 2009 and December 2010, the vast majority of them in Scotland [5-8], with no further cases documented until June 2012 when cases reemerged in England, Germany, Scotland and were diagnosed for the first time in Denmark, France and Wales [9,10].
Of those, 22 papers were included in the review and three papers excluded due to a lack of additional information. Hence, the information regarding the number of cases, their geographical distribution and demographic description (if present) mainly relies on a review of the ProMED-mail, ECDC and PHE websites. The patient's exceptional presentation resembled the effect of subcutaneous inoculation of B. So far, 15 confirmed cases were reported, among them seven fatal, contributing to a 47% case fatality rate (Table 1, Figure 1).
This case and four more cases were diagnosed with intracranial or subarachnoid haemorrhage [8], and from available data, at least four of these five cases deteriorated rapidly and later died [23,24]. An important complication occurring intra- or post debridement procedures of soft tissue infections was disproportionate bleeding and oozing (at times, despite correction of coagulopathy) requiring massive transfusions [8]. Besides these two cases, diagnosed outside of Scotland, the HPS report found that a small pleural effusion which did not cause symptoms was detected in ten of 41 patients reported. This is possibly due to these patients being among the first injectional anthrax cases in different countries.
Mortality was higher among the 15 cases arising since June 2012 in comparison to the 2009?2010 outbreak (Table 1).
The weight of these contributing factors could not be assessed in the absence of a detailed database and a lack of a control group exposed to the pathogen through the same route.
Most reported cases with soft tissue infection required surgical procedures such as debridement or fasciotomy in cases of compartment syndrome. As for the duration of treatment, the guidance suggest reviewing antimicrobial therapy after ten to 14 days of i.v.
If you like what you see, simply go to the account page, click the store link and upgrade your mnemonics package! The current edition of this plan supersedes and replaces all older versions which should be destroyed.Holders of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan Implementing Plan for the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station are responsible for keeping it updated by incorporating amendments, which may be issued from time to time. Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature and information derived from different reporting systems until 31 December 2013.
The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) website [11] and Public Health England (PHE) website [9] were reviewed until 31 December, 2013. The outbreak was declared over in December 2010 and the HPS published its concluding report in December 2011 [8-11].
The clinical presentation of the latter two was not described in detail in the HPS report [8]. Less than half of case reports included epidemiological data such as age and sex, of those who did, the age range varied from 27 to 55 years [10,14,15,25,26].


The most consistent presenting sign, appearing in all 16 cases diagnosed with soft tissue infection, was substantial swelling or edema, at times defined as disproportionate to the skin lesion or extent of pain described. In some cases anthrax bacilli were recovered from respiratory samples, either from pleural fluid or in two cases from bronchial tissues or exudate.
In six of those cases, antibiotic regimens were amended upon clinical suspicion or after preliminary results have suggested anthrax infection [15,20,22,25].
One contributing factor to the difference in mortality rate might have been enhanced awareness and knowledge of injectional anthrax among care givers during the Scottish outbreak leading to earlier adequate treatment. AIG if the patient fits the clinical definition and is a confirmed or a probable case based on a Gram stain demonstrating Gram-positive bacilli [36]. When suspected, diagnostic tests should be performed and appropriate antibiotic treatment be commenced promptly along with surgical debridement and critical care management when indicated. Except where otherwise stated, all manuscripts published after 1 January 2016 will be published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence. This public document is administered by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services of Ontario.
Overall 70 confirmed cases were reported, with 26 fatalities (37% case fatality rate).The latest two confirmed cases occurred in March 2013.
Once the spores have penetrated the skin or mucosa, they germinate to the vegetative bacteria, which proliferate and produce the virulence factors, two exotoxins ? lethal toxin and edema toxin ?, causing the characteristic pathological findings: edema, haemorrhage and tissue necrosis with a relative lack of leukocytes in infected tissues [1,2]. The ECDC website was searched for relevant information using the words ’anthrax AND heroin’ and by reviewing the material published under the website heading Health Topic ’anthrax’. The report however, describes a number of anthrax cases that were admitted with advanced systemic infection; some without any history of injecting heroin but with a history of taking heroin by other routes, principally smoking, leading to the conclusion that there is a potential risk for systemic disease caused by snorting or smoking heroin contaminated with B. The HPS report states this may be an evidence of smoking or snorting contaminated heroin [8]. The diagnosis of anthrax infection at presentation was raised in three patients, who were treated with a combination of four or five antibiotics covering both B.
When therapy has ceased, patients must be monitored closely for worsening of symptoms necessitating renewal of therapy and re-evaluation of the need for further surgical debridement [36]. You are free to share and adapt the material, but you must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the licence, and indicate if changes were made. Province of Ontario Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Planning Structure The structure for nuclear and radiological emergency response planning in Ontario, which is illustrated in the diagram on the previous page, consists of the following components: The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA) requires and authorizes the formulation of the plan. In addition, the ECDC's 2010–2013 annual epidemiological reports on communicable diseases in Europe were reviewed [11]. Detailed information regarding these patients is lacking, though according to the CDC guidelines for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment, of the 15 injectional anthrax cases treated with i.v. Sixteen of these presented as a severe soft tissue infection that differed clinically from cutaneous anthrax, lacked the characteristic epidemiological history of animal contact and ten cases required complimentary surgical debridement. The findings suggested that the outbreak in Europe possibly derived from a single common source which was contaminated before the heroin was distributed. Three cases were diagnosed initially with compartment syndrome or necrotising fasciitis [6,17,20]. These three patients were part of the 2009–2010 outbreak in Scotland, hence early detection might have been due to clinicians’ awareness of the ongoing outbreak [17,18,20] (Table 3).
The Major Organization Plans (as per Figure I on page ii) should be consistent with the requirements under these implementing plans.
These unfamiliar characteristics have led to delays of three to 12 days in diagnosis, inadequate treatment and a high fatality rate.
The findings under the topic were reviewed with the emphasis on information regarding the 2012–2013 outbreak.
Accidental contamination with anthrax spores might have occurred along the drug manufacturing and trafficking route from soil, through an animal derived cutting agent (used to dilute the illicit drug) or animal hides used to smuggle heroin into Europe [13]. Surgical procedures were reported in ten of 15 cases presenting with soft tissue infection [6,15,17-20] and included explorative surgery, fasciotomy and tissue debridement as well as occasional skin grafting. Clinicians’ awareness of this recently described clinical entity is key for early and successful management of patients.
Articles, reports and data yielded by our search were included only if they were published in English. This is compatible with the forensic investigation findings of the 2009?2010 outbreak in the UK which estimated that 80 to 90% of heroin reaching the UK is supplied via criminal networks in Turkey and is being processed before trafficking [8,10]. These plans are based on, and should be consistent with the PNERP and with the Provincial Implementing Plans. Thus all analysed cases may be traced back to a single source of contamination that might be still circulating in Europe [27]. Procedures : Based on all of the above plans, procedures are developed for the various emergency centres to be set up and for the various operational functions required. The terminology contained in the Glossary, Annex K, should be used for this purpose by all concerned. The Province may issue operational directives1 and emergency orders (in the event of a declared emergency), where warranted and appropriate, as further detailed in this Plan. Such a hazard will usually be caused by an accident, malfunction, or loss of control involving radioactive material.
Such action will be taken in order to protect public health and safety and the environment. These are combined in one document since many of the features will be the same for all such potential emergencies.iii) Response Plan for Other Radiological EmergenciesThis Plan provides generic guidance on dealing with radiological emergencies caused by sources not covered by the other Implementing Plans.
It would be applicable to accidents at nuclear establishments, transportation (of radioactive goods) accidents, satellite (containing radioactive material) re-entry, radiological dispersal devices (RDD), radiological devices (RD) and nuclear weapon detonation.
In the event of a radiological or nuclear emergency, the CNSC will monitor and evaluate the on-site response of the licensee, or in the case of an event with no identified licensee, the CNSC will oversee and regulate the response activities of the responding organizations to ensure compliance with the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations, and ensure the health, safety and security of the response staff, the public and the environment, as well as maintain compliance with Canadaa€™s international obligations.
In either case, the CNSC will implement the CNSC Emergency Response Plan CAN2-1 November 2001. In the event of a nuclear emergency, the federal government will liaise with the provinces and territories as well as with neighbouring countries and the international community as outlined in Appendix 19 to Annex I. The federal government will also manage nuclear liability issues and coordinate Canadaa€™s response, should Canadians be affected by a nuclear emergency in a foreign country. Pursuant to section 14, the Governor in Council must consult the provinces that are affected by the emergency before issuing a declaration of public welfare emergency. However, where the emergency is confined to one province, the Governor in Council may only issue a declaration of public welfare emergency or take other steps when the Lieutenant Governor of the province has indicated to the federal Governor in Council that the emergency exceeds the capacity of the province to deal with it.Pursuant to section 8, while a declaration of a public welfare emergency is in effect, the Governor in Council may make necessary orders or regulations that are necessary to deal with the emergency. The orders or regulations made by the Governor in Council should not unduly impair the ability of the province to take measures, under provincial legislation, for dealing with the emergency. 2007, c.15This act assigns responsibility to the Minister of Public Safety for the coordination of emergency management activities including the development and implementation of federal civil emergency plans in cooperation with other levels of government and the private sector.
Federal authorities also coordinate or support the provision of assistance to a province during or after a provincial emergency. Assistance could include financial assistance where the emergency has been declared to be of concern to the federal government and the province has requested assistance. The Commission is given exceptional powers including the power to make any order in an emergency that it considers necessary to protect the environment or the health and safety of persons or to maintain national security and compliance with Canadaa€™s international obligations. The PNERP is formulated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council (LGIC) under section 8 of the EMCPA. Once a provincial declaration of emergency has been made (see section 1.3 above), the LGIC has the power to make emergency orders and may delegate these powers to a Minister or to the Commissioner of Emergency Management (CEM)2. All emergency orders must be consistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.ii. Emergency orders are made only if they are necessary and essential, and they would alleviate harm and damage and are a reasonable alternative to other measures.iv. Emergency orders must only apply to those areas where they are necessary and should be in effect only for as long as necessary.
During an emergency, the Premier or a minister (delegated) is required to regularly report to the public with respect to the emergency.ii. The Premier is required to submit a report in respect of the emergency to the Assembly within 120 days following the termination of the emergency.
If the Assembly is not in session at that time, the Premier is required to submit a report within 7 days of the Assembly reconvening.
Municipalities in close proximity to, or with nuclear establishments within their boundaries, should include in their emergency response plans the measures they may need to take to deal with the off-site consequences of a radiological accident.
As required by section 8 of the EMCPA, municipal nuclear emergency response plans shall conform to the PNERP and be subject to the approval of the Solicitor General (this function is fulfilled by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services). The Solicitor General may make such alterations as considered necessary for the purpose of coordinating the plan with the Provincea€™s plan.As required by section 5 of the EMCPA, plans of lower-tier municipalities shall conform to the plans of their upper tier municipality. RadiologicalPursuant to sections 2(3) and 3(4) of the EMCPA, every municipality, in developing their emergency management program, must identify and assess the various hazards and risks to public safety that could give rise to emergencies.
Where a municipality identifies radiological risks (as per PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies), the emergency plan for that municipality must include provisions to deal with such an emergency.
The time between the accident and any release of radioactivity may be generally limited.ii. Radiation doses could be high (greater than 250 mSv [25 rem] for the most exposed person at the facility boundary).iii. Environmental contamination could be quantitatively significant in both extent and duration.v. Priority evacuations, if necessary, shall be undertaken within this area because of its proximity to the source of the potential hazard.
Primary ZoneThe zone around the nuclear installation within which detailed planning and preparedness shall be carried out for measures against exposure to a radioactive plume. Secondary ZoneA larger zone within which it is necessary to plan and prepare measures to prevent ingestion of radioactive material. Response Sectors will lie within up to three rings around the nuclear installation: an inner ring (which is the Contiguous Zone), a middle ring and an outer ring.
This is a group, which, by virtue of age, sex or dietary habits, is expected to receive the highest projected dose.



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