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The vast majority of mastectomies are performed on women as a axillary lymph nodes are removed; and the radical mastectomy, although men may develop breast cancer and require the procedure, too. Some men with a condition called gynecomastia, in which the breast tissue becomes overdeveloped, opt for a mastectomy for cosmetic purposes.
The decision to have breast reconstruction surgery should be made before the mastectomy surgery is done.
The surgery is done under general anesthesia and typically lasts 2 to 3 hours, although it may take longer if a procedure to remove the lymph nodes is planned or reconstructive surgery is being performed immediately after the mastectomy. There are four different kinds of mastectomies that are available to breast cancer sufferers. With a total mastectomy, your entire breast is removed, including your breast skin and nipple.
If you have a modified radical mastectomy, your entire breast, breast skin, and nipple are removed. The radical mastectomy involves removing your entire breast, breast skin, and nipple, along with your axillary lymph nodes.
You have a history of connective tissue disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, and may not tolerate the side effects of radiation, particularly to the skin.
The tumor is located beneath the nipple and may involve the nipple, making it more difficult to preserve the nipple and areola.
You live a long distance from a radiation facility and being there every day for five to six weeks would be too large a hardship.
You may also consider mastectomy may if you don’t have breast cancer but are at high risk of developing the disease. Nipple and skin sparing techniques can be used in combination with most mastectomy surgeries to retain more skin than is done in a traditional mastectomy. This technique preserves the skin of the breast, but not the nipple and areola, which are removed. The incision to remove the breast tissue is made around the areola, thus preserving both the nipple and areola.
This procedure, also known as a subcutaneous mastectomy, not only preserves the skin of the breast, but the nipple and areola, too. You will be able to see a specialist breast care nurse before you are admitted to hospital. You will need to stay in hospital for up to 10 days depending on the type of surgery you have. You may be asked to wear compression stockings to help prevent blood clots forming in the veins in your legs. It’s often possible to restore the shape of your breast with a breast reconstruction. Avoid strenuous activity, heavy lifting and vigorous exercise until the stitches are removed. These are the unwanted, but mostly temporary effects of a successful treatment, for example feeling sick as a result of the general anaesthetic and swelling around your wound. BREAST CANCER.ORG is here to help all Women through this process, whether preventative or prescribed. If HIV does enough damage to the person’s immune system, it becomes dangerously weak, and the person becomes vulnerable to infections that a healthy person’s immune system would fight off. Other body fluids and waste products—like feces, nasal fluid, saliva, sweat, tears, urine, or vomit—don’t contain enough HIV to infect you, unless they have blood mixed in them and you have significant and direct contact with them. During pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding: Babies have constant contact with their mother’s body fluids-including amniotic fluid and blood-throughout pregnancy and childbirth. As a result of injection drug use: Injecting drugs puts you in contact with blood-your own and others, if you share needles and “works”.
As a result of occupational exposure: Healthcare workers have the greatest risk for this type of HIV transmission.
As a result of a blood transfusion with infected blood or an organ transplant from an infected donor: Screening requirements make both of these forms of HIV transmission very rare in the United States. During sexual contact: You need to know that it’s much easier to get HIV (or to give it to someone else), if you have a sexually transmitted disease (STD). AIDS is the late stage of HIV infection, when a person’s immune system is severely damaged and has difficulty fighting diseases and certain cancers. While the virus itself can sometimes cause people to feel sick, most of the severe symptoms and illnesses of HIV disease come from the opportunistic infections that attack a damaged immune system. As early as 2-4 weeks after exposure to HIV (but up to 3 months later), people can experience an acute illness, often described as “the worst flu ever.” This is called acute retroviral syndrome (ARS), or primary HIV infection, and it’s the body’s natural response to HIV infection. It is important to remember, however, that not everyone gets ARS when they become infected with HIV. After the initial infection and seroconversion, the virus becomes less active in the body, although it is still present.
When HIV infection progresses to AIDS, many people begin to suffer from fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, night sweats, and even wasting syndrome at late stages.
Your doctor will likely recommend some type of surgery with the goal of removing the cancer from your breast. Lumpectomy is one type of breast-conserving surgery which is also referred to as a partial mastectomy. You have enough tissue so that removing surrounding tissue would not leave a misshapen breast. A lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy is often considered the standard therapy for women with breast cancer who meet these criteria.
Depending on the type of chemotherapy your doctor suggests, you may need to go to the hospital or an outpatient clinic for chemotherapy.
There are certain hormones that can attach to breast cancer cells and affect their ability to multiply.
Do not confuse the term, hormone therapy, that is used for treating breast cancer patients with hormone replacement therapy that is typically used by postmenopausal women.

Lumpectomy: Surgery to remove a tumor (lump) and a small amount of normal tissue around it. Partial mastectomy: Surgery to remove the part of the breast that has cancer and some normal tissue around it.
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.
Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that removes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from growing. Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells.
An allergy to chocolate can trigger a rash, but most people can tolerate carob as a substitute. It can be pretty difficult to treat a rash if you don't know what has caused it; before you even consider treatment, look for any warning signs. If your rash doesn't require immediate medical attention, you can start by treating any itching. If the itching is severe, you may also use an over-the-counter allergy medicine that contains antihistamines. Once you've treated your rash and are feeling reasonably comfortable, it's a good idea to try to figure out what caused it.
When you're trying to figure out the cause of your rash, consider the possibility of food allergies. The decision of what type of mastectomy should be done should be made with the assistance of the surgeon performing the mastectomy, the oncologist and the plastic surgeon performing the reconstruction. Your health care provider may recommend one type of mastectomy over the other depending upon your health, age, and the stage of your breast cancer.
It is frequently performed if you are in the early stages of breast cancer or if you have a small tumor. During some mastectomy procedures, between 10 and 40 of your axillary lymph nodes will be removed. You may not have enough healthy tissue left after lumpectomy to achieve an acceptable cosmetic result.
This procedure, called preventive (prophylactic) or risk-reducing mastectomy, removes one or both of your breasts in hopes of preventing or reducing your risk of developing breast cancer in the future.
A general guideline for retaining the nipple, areola and additional skin is this: The area of cancer should be a minimum of two centimeters away from the tissue that is to be saved. This procedure, like the skin sparing procedure, may result in a larger incision than is necessary in the traditional procedure, especially if the breast is large in size. The incision to remove the breast tissue can be placed in the fold under the breast where it cannot be easily seen once healed, or the incision may be made around the areola. Your nurse will provide advice and support on the practical and emotional aspects of having a mastectomy, and offer information on bras and prostheses (bra inserts). For example, if you smoke you will be asked to stop, as smoking increases your risk of getting a wound infection and slows your recovery. This confirms that you understand the risks, benefits and possible alternatives to the procedure and have given your permission for it to go ahead. You may need to have an injection of an anti-clotting medicine called heparin as well as, or instead of, stockings. In a simple mastectomy, once the anaesthetic has taken effect, your surgeon will make a diagonal or horizontal cut across the skin of your breast. You may restart driving when you are no longer on narcotics and you feel safe turning the wheel and stopping quickly. Return to work varies with your type of work, your overall health and personal preferences. However, in order to make an informed decision and give your consent, you need to be aware of the possible side-effects and the risk of complications of this procedure. Needles or drugs that are contaminated with HIV-infected blood can deliver the virus directly into your body. If you work in a healthcare setting, you can come into contact with infected blood or other fluids through needle sticks or cuts. Before the development of certain medications, people with HIV could progress to AIDS in just a few years. Often people only begin to feel sick when they progress toward AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). It is important to remember that some symptoms of HIV infection are similar to symptoms of many other common illnesses, such as the flu, or respiratory or gastrointestinal infections.
During primary HIV infection, there are higher levels of virus circulating in the blood, which means that people can more easily transmit the virus to others. Many of the signs and symptoms of AIDS come from opportunistic infections which occur in patients with a damaged immune system. After you have done your homework about the tumor type, grade and other characteristics, you will have the information you need to understand the treatment plan recommended by your doctor. Your doctor can help you understand how these decisions impact your treatment and quality of life. During this outpatient procedure, the surgeon removes the tumor plus a small rim of normal tissue around the tumor, called a margin.
The most common types of radiation therapy are 3-D treatment planning, external beam radiation, IMRT, stereotactic radiosurgery, prostate seed implants, brachytherapy and concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy. For example, if they have pain in their bones, radiotherapy can be a very useful treatment. The purpose of hormone therapy -- also called hormonal therapy or hormone treatment -- is to add, block, or remove hormones. Some of the lymph nodes under the arm are usually taken out and looked at under a microscope to see if they contain cancer cells.

The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a tumor.
When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy).
Monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are two types of targeted therapies used in the treatment of breast cancer. If your rash is seeping or oozing anything, you'll want to call your doctor for advice and possibly a diagnostic visit to her office. If the skin is broken, you can apply an antibiotic cream, such as Neosporin, to prevent infection and aid healing, and then call your doctor to find out whether this treatment is sufficient for preventing infection. If you've recently been hiking in the woods or playing at the park, you may have a case of poison ivy or poison oak.
Chocolate, eggs, dairy products and peanuts are common culprits; citrus fruits and soy products can cause issues as well.
Those with more extensive breast cancer may require a bilateral mastectomy, which is the removal of some or all of the tissue in both breasts.
Some techniques may not be able to be considered, depending upon the location and severity of the cancer. Therefore, a patient whose cancer is affecting the skin or nipple would not be a candidate for having those tissues retained after surgery. For women with large breasts, an additional incision may be made to allow the breast tissue to be removed, but the vast majority of skin is left behind after surgery. It’s important to note, however, that the nipple contains breast tissue that is still at risk for forming breast cancer.
The possible complications of any operation include an unexpected reaction to the anaesthetic, excessive bleeding or developing a blood clot, usually in a vein in the leg (deep vein thrombosis, DVT). When a person becomes infected with HIV, the virus begins attacking the person’s immune system.
Recent studies indicate that HIV may have jumped from monkeys to humans as far back as the late 1800s.
A few healthcare workers have been infected when body fluids splashed into their eyes, mouth, or into an open sore or cut. As shown below, you will keep most of your breast, and you will have a scar at the incision site.
How and when you receive chemotherapy depends on a number of factors, including the medicine, the type of cancer, and your health.
External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy).
PARP inhibitors are a type of targeted therapy being studied for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. Likewise, your rash may require a doctor's advice if it is accompanied by a fever, cough, runny nose, headache or vomiting. Avoid scrubbing the area or rubbing it vigorously, as doing so is likely to aggravate your rash.
If you've recently switched detergents, soaps, deodorants, or lotions, your skin may be sensitive to these new products. When you develop breast cancer, cancer cells can sometimes spread to your lymph nodes, indicating a more aggressive form of cancer. The information gained from this analysis can then be used in order to guide future treatment.
This is because of “highly active” combinations of medications that were introduced in the mid 1990s. In other cases, your doctor will recommend that you undergo surgical removal of the tumor prior to receiving chemotherapy or radiation. Chemotherapy may be given every day, every week, or every month, depending on the situation. Thus radiation oncologists use a mixture of very aggressive treatment for people who have a good chance of being cured, and very simple treatments for people who have incurable cancer but still need treatment and help. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer.
The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
If tests show that the cancer cells have places where hormones can attach (receptors), drugs, surgery, or radiation therapy is used to reduce the production of hormones or block them from working. Don't treat a rash that covers more than 30 percent of your body, is inflamed, contains open sores, or has a brown crust to it; get medical attention first.
As long as the skin doesn't have open sores and isn't bleeding, you can then go on to use a lotion that helps to stop the itching, such as calamine, to treat the rash. If your rash returns once you start eating that particular food item again, you may have a food allergy. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
Other than a diaper rash, any rash that affects a child under six years of age warrants medical advice. It can take up to six months after being infected with HIV for ordinary tests to show that you are HIV positive.
After a person has contracted HIV, even before they test positive, it’s possible for them to pass on the infection to others. After the sentinel lymph node biopsy, the surgeon removes the tumor (breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy).

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