Treating dogs with severe separation anxiety

Personal protection puppy training
Raising an orphaned litter of puppies can be a time consuming exercise but one that is associated with many rewards.  Puppies may be orphaned for many reasons such as rejection by their mother, failure of milk production and, rarely, the death of their mother. These problems often exist at the same time as they are closely linked to one another.  Frequent observation and prompt intervention if any of the puppies seem inactive or disinterested in feeding will help reduce the likelihood of mortality. Orphaned puppies will require alternative methods of warmth such as incubators, heat lamps, heating pads or hot water bottles.  Any heating needs to be done very carefully as if the puppy is warmed too rapidly this may result in a heat stressed puppy.
Two key indicators of dehydration are the loss of elasticity in the skin and dry and sticky mucous membranes (gums) in the mouth.  If you are concerned that the puppies are showing either of these signs please contact your veterinary health care team. The bottles need to be clearly marked with gradations to ensure the puppies are getting the correct amount of milk at each feed. Our policy: We recommend fortnightly worming until the puppies are 12 weeks of age and then monthly until 6 months. If the puppy did not nurse in the first 2-3 days they will have missed out on any protective immunity from mum via the colostrum and in this situation your veterinarian may recommend a more frequent vaccination program than normal. Puppies are one of my very favorite subjects, and my experience in the areas of whelping and raising them, is extensive. Keep in mind that there are as many different ways of raising puppies, as there are breeders. It should go without saying that the dam, her whelping box and the general area should be a clean and a suitable environment. Following birth, if a pup is slow to get going, appears lifeless and if swinging and rubbing briskly with a coarse towel does not work, try a drop of Brandy on the tongue.
Right after birth, if a pup bleeds excessively from the umbilical cord, swab the cord in iodine or Betadine and tie it off at the base of the cord with dental floss.
Dip each puppy’s umbilical cord in a bottle of alcohol, several times during the first 24 hours after birth. Make sure that all newly born puppies pass the Meconium plug within the first couple of hours (that first bit of stool that is hard, sticky and dark colored).
Items to always keep on hand in case of an emergency: Amoxi-Drops (a broad spectrum antibiotic that needs to be reconstituted with water - obtained from your Vet since it is a prescription item), antibiotic ointment, anti-diarrhea medication (such as Kaolin-Pectin), thermometer, lactated ringers solution, Karo syrup or a Glucose solution, tube feeding materials (#10 or #12 French feeding tubes, with 60cc catheter-style feeding syringe), needles and syringes for giving fluids, and several cans of puppy formula, such as Esbilac (even though I prefer a homemade formula for normal supplementation, many times during an emergency there isn't enough time to mix formula). Scale: Exact weight can be critical when supplementing puppies and especially when hand-raising pups. Because puppies cannot maintain or regulate body temperature on their own, they are completely dependent upon their environment for the first couple weeks of life.
For the first couple of days after birth, check the bitch’s milk to make sure that she has an adequate amount for feeding the litter. When supplementing the dam's milk, smaller quantities 2 to 3 times a day should be sufficient (depending on how big the litter is and amount of milk that the dam has).
TUBE FEEDING: I have hand-raised quite a few litters over the years, of my own and for other breeders and have probably tube fed hundreds or more puppies, for reasons such as mastitis, no milk, death of the mother or just plain supplementation of big litters, etc.
For the sake of the dam, clip the puppies front toenails weekly, with small scissors, being careful not to cut into the quick. When hand-raising a litter, in order to prevent the dry flakes that can sometimes result (because nothing takes the place of the mother's continual licking and cleaning), wash the face and entire body with a rough washcloth several times a day. For the first week or so, puppies rely completely on maternal stimulation for elimination. The first two months of life are spent by his mother's side, so a puppy yet to wean is going to require some amount of tender loving care from you.
The instructions should also include a scale of how much formula to give the puppy per gram of body weight. When puppies are being whelped, nothing is more confusing than to have pups roaming around the whelping box while the dam is having contractions and trying to expel a puppy. They come cordless and rechargeable, so kennel chores can be done quite a distance from the litter and still puppy noises can be heard clearly.
Some books on newborn puppies suggest keeping the environment 90 to 95 degrees, but most breeders will tell you this is way too warm. I can't tell you the number of puppies I have saved over the years by giving fluids under the skin.
It’s important to remember that whatever you feed her will go right through the milk and into the puppies!
So keep in my mind, if the bitch has no milk, you will have to supplement all puppies with a good formula.


Typically puppies have favorite nipples, so be sure to check those that don't get much use. Tube feeding is the safest and easiest way to supplement or hand raise a litter, especially a large one. The size depends on the breed, but for normal size Collie puppies I recommend size #10 or 12. He needs to be warmed from the inside out (it does no good if his surface temperature is normal but his internal temp is still subnormal (if in doubt, check the tongue). It is caused by a lowering of calcium levels (hypocalcemia) in the bitch’s system due to the puppies draining her calcium supplies.
If the mother cannot or will not take care of the pup’s elimination, the owner has to step in.
Without her and the litter, your little one needs a heat source to help maintain a healthy body temperature. If the litter is large, the temperature need not be as high as the puppies huddle together and their combined body heat provides additional warmth.
You'll need a good set of scales to measure the puppies' progress and calculate the amount to increase the feed by as they grow.
Currently I am at 13 generations descending from one foundation bitch and 12 generations from the other foundation bitch.
If you want puppies to survive, the dams should not be left to whelp outside in the dirt, under porches, or other inappropriate places. You don't want it too big nor do you want it too small, but you want an area of confinement so the puppies are able to stay close to the dam (and thereby staying warm), but you also want it big enough so the dam can lie down without being scrunched and can safely turn around.
I let the newborn puppies nurse, but as soon as new contractions start, I put the newly born pups in this separate box. If the sac is intact and the dam does not try to open it and remove it from the puppy, you need to do so ASAP. This early milk, which is different looking than later milk, is loaded with antibodies and special nourishment that will protect the puppies from infection and viruses. While 16 to 18 ounce puppies at birth are the easiest to raise, there is nothing wrong with 6-8 ounce puppies, if they are strong.
However, years ago, I had a two day old puppy bitch that all of a sudden became listless and was not wanting to nurse.
It should go without saying that the mother and puppies should be in their own private area, away from other dogs and anything they deem as a threat.
The best way to learn how to do this is to have your veterinarian or someone experienced show you the first couple of times. Lactated Ringers Solution can be obtained from your Veterinarian or through various dog supply companies (but a prescription is needed). In large litters (8 or more puppies), I routinely supplement the smallest puppies because typically someone always gets pushed aside. Chilled puppies should never be fed milk since the entire intestinal tract literally shuts down. Put a dab of Vaseline on the end of the tube and insert it into the rectum, maybe an inch (again, how far in, depends on the size of the puppy). However, a relative humidity of 85 to 90% is more effective in maintaining puppies if they are small and weak. Remove the sac from around the puppy's head first or he will suffocate and drown in his own fluids. The puppies, of course, get their best radiant heat from the dam and a box temperature of 75-78 degrees should be more than sufficient!
Think about how the dam spends all her time washing and cleaning every puppy several times a day. If something happens to any of the puppies, I don’t have multiple litters or bitches to fall back on.
It gives great traction to nursing puppies and has a non-skid" backing so it stays flat. I have used this method successfully over the years on several occasions, with seemingly dead puppies and it has worked!
However, it is very easy for milk to be inhaled into the lungs if certain precautions are not taken.


After this, the puppies can handle a room-temperature environment, but you should keep drafts and breezes to a minimum and supply a warm blanket for them to snuggle in.
For the first couple of weeks they are not able to eliminate on their own without licking stimulation by the dam.
I recently purchased one that has a small monitor and you can actually see and hear the bitch and puppies. Following whelping, some mothers like to dig in the box (messing up the papers, blankets, etc). Amazingly, I have actually come across emergency-room veterinarians that had no idea that a newborn puppy’s temperature differed from that of the adult dog! Constipation rarely occurs in puppies that are nursing, but it can be a frequent problem in hand-raised litters, especially if the water amount in the formula is not sufficient.
The puppies should be removed until the bitch’s calcium levels are returned to normal, as nursing and milk production only exacerbate the problem. Typically puppy eyes open around 12-14 days, but this is not a hard and fast rule as personally I have had variation ranging from 8 to 18 days.
It also has a heavy-duty double strength chain to hang from the ceiling and a heavy-duty cord. However, it is quite heavy and is pricey, but it is extremely well made and chances are, if you buy one, you will never have to buy another!
If the bitch does not sever the umbilical cord, you will have to cut it carefully (cut it with dull scissors about an inch and a half from the body). In fact I have been swinging puppies for 44 years and have saved many lifeless, congested puppies and have never done any damage.
Make sure whatever material is used in the whelping box is heavy enough and lies flat so puppies cannot crawl underneath it. Be sure to put the mother in another room while doing this and it helps tremendously to have someone hold the puppy. Some breeders become so afraid to feed regular nourishment and as a result, the puppies will not gain weight and run the risk of forever stunting the growth! Please remember, it is recommended to treat dehydration and nutrient loss from diarrhea and vomiting in children. Whatever type of box you decide upon, make sure it has a pig rail, so a puppy cannot get squashed on the side of the box.
If hand-raising a litter, puppies should be weighed daily, not only to assure proper weight gain, but to calculate the correct amount of formula. Make sure you put the whelping box in an area away from other dogs and make sure it is quiet, warm, dry, and free from drafts. As the puppies get older (and more able to retain their heat), I move the lamp higher, thanks to the adjustable chain. However, that said, even puppies that are tube fed or ones that nurse naturally may sometimes need burping!
In all my years of raising puppies successfully, I have NEVER had a lamp dehydrate either the dam or the puppies!!! It is totally dietary and usually means either the dam does not have adequate milk or the puppies are not getting enough to eat.
And it should go without saying that this is not the time to parade the neighbors or friends through the area. Typically though, puppies affected will be very small and the dam may not have much milk (such as following a C-section) or the puppy might be an ineffectual nurser. I also have another friend in Collies (a top master breeder) who has been swinging puppies successfully for 50 years! There are several excellent “You Tube” videos showing how to tube feed a puppy!



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Comments to «How to raise puppies from birth without mother»

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