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The exact composition of the mantle is not known with certainty, but is determined or inferred  by the material coming from volcanic eruptions  coming from up to 300 km depth. The Earth’s mantle contains a huge amount of water (estimated to be far more than the ocean) in a supercritical fluid state at high temperatures and pressures.
Its chemical composition is different from iron, possibly hydrogen and helium at severe pressure contact with the outer core which fuses with this layer making it anomalous and viscose where a heat transfer process  occurs through convection. In this area the resistance friction initiates from the rotation of the  solid Earth (some crystalline solids) with the fluid outer core in the same sense generating a lot of tension and heat.
This area is generally complex because at these temperatures, the atoms are ionized, and electrons will be seeking ions for binding, separation and making connections with high frequency, generating a strong electric current, but which in turn is measured by the resistance generated by the presence of silicate and magnesium oxides. At a depth of 1800 km (1100 miles), after an irregular strip of 8 km thick, secondary seismic waves begin to appear, this line indicates that the material is stiffer and less plastic (initiating the formation of magma), abounding silicates, oxides of magnesium and iron.
At a depth of 700 km (430 miles) the pressure reaches around 500 000 atmospheres and dense olivine magnesium perovskite is completely transformed in ringwoodite spinels (gamma) and wadseleite (beta) with garnet.


Below 50 km (30 miles), there are no occurrences of seismicity, which means there is a plastic and viscous layer by its chemical composition (which mostly might be silicate solids with localized regions of fusion).
The magma is composed of 60% olivine, 30% ortho and 10% clinopyroxene and spinel, garnet and plagioclase. The mantle is a type of refractory or thermal insulation, that might act as a semiconductor due to the abundance of the oxides of silicon, as a crystal layer capable of being magnetized and transmitting the magnetic field due largely to the presence of magnesium. The temperature in this zone reaches 5500°K and pressures vary around 2 million atmospheres. The olivine rock becomes ductile, moving elastic deformation rates measured in centimeters per year linear distances of thousands of kilometers and can break causing faults. In subduction zones, the rise of these molten materials and the introduction of large amounts of water in the mantle cause the emergence of island arcs (Netherlands or Japan) and volcanic chains like the Sierras and Cordilleras (Mountain chains).
In this area there are consolidated basaltic magmas originated by partial melting of rocks from the mantle forming this layer.


In this layer convection currents occur on which the lithosphere (and plate tectonics) are based, which at contact becomes very hot and where there is a large pressure which occurs by convection of magma to the surface. He is now Chief Content Officer overseeing media properties for the sites’ parent company, Purch. Prior to joining the company, Rob was an editor at The Star-Ledger in New Jersey, and in 1998 he was founder and editor of the science news website ExploreZone.



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