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Author: admin, 12.04.2015

My doctor told me that some types of HPV cause cervical cancer, as well as other types of cancer, even some throat cancers.
HPVs are a group of related viruses, some of which are spread through sexual contact and can cause cancer, including cervical cancer.
Most HPV infections, even with high-risk types, go away on their own without causing problems.
Smoking may increase the risk that an HPV infection will persist and develop into cervical cancer.
The Pap test (also called a Pap smear) finds cervical cell changes that may turn into cervical cancer. The human papillomavirus (HPV) test can find infection with the types of HPV that can cause cancer.
The sample of cervical cells is sent to the lab and checked for any abnormal cervical cells. Talk with your health care provider to find out how often to have cervical cancer screening. It is recommended that women in this age group get both a Pap test and an HPV test (called cotesting) every 5 years or a Pap test alone every 3 years. Normal Pap test results: Your health care provider will usually recommend another screening exam in 3 to 5 years. These images show how cervical cells that have long-lasting infections with high-risk HPV can change over time and become abnormal. If both your Pap test and your HPV test results are normal, your health care provider will probably tell you that you can wait 5 years before your next cotest (Pap and HPV test). For abnormal Pap test result of ASC-US: Most women are advised to get another Pap and HPV test in 3-5 years.
Recent research findings indicate that the HPV test alone is highly effective for cervical cancer screening.
Keep in mind that most women with abnormal cervical screening test results do not have cancer. It is important to know the various screenings of cervical cancer as soon as possible so that you can prevent its spread to other parts of the body. Pap smears are one of the most reliable and effective cervical cancer screening tests available. If you are 30 years of age or older it is recommended that you also get an HPV(human papillomavirus) test along with your pap smear. Depending on your age, and past pap smear results, your doctor may opt to lengthen the number of years in between your pap smear tests. You are between the ages of 30 and 64, your doctor may suggest that you get co-testing (pap smear test and HPV test) every 5 years, or a pap smear test alone every 3 years. Hearing that your pap smear results returned as abnormal can be very nerve wrecking, which is why it is important to remember that an abnormal result does not always mean cancer. When your results are abnormal, your doctor could decide to retest you immediately, in 6 months, or in 1 year, and order additional tests to go along with the pap smear.
In 2012, new pap smear recommendations were introduced, and they stated that yearly pap smear tests are no longer recommended for patients with a low-risk of getting cervical cancer. Women ages 30 to 65: Pap with HPV every five years (preferred) or Pap alone every three years.

The widespread use of Pap smears has resulted in a remarkable change in the amount of cervical cancer and deaths. Failing to be screened with a regular Pap smear or under-screening (not being screened in the recommended way) is still a major risk factor for cervical cancer. For more detail on screening for cervical cancer, please go to the website that applies to your province. Guidelines exist on appropriate screening for cervical cancer in women who have never had an abnormal test. When to start: In most provinces, screening begins within three to four years of starting sexual activity. How often: All provinces agree on a two to three year interval for screening once a woman has had three negative smears one year apart.
When to stop: Screening ends at age 69, or if the cervix is removed for other reasons unrelated to cervical cancer.
The link between HPV infection and development of cervical cancer is now better understood. Use this information to help you talk with your doctor after an abnormal cervical cancer screening result. Most people who are sexually active will have an HPV infection at some point and never know it.
They can also infect certain other cells to cause anal cancer, penile cancer, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer (cancer in the middle of the throat, including the tonsils and the back of the tongue). Women in this age group should not have routine HPV testing because HPV infections at these ages tend to last only a short time before going away by themselves. However, if your hysterectomy was related to cervical cancer, talk with your health care provider to learn what follow-up care you need. These cervical cell changes are listed in the table below in order from less serious to more serious. It means that some cells don't look completely normal, but it's not clear if the changes are caused by HPV infection.
However, for women who are screened at regular intervals, it is very rare for cancer cells to be found on a Pap test.
Abnormal cervical cells may also return to normal even without treatment, especially in younger women.
Your health care provider will probably recommend that you come back for repeat cotesting in 12 months or have a different HPV test that checks for the two high-risk HPV types that cause most cervical cancers. This treatment will help you to come out of the clutches of cancer provided the tumor is not more than 4 cm long. There are chances that during this stage, the cancer cells can spread to the kidneys as well as to the lower part of the vagina. Since 1977, even without an organized program, the Canadian incidence of cervical cancer has dropped by half. Statistics suggest about 30 per cent of women have not been screened in the previous three years. Almost all cervical cancers and abnormal pap smears come after infection with human papilloma virus (HPV).
In Alberta, screening begins at age 21, based on a 15 year review of the incidence of cancer.

If you have additional questions about cervical cancer screening, you may contact the National Cancer Institute.
HPV infections can be spread through skin-to-skin contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. A Pap test also sometimes finds conditions, such as infection or inflammation that are not cancer. It means they may only need to be screened every 5 years, as long as their test results are normal. Other things can cause cells to look abnormal, such as irritation, some infections, such as a yeast infection, growths, such as polyps or cysts that are benign (not cancer), and changes in hormones that occur during pregnancy or menopause. You can learn more about cervical cancer, including staging and treatment options in the Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ ®). CIN is usually caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and is found when a cervical biopsy is done.
A colposcopy is an exam that allows your health care provider to take a closer look at your cervix and to remove a sample of cervical cells for a pathologist to examine (biopsy). In addition to removing a sample for further testing, some types of biopsies may be used as treatment, to remove abnormal cervical tissue or lesions. If you have crossed 40 years of age, you have to go for regular checkups so that it is possible to detect cervical cancer in the early stage. The development of an abnormal smear or abnormal cells on the cervix is visible from the time of infection.
When a high-risk HPV infection of cervical cells lasts many years, the cells can become abnormal. Although condoms can lower the risk of an HPV infection, they do not protect against them completely. Screening can help find changes in cervical cells, so you can receive the proper follow-up and treatment you may need, to stay healthy. Although these things may make cervical cells look abnormal, they are not related to cancer. CIN is not cancer, but may become cancer and spread to nearby normal tissue if not treated. When you talk with your health care provider, you may also ask to be tested for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is graded on a scale of 1 to 3, based on how abnormal the cells look under a microscope and how much of the cervical tissue is affected.
Although there is currently no way to treat an HPV infection, cervical cancer can be prevented by detecting and removing abnormal cervical cells before they become cancer. For example, CIN 1 has slightly abnormal cells and is less likely to become cancer than CIN 2 or CIN 3.

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