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Author: admin, 29.12.2013Feeding live yeast through lactation can improve reproductive efficiency with reduced weaning to oestrus interval and reduced sow weight loss as well as improve birth weight. In 2003, Schinckel and others at Purdue University projected growth for each of five 20 percentile groups (PCT) from birth and weaning through to the end of the nursery period at 60 days of age. Live yeast Although there are many factors that can impact weaning weight we will focus on the use of live yeast during lactation to improve weaning weight and reduce pre-weaning mortality. In the US study we looked at live yeast supplementation through an 18 day lactation period.
Binding of pathogenic bacteria Live yeast is effective in reducing the pathogenic load on the gastrointestinal tract. It is suggested that the use of live yeast will also alter the gut micro-environment, increasing the presence of cellulytic bacteria in the hind gut. Summary Live yeast added to the sow diet through the lactation stage can have a positive effect on piglet weaning weight and preweaning mortality. Feed yeast, green coal contribute to bottom line By Arthur Kollaras, Paul Koutouridis, Mary Biddy and James D. The slow progress towards an advanced cellulosic ethanol industry has long been blamed on high costs associated with securing feedstocks and developing effective technologies suitable for large volumes. For over a decade, scientists at Australia-based Microbiogen Pty Ltd have used a population genetics approach to selectively breed strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae able to metabolize lignocellulose-derived compounds into ethanol and yeast biomass. Based upon the technical and economic inputs listed in the table, a stand-alone facility processing 2,200 dry tons of corn stover per day would produce over 35 MMgy of ethanol (131 million liters or 114,000 tons), 129,000 tons of dried feed yeast, along with 168,000 tons of lignin-rich green coal. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) is the value per gallon at which ethanol from the facility is sold at a 10 percent return on investment, obtained over the 30-year life of the project.
The MESP for the Microbiogen Feed and Fuel Biorefinery model is reliant on selling the lignin-rich green coal and feed yeast. Given feedstock accounts for a quarter of the operating cost, it is susceptible to price fluctuation. This is where the ability to sell the feed yeast as a valuable coproduct becomes vital to the overall project economics. In terms of the lignin-rich green coal, a single feed and fuel biorefinery would produce enough solid fuel to displace only 0.05 percent of current Australian coal exports. Yeast Supplements - have always been difficult products to assess, since the effects of yeast are by no means instantaneous, but over the years trial after trial has shown yeast to be about the most consistently reliable and cost effective performance enhancing feed ingredient available. We have routinely advised feeding live yeast product as standard in high yielding dairy diets. This article focuses on the effect of live yeast in lactation on improving weaning weight and post-weaning pig performance.
The results showed that, when litter size increased from 11 to 15 pigs per sow, litter weight at weaning increased but individual weaning weight reduced by 0.5 kg.
The results (Figure 3) confirm that the top 80% of pigs have a similar average daily gain (ADG) up to day 60 while the bottom 20% (blue line) of the pigs have a dramatic fall off in late nursery performance with time. Research conducted on a commercial live yeast product (Vistacell supplied by AB Vista) in USA and Europe has shown the impact that a live yeast can have on weaning weight and pre-weaning mortality.
The results showed that the pre-weaning growth rates of piglets suckling on sows fed live yeast were improved by 6% over control piglets (0.30 kg extra in weaning weight). Jurgens and others showed in 1997 that the use of live yeast in lactation improved milk protein by 7% and fat by 14%, which will translate into better pre-weaning piglet growth. As the cost of live yeast is low, when spread over the numbers of pigs weaned per sow, it provides an economic solution to meet the current market needs of supporting more pigs weaned per sow per year while maintaining weaning weight. Yeast biomass has long been used as a high-protein nutritional supplement in animal feeds—these are the same yeasts that provide a large component of the digestible protein and other nutrients within dried distillers grains (DDG). The installed equipment costs for a facility were estimated at $210 million, which equates to $550 of installed equipment costs per annual dry ton of saleable products per year. The major production cost after feedstock, is the cost of enzymes, with 22 million liters required yearly. These coproducts make up 7 and 42 percent of the revenue, respectively, with the remaining income attributed to the sale of the ethanol.
The effect of a live yeast is to improve feed conversion efficiency by between 10% and 15%. Yeast allows the cow to get more out of its existing diet and actually saves you money.Yeast really does work.
It is in these areas where small adjustments can have dramatic impacts on lifetime performance.
It is therefore important for pig producers to review their lactation nutrition and determine the economic feasibility of improving this nutrition to improve weaning weight with the potential return per pig. In addition, piglets on the live yeast fed sows had a reduced pre-weaning mortality compared to the control piglets born on the sows fed no live yeast.
In addition, live yeasts can impact the immune status of the animal and a trial conducted in the USA showed that piglets suckling from Vistacell fed sows had an improved immune status as measured by CD4 and CD8 levels. This combined production improvement makes the target of maximising meat yield per sow per year easier to achieve. Yeast as a supplement to animal feed has traditionally been harvested from starch- or sugar-dependent food manufacturing waste streams. Assuming this biorefinery had been in operation since January 2010, and its ethanol sold at market value, this venture would have been profitable if the feed yeast had been sold at 70 cents to $1.20 per kg.
If feedstock costs were to double, due to supply and demand, it would add $1.30 per gallon (34 cents per liter) to the MESP, thus crippling a facility that produces ethanol alone.
The result is 1 - 2 litres more milk per cow, usually accompanied with other benefits in terms of milk quality, improved fertility, body condition and overall herd health. Weaning weight has always been important but it is becoming more critical as the number of pigs per sow per year increases, meaning more variable birth and weaning weights. This reduced pre-weaning mortality in the live yeast fed sows resulted in an extra 0.5 pig per weaning. For purpose-grown yeast, substrate accounts for up to 60 percent of production expense, and the cost of the main substrate, molasses, is at historic highs.
We currently estimate aeration requirements will be similar to baker’s yeast propagation where 24 kg of air is needed for each kilogram of yeast produced.
Based on observed yields and productivities the MESP for the feed and fuel base case is $2.57 per gallon (67 cents per liter). At 6.5 which is optimum pH, we would expect to see very settled, clean, healthy cows, cudding well with optimum rumen function and very efficient digestion, which is exactly what we see regularly on commercial farms who feed yeast. With improvements in management, restocking and improved genetics there has been a steady year on year increase in the number of piglets weaned per sow per year globally over the last five years (Figure 1).
It is therefore a focus of swine producers to both increase the number of pigs weaned per sow per year and to maintain or improve weaning weights whilst at the same time reducing pre-weaning mortality. The ability of Microbiogen’s unique, nongenetically engineered yeast strains to utilize the wood sugar xylose along with conventional six-carbon sugars, opens up global markets. The six-carbon sugars were fermented into ethanol, and yeast biomass was aerobically produced from the xylose-rich stillage.
At this rate, the energy requirement for aeration is equivalent to the cost of purchasing cellulase enzymes. Sustainable fuels along with animal feeds are markets that will not reach their limits anytime soon, especially with the United Nations projecting an extra two billion people on the planet within the next 40 years.
This will assist in promoting ‘beneficial’ bacteria in the gut and will reduce the maintenance energy cost of the pig due to better nutrient utilisation for growth.
Researchers are now trying to offset the substantial costs of fractionating and hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by coproducing complex plastics, polymers and chemicals.
It is important to add, that as a supplement fed to the poultry, swine, cattle, dairy, sheep, goat, aquaculture, equine and petfood industries, yeast biomass currently sells at prices between 80 cents and $3 per dry kilogram, depending on the strain and its intended market.
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