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Repairing Wood Furniture Joints,Heirloom Quality Woodworking Tools,Antique Wood Furniture Plans - PDF Review

19.04.2014 admin
Repair broken furniture and cracked woodwork, make stronger woodworking projects, and learn how to make cleaner, tougher glue joints with these gluing tips and techniques.
Some loose furniture joints are going to require a little more attention to make them structurally sound.
Rebuilding a joint -- or a series of joints -- is not as tough as it might sound, although it does require a good deal of patience. With common sense and a few particulars, you can keep all your wooden chairs in good repair. Mortise out the plate area with a sharp chisel (left), first scoring the outline and then cutting out the excess wood. Force glue into the joint with a glue injector, and clamp the piece firmly until the adhesive is completely cured.
Because they can detract from the appearance of the piece, and can also lower its value, they should never be used on valuable or antique furniture. Small parts such as turnings and slats may split when a screw is driven into them.For the strongest screw-reinforced joint, the screw should be driven into a piece of dowel instead of the frame itself. Here's how to replace loose or broken chair parts:Loose JointsSeat frames are held by mortise-and-tenon joints (a prong or tongue or wood secured in a hole in the joinining piece) or doweled joints (pegs of wood hold the pieces together) supported by triangular glue blocks notched to fit the legs.
If the joint is extremely loose and appearance is not important, remove as much adhesive as you can. To replace a broken or missing part, have a millwork or woodworking shop custom-make a new part.First, disassemble the chair back. The way a piece of furniture functions depends on both material and construction, and functional problems can always be traced to one or both of these sources. Square glue blocks are used on long joints where cutting a triangle would be impractical (center), and as outside support braces (right).
Small glue blocks can be strengthened by nails driven through the block into the furniture frame; drill pilot holes for the nails to make sure you don't split the wood. Let the glue dry for several days, and then cover the mending plate evenly with wood filler or a veneer patch.
If you can, disassemble the joint, drill a hole at the screw point, and plug the hole with a dowel, gluing the dowel into place.
If it doesn't come apart easily, use a rubber or wooden mallet to tap the frame pieces apart, but be careful not to damage the wood.Don't overlook the possibility that the joint was assembled with nails or screws as well as adhesive.
Finish the filler to match the wood.The seat is the part of a chair that suffers the most wear and tear, which means it also is the most likely candidate for repairs.

A loose joint that's not repaired today may not break tomorrow, but it will put stress on other joints. Predrill the screw holes for the block in both the block and the frame.Sometimes a corner joint is held by a steel bracket instead of a glue block.
Coat the screw with glue, and drive it into the joint so that it pulls the joint tightly together.
The triangular glue blocks will probably be glued and screwed to the frame, and the dowel joint might even be supported with hidden nail or screw fasteners. Clamp the reglued joint, and let it dry completely.If the part is loose in its socket, you'll have to enlarge it to make a firm joint. Then, with a utility knife, trim the ends of the wedges flush with the surrounding wood surface.
Before you tighten the screw, try to force adhesive into the loose joint; this will help strengthen the joint. Separate the joint carefully with an old screwdriver or a stiff-bladed putty knife, then replace the dowels. Make sure the joint is clean and dry before you reassemble it.Sometimes you can use a mechanical fastener -- an angle brace or a chair leg brace -- to mend the frame. If you aren't sure you'll be able to reassemble the chair, number the parts as you take them apart.Take the broken part and a similar undamaged part to the millwork or woodworking shop for duplication.
You'll probably have to refinish the frame so the dowel matches, and you may want to install false dowel plugs at the other joints in the frame so that they match.
Use a hacksaw with a thin blade that will go through metal and not leave a wide cut.After the joint is disassembled, it must be thoroughly cleaned. Metal reinforcements are useless unless the joint is tightly fitted together, but they can be used to make a firm joint even tighter. Countersink the pin with a nail set or another 10d nail, and fill the hole with wood filler. Clamp the chair with strap clamps until the adhesive dries, and then refinish the chair completely.Outdoor chairs made with wooden slats can be repaired the same way, but the slats can usually be replaced with wide moldings or thin boards.
Clamp the joint, and let it dry completely.Very loose legs or rungs can be wedged to fit if the tenon is sound. If possible, strengthen the glued joint with a glue block, as detailed below.After gluing the loose joint, put the piece of furniture back into service. Whatever method you use, be very careful not to damage the wood or the joint won't fit together properly when you reassemble it.Structural problems are most common in chairs and tables, and the joints involved are usually mortise-and-tenon (a prong or tongue of wood secured in a hole in the adjoining piece).

When the screws are final-tightened, the angle will pull the joint tightly together to bridge the gap left by the cardboard.Loose Legs, Rungs, and SpindlesLoose legs, rungs, and spindles can sometimes become loose on wooden chairs that are used excessively. Steel corner plates and angle braces perform the same function, but they can detract from the appearance of the piece of furniture, and they can also lower its value. But those problems can often be repaired.Loose rungs or spindles -- and, where no bracing is used, loose legs -- can sometimes be mended by forcing glue into the joints. If the damage isn't too bad, you may be able to thoroughly clean the joint and then reassemble it with epoxy, which is a good joint filler as well as a bonding agent. Valuable pieces of furniture, antiques, and good reproductions should always be repaired with glue blocks instead of steel braces when possible.Glue blocks for corner braces can be either square or triangular. Wipe off any excess epoxy after assembling the joint, and clamp the joint until the epoxy is completely dry.Keep the piece of furniture out of service for a week or so to make sure the glue has cured properly. When the tenon is slightly enlarged, stop pounding and trim off any excess wood from the wedge with a utility knife or pocketknife.
Square blocks are used chiefly as outside support braces or on long joints, such as the inside corners of drawers, where cutting a triangle would be impractical. If the tenon is badly damaged or if the joint was sawed apart, you'll have to rebuild the joint with hardwood dowels in place of the tenon -- two dowels are adequate for most joints. Carefully trace the outline of the mending plate onto the wood with a scratch awl or a sharp nail. For very stubborn joints, twist the part slightly to break the glue bond; if necessary, use self-locking pliers. Cross-score the wood at right angles to the outline; then turn the chisel over, bevel side down, and remove the excess wood in the scored outline, working with the grain of the wood and removing only a little wood at a time.
Then use dowels to connect the parts again.To make the holes for the dowels -- in the tenon base and in the plugged mortise -- use a doweling jig, clamped to the edge of the wood and adjusted to center the dowel holes. Tap the joint together with a rubber or wooden mallet, wipe off any glue that oozes out of the joint, and clamp the joint firmly for about two days, until the glue is completely set.In the next two sections, we'll show you how to repair chairs, starting with loose and broken parts.

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