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admin | Hormone Supplements | 16.05.2015
He began his research on vitamin K some 20 years ago at Maastricht University in the Netherlands, and he’s currently one of the leading researchers in the world on this vitamin.
Elderly people with atrial fibrillation (AF) or venous or deep-vein thrombosis are often put on oral anticoagulants, which are vitamin K antagonists, meaning they block the recycling of vitamin K—not only K1, but also K2. Because if you take away all the K1 and K2 from the diet, every little interference—if you take a little bit of vitamin K—will have a dramatic effect on the anticoagulant level. In other words, get your baseline PT (prothrombin) measurements while you are taking vitamin K 1 and K2 from the diet and your oral anticoagulant. On a side note, when I was in medical school in the late ‘70s, MGP was completely unknown, which underscores the importance of doctors to stay on top of the research, which is moving quite quickly these days. The difference between vitamins K1 and K2 was first established in the Rotterdam Study,1 which Dr. The Rotterdam Study found that those who consumed the greatest amounts of K2 had the lowest risk of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular calcification, and the lowest chance of dying from cardiovascular disease.
Both K1 and K2 are fat-soluble, but K2 is more fat-soluble, at least in long-chain menaquinones such as MK7.
So, in addition to activating MGP, which is a potent inhibitor of calcification, K2 also helps prevent arterial calcification by transporting calcium away from areas where it shouldn’t be (in the lining of your blood vessels) to where it’s really needed (such as in your bone). Just as you can measure your serum vitamin D level to ascertain whether you might be sufficient or deficient, you can measure your vitamin K1 and K2 levels as well.
To get around this problem, researchers have developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). While the ideal dosage has yet to be determined, studies suggest you need about 360-500 micrograms (mcg) of vitamin K2 per day.
Foods high in K2 include raw dairy products such as hard and soft cheeses, raw butter, and kefir, as well as fermented vegetables like sauerkraut. Also keep in mind that fermented foods contain a wide variety of different bacteria, and only certain ones—such as Bacillus subtilis—actually make vitamin K2.
Optimizing your vitamin K level has tremendous potential for improving your health, and it’s such a simple intervention—especially if you opt for fresh vegetables and fermented foods. While most if not all people are deficient in vitamin K to some degree, if you’ve already been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, you can be absolutely certain that you are deficient, and it would behoove you to take steps to ensure you’re getting plenty of vitamin K1 and K2, which may help regress some of the damage.
Vitamin k2 which is also known as bone builder or menaquinone has garnered increasing amounts of attention in recent years.
It help to maintain bone strength by affecting the formation of osteoclasts, the cell responsible for breaking down.
It has an important role in blood clotting,so if you are taking warfarin or any other anticoagulant drug,you need to be careful when consuming the food containing K2. Vitamin k2 is found primarily in animal foods such as chicken, beef, organ meats, egg yolks, and milk.
While the importance of vitamin D has become more fully appreciated, another vitamin that is just as important as vitamin D, vitamin K2, needs wider recognition.
Vitamin K1 is the primary form of vitamin K responsible for blood clotting, whereas vitamin K2 is essential for bone strength, the health of arteries and blood vessels, and plays a role in other biological processes as well, including tissue renewal and cell growth. The difference between vitamins K1 and K2 was first established in the Rotterdam Study,2 published in 2004. Examples of foods high in vitamin K2 include raw dairy products such as certain cheeses, raw butter, and kefir, as well as natto (a fermented soy product) and fermented vegetables like sauerkraut.
However, not every strain of bacteria makes K2, so not all fermented foods will contain it.
Most commercial yogurts are virtually devoid of vitamin K2, and while certain types of cheeses, such as Gouda, Brie, and Edam are high in K2, others are not. One of the best sources I've found is to ferment your own vegetables using a special starter culture designed with bacterial strains that produce vitamin K2. My research team found we could get 400 to 500 micrograms (mcg) of vitamin K2 in a two-ounce serving of fermented vegetables using such a starter culture, which is a clinically therapeutic dose.
MK-4 (menaquinone-4), a short-chain form of vitamin K2 found in butter, egg yolks, and animal-based foods. This is the one you'll want to look for in supplements, as this form is extracted from real food, specifically natto, a fermented soy product. Research3 has shown MK-7 helps prevent inflammation by inhibiting pro-inflammatory markers produced by white blood cells called monocytes. Vitamin K2 is an important adjunct to vitamin D, without which vitamin D cannot work properly. This means that if you take high doses of oral vitamin D you need to remember to also increase your vitamin K2 intake from either food or a MK-7 supplement. If you get your vitamin D primarily from sun exposure then this issue is largely circumvented, as your body is then able to regulate its vitamin D production.
Vitamins D and K2 also work synergistically with magnesium and calcium, so this quartet should ideally be taken in combination. At least 50 percent of the general population is at risk of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, and as many as 97 percent may be lacking in vitamin K2.4 This could very well be due to the fact that we stopped eating fermented foods with the advent of refrigeration and other food processing techniques.
In the 1980s, it was discovered that vitamin K is needed to activate the protein osteocalcin, which is found in your bone. Without vitamin K, these and other vitamin K-dependent proteins remain inactivated, and cannot perform their biological functions.
Vitamin K2 also helps prevent arterial calcification by shuttling calcium away from areas where it shouldn't be (in the lining of your blood vessels) to where it's really needed (such as in your bone).
People who consumed 45 mcg of K2 daily lived seven years longer than people getting 12 mcg per day. More recently, a study12 published in the journal Thrombosis and Haemostasis found that MK-7 supplementation improved arterial stiffness in otherwise healthy postmenopausal women. As mentioned, vitamin K2 also plays a crucial role in bone health,13 and may be critical for the prevention of osteoporosis. A recent Chinese meta-analysis16 of 19 randomized controlled trials found that vitamin K2 supplementation significantly improved vertebral bone density in postmenopausal women, and reduced the risk of bone fractures.
Another three-year long placebo-controlled study17 done in the Netherlands found that postmenopausal women taking 180 mcg of MK-7 per day increased their bone strength and saw a decrease in the rate of age-related bone mineral decline and reduced loss of bone density, compared to those taking a placebo. Vitamin K2 also plays an important role throughout pregnancy and during breastfeeding for the healthy growth of the child. Since there are no reported cases of overdose of vitamin K2, and appears to have no toxicity issues, it may be prudent to double or even triple your intake while pregnant. Clearly, you want both vitamin K1 and K2, but you're virtually guaranteed to not get enough K2 from your diet unless you eat the proper fermented foods.
As for a clinically useful dosage of vitamin K2, some studies — including the Rotterdam study25 — have shown as little as 45 micrograms (mcg) per day is sufficient. Experience the newest weight loss discovery that is bringing the dieting world to its knees! This powerful product has recently shot to fame as a result of its huge potential as a fat-burning and appetite controlling supplement. It aims to drastically reduce appetite and assist in the breakdown of fat molecules by encouraging the production of the protein hormone Adiponectin. Forza Supplements have found a new extracting method for Raspberries which brings out several health and weight loss benefits making this supplement more special than any other! A unique supplement in the market, Forza Raspberry K2 is made of 100% natural ingredients, which are proven to be safe to use and to have several slimming and general health benefits (raspberries, caffeine, resveratrol and vitamin K2). Something else that might put your mind at ease is the fact that Forza Raspberry K2 holds several ISO certificates. To keep it simple, you will be happy to know that it’s certificated with a ISO 9001 which implies that all production is of the highest quality and assures safety. Finally, since it is one of the most expensive flavour-enhancing additives in the food industry, it is very common for companies to advertise their Raspberry products as completely natural but actually produce them synthetically in a laboratory to keep costs down and profits up.
OpenCart is open source software and you are free to remove the powered by OpenCart if you want, but its generally accepted practise to make a small donation. Chronic inflammation is low-grade and systemic, often silently damaging your tissues over an extended period of time. Chronic inflammation is the source of many diseases, including cancer, obesity, and heart disease, which essentially makes it the leading cause of death in the U.S. The study revealed that a specific type of vitamin K2 (MK-7) may help prevent inflammation. Vitamin K1: Found in green vegetables, K1 goes directly to your liver and helps you maintain a healthy blood clotting system.


It is also vitamin K1 that keeps your own blood vessels from calcifying, and helps your bones retain calcium and develop the right crystalline structure. It is present in fermented foods, particularly cheese and the Japanese food natto, which is by far the richest source of K2. Vitamin K1 can convert to K2 in your body, but there are some problems with this; the amount of K2 produced by this process alone is typically insufficient.
MK-4 is a synthetic product, very similar to vitamin K1, and your body is capable of converting K1 into MK-4. After reaching your intestines, it remains mostly in your liver, where it is useful in synthesizing blood-clotting factors. MK-7 is a newer agent with more practical applications because it stays in your body longer; its half-life is three days, meaning you have a much better chance of building up a consistent blood level, compared to MK-4 or K1.
You could actually get loads of MK-7 from consuming natto, as it is relatively inexpensive and is available in most Asian food markets. Vitamin K2, particularly menaquinone-7 (MK-7), has been the subject of much research because it stays active in your body longer so you are able to benefit from much lower levels. It's important to realize that dietary components can either trigger or prevent inflammation from taking root in your body. MK-7 appears to be one more healthful natural substance that can be added to the anti-inflammatory list, and I'll discuss the best food sources of this shortly. As for inflammation in general, if you have not already addressed your diet, this would be the best place to start, regardless of whether you're experiencing symptoms of chronic inflammation or not. The health benefits of vitamin K2 go far beyond blood clotting, which is done by vitamin K1, and vitamin K2 also works synergistically with a number of other nutrients, including calcium and vitamin D. You can obtain all the K2 you'll need (about 200 micrograms) by eating 15 grams of natto daily, which is half an ounce. We had samples of high-quality fermented organic vegetables made with our specific starter culture tested, and were shocked to discover that not only does a typical serving of about two to three ounces contain about 10 trillion beneficial bacteria, but it also contained 500 mcg of vitamin K2. Please note also that if you opt for oral vitamin D, you also need to consume vitamin K2 in your food or take supplemental vitamin K2, as they work synergistically together and an imbalance may actually be harmful.
Finally, remember to always take your vitamin K supplement with fat since it is fat-soluble and won't be absorbed without it. Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin best known for its ability to help blood clot and prevent excessive bleeding.
In addition to regulating blood clotting, vitamin K facilitates the transport of calcium within your body, making it beneficial to your bones. Foods highest in vitamin K include leafy greens such as turnip greens, spinach, kale and dark green lettuce.
However, there’s another vitamin that is virtually equivalent in terms of benefit that is still sorely underappreciated, and that is vitamin K2. However, the advice in the United States is to skip everything that contains vitamin K, and that is something I argue against. However, if you have a steady intake level of vitamin K1 or K2, or both, a little bit of interference is not that bad anymore. If you inactivate MGP, you end up with serious arterial calcifications, and this is why vitamin K is so crucial for cardiovascular health. Upon autopsy, many with Alzheimer’s are found to have vascular degeneration, which is thought to produce symptoms of Alzheimer’s.
The problem, however, is that it really only reveals what you ate the day before, which makes it very difficult to judge sufficiency or deficiency.
There are no known side effects of higher dosages, however, so it’s likely better to err on the higher side. Keep in mind that the K2 content of pasteurized dairy and products from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which comprise most commercial sources, are NOT high in K2 and should be avoided. You can boost the K2 content of fermented foods by making them yourself, using a starter culture specifically designed to optimize K2.
Eating lots of green vegetables, especially kale, spinach, collard greens, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts, will increase your vitamin K1 levels naturally. You can also obtain about 200 mcgs of K2 by eating 15 grams of natto each day, which is half an ounce. Studies have found an association between higher k2 levels and lower incidences of bone fractures. Michael Holick and co-authors review the history of vitamin K and its many benefits, including its significance for skeletal and cardiovascular health. A variety of foods were measured for vitamin K content, and vitamin K1 was found to be present in high amounts in green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, kale, broccoli, and cabbage.
For example, pasteurized dairy and products from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are NOT high in K2 and should be avoided.
MK-4 also has a very short biological half-life — about one hour— making it a poor candidate as a dietary supplement. You could actually get loads of MK-7 from consuming natto, which is relatively inexpensive and available in most Asian food markets. It stays in your body longer, and has a longer half-life, which means you can just take it once a day in very convenient dosing. K2's biological action is also impaired by a lack of vitamin D, so you really need to consider these two nutrients together. Failing to do so could cause harm, as without K2, your body will not be able to complete the transport of calcium into the proper areas, and arterial calcification could set in. Unfortunately, most people are deficient in both vitamins D and K, and magnesium insufficiency is also common.
Research8 published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology suggests statin drugs may increase calcification in the arteries, and other research9 shows that statins deplete vitamin K2. A decade or so later, another vitamin K-dependent protein was discovered: matrix Gla protein (MGP), found in your vascular system. In the Rotterdam Study,10 which ran for 10 years, those who consumed the greatest amounts of K2 had the lowest risk of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular calcification, and the lowest chance of dying from cardiovascular disease.
This study has been lauded as significant because while previous studies have only been able to show an association, this is the first to confirm that long-term use of vitamin K2 in the form of MK-7 does result in improved cardiovascular health. Osteocalcin is a protein produced by your osteoblasts (cells responsible for bone formation), and is utilized within the bone as an integral part of the bone-forming process. Not only does it affect the development of both primary and adult teeth; it also helps develop proper facial form and strong bones. Mayo Clinic researchers discovered that people with the highest intake of vitamin K2 had a 45 percent lower risk for this type of cancer, compared to those with the lowest vitamin K2 intake.21 They attribute this effect to vitamin K2's ability to inhibit inflammatory cytokines, which are related to this type of lymphoma, and its role the life cycle of your cells. Holick's paper,24 vitamin K2 has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anticarcinogenic properties, and in addition to cancer and diabetes, MK-7 in particular may also offer benefits for age-related macular degeneration. It has also been praised as a natural thermogenic, meaning that it has the ability to convert excess calories into heat which can then be released by the body as thermal energy instead of being stored as fat.
Through expert extraction of the fruity compound, they have been able to develop a highly-concentrated and 100% natural Raspberry formula that is not only safe, but immensely effective.
This product is not intended for pregnant or nursing mothers, children under the age of 18, or individuals taking prescription drugs. This process can go on for decades without you noticing, until disease symptoms suddenly occur long after irreversible damage is done. But before I get into the details, it's important to understand the different forms that vitamin K comes in.
It is present in high quantities in your gut, but unfortunately most is passed out in your stool.
However, MK-4 has a very short biological half-life of about one hour, making it a poor candidate as a dietary supplement. The study from the Czech Republic evaluated the role of MK-7 in inflammation and found that it prevents inflammation by inhibiting pro-inflammatory markers produced by white blood cells called monocytes. For example, whereas synthetic trans fats and sugar, particularly fructose, will increase inflammation, eating healthy fats such as animal-based omega-3 fats found in krill oil or the essential fatty acid gamma linolenic acid (GLA) will help to reduce them. To help you get started, I suggest following my free Optimized Nutrition Plan, which starts at the beginner phase and systematically guides you step-by-step to the advanced level. Its biological role is to help move calcium into the proper areas in your body, such as your bones and teeth. Kate Rheaume-Bleue, a naturopathic physician, estimates that about 80 percent of Americans do not get enough vitamin K2 in their diet to activate their K2 proteins to shuttle the calcium where it needs to be and remove it from the places where it shouldn't be. However, natto is generally not appealing to a Westerner's palate, so you can also find vitamin K2, including MK-7, in other fermented foods.


Cees Vermeer, one of the world's top researchers in the field of vitamin K, recommends between 45 mcg and 185 mcg daily for adults. But by assessing your diet and lifestyle as mentioned above you can get an idea of whether or not you may be lacking in this critical nutrient. The group includes vitamins K, K1, K2 and K3, with K1 being the natural form that humans derive from foods. Having sufficient amounts of this vitamin may help reduce bone loss and osteoporosis, resulting in fewer fractures. The first signs of a deficiency may present themselves as blood oozing from your nose or gums. Low levels of vitamin K have been found in osteoporosis patients, especially in postmenopausal women. Post-menopausal women and those who take certain medications may need to supplement their vitamin K intake in pill form. Information and other content provided on this blog, including information that may be provided on this blog directly or by third-party websites are provided for informational purposes only. Leon Schurgers is a senior scientist who did his PhD work on vitamin K, and I recently had the pleasure of interviewing him on this important topic. Schurgers, all K vitamins actually have more or less the same function, which is related to the first part of the vitamin, called the naphthoquinone ring structure.
Schurgers clarifies this by saying that both vitamins K1 and K2 activate certain coagulation factors. In other words, your coagulation factors will not become overactive if you take high amounts of vitamin K1 or K2. However, it is important you take the same dose of K1 and K2 all the time or else the drug may over-anticoagulate you. Evidence suggests vitamin K can even regress arterial calcification induced by vitamin K deficiency.
Vitamin K1 is highly available in green, leafy vegetables – spinach, kale, broccoli, and cabbage. And although there’s limited research in this area, evidence suggests vitamin K2 might help prevent Alzheimer’s by preventing plaque deposition.
He also suggests consuming K2 on a daily basis, which means you need to eat some form of fermented food.
At bare minimum, you need 45 mcgs per day to help ward off cardiovascular disease, as evidenced in the Rotterdam Study,2 which was the first study demonstrating the beneficial effect of vitamin K2. My research team found that we could get 400 to 500 mcgs of vitamin K2 in a two-ounce serving of fermented vegetables using a starter culture, which is a clinically therapeutic dose. Sure, you can swallow vitamin K supplements, but it’s far easier to get vitamin K2 from fermented vegetables. It's a small amount and very inexpensive, but many Westerners do not enjoy the taste and texture. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked. Interestingly, while the K1 in vegetables is poorly absorbed, virtually all of the K2 in fermented foods is readily available to your body. When MGP remains inactivated, you end up with serious arterial calcifications, and this is why vitamin K is so crucial for cardiovascular health. In a subsequent trial called the Prospect Study,11 16,000 people were followed for 10 years.
Holick's 2014 vitamin K2 paper,18 illustrates the effect of vitamin K on bone and vascular health.
Fortunately, you don't need to worry about overdosing on K2, as it appears to be completely non-toxic. It also plays a role in removing calcium from areas where it shouldn't be, such as in your arteries and soft tissues. Fermented vegetables, which are one of my new passions, primarily for supplying beneficial bacteria back into your gut, can be a great source of vitamin K if you ferment your own using the proper starter culture. You must use caution on the higher doses if you take anticoagulants, but if you are generally healthy and not on these types of medications, I suggest 150 mcg daily. By moving calcium through your bloodstream instead of letting it accumulate, it may also prevent calcification of soft tissues and arteries. Specifically, there are four coagulation factors (Factor 2, 7, 9, and 10) in the coagulation cascade that are activated by vitamins K1 and K2.
So it is quite safe to consume vitamin K when you are not taking an oral anticoagulant drug.
These tests are currently being commercialized, and should be available in both Europe and the US in 2015. In this study, people who consumed 45 mcg of K2 daily lived seven years longer than people getting 12 mcg per day.
I believe taking this simple step is a really crucial nutritional strategy that can go a long way toward optimizing your health. If you don't care for the taste of natto, do try some fermented veggies made with Kinetic Culture, which will produce high levels of K2.
The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. Evidence suggests vitamin K can even reverse arterial calcification induced by vitamin K deficiency. Here, they found that each additional 10 mcg of K2 in the diet resulted in nine percent fewer cardiac events. Vitamin K functions as a cofactor for the enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of osteocalcin. You can obtain healthy amounts (about 200 mcg) of K2 by eating 15 grams (half an ounce) of natto each day, or fermented vegetables. Compliance can therefore be a problem, as people are more likely to take something that has a noticeable effect. MK-7 is the form you'll want to look for in supplements, because in a supplement form the MK-4 products are actually synthetic.
Certain health problems such as Crohn’s disease, gallbladder or liver disease, celiac disease and cystic fibrosis may also lead to a deficiency in K.
Schurgers, at least one study has also shown that vitamin K2 has a major function in delivering cellular energy for Parkinson’s disease patients, and may be beneficial in the treatment of this disease.
It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. If you fermented them using a starter culture designed with vitamin K2-producing bacteria, one ounce will give you about 200 to 250 mcgs.
This may not happen with vitamin K2, but that certainly does not mean it's not doing anything. You can't assume that any fermented food will be high in K2, but some fermented foods are very high in K2, such as natto. Prescription blood thinners and long-term hemodialysis are other risk factors for deficiency.
Schurgers has found that virtually everyone is clinically vitamin K-deficient based on these tests. And, it’s particularly noteworthy that, in studies, patients with the highest levels of inactive MGP had the highest chance of dying from cardiovascular disease. Remember you must always take your vitamin K supplement with fat since it is fat-soluble and won't be absorbed without it. Mercola encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified health care professional.
Rheaume-Bleue, she identified the cheeses highest in K2 are Gouda and Brie, which contain about 75 mcg per ounce.
If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition, consult your health care professional before using products based on this content.



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