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admin | Diet Pills | 12.01.2016
Adult survivors of childhood craniopharyngiomas, the second most common type of childhood brain tumor, face many challenges, including multiple life-threatening metabolic abnormalities. Effective therapy must balance the threat of death from the tumor with concern about damage to normal tissue from aggressive therapy—especially in the developing brain of pediatric patients.
Hormones, such as human growth hormone and testosterone, play a large role in the muscle hypertrophy and strength gained resulting from resistance exercise. The endocrine system helps provide stability to the body’s internal environment through the release of hormones. Amine hormones are derived from amino acids, while peptide hormones are structured by peptide bonds between multiple amino acids. Steroid hormones are not water-soluble and therefore must be bound to plasma proteins to be transported to their target tissue.
The major function of hormones is to alter the rates of specific cellular reactions of specific target cells.
Steroid hormones do not bind to the membrane of the target tissue, but instead pass through it and then bind to a specific cytoplasmic steroid receptor in the cell, which then migrates to the nucleus.
Control of hormone secretion must be rapid in order to meet the demands of changing bodily functions. It is well documented that the secretion of anabolic steroids results from resistance training, yet it is not clear why women exhibit similar responses to training (compared to men) in the absence of increased testosterone levels (Taylor et al., 2000). As part of the experimental design, the subjects were first familiarized with the exercise protocol, and their 10-repetition maximum was determined for the various exercises included in the protocol. These findings demonstrated that both WT and NWT women have an acute rise in GH levels following resistance exercise, however, the WT women were able to sustain the increased GH levels for a longer period of time.
The researches suggest that women should be encouraged to engage in resistance exercise, since there may be an influential effect of growth hormone response in women attempting to develop strength and power. Nurses are in a unique position to educate survivors about metabolic risks, encourage compliance with prescribed therapy, and contribute to quality of life. Morris EB, Gajjar A, Okuma JO, et al: Survival and late mortality in long-term survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Stripp DCH, Maity A, Janss AJ, et al: Surgery with or without radiation therapy in the management of craniopharyngiomas in children and young adults. Lustig RH, Post SR, Srivannaboon K, et al: Risk factors for the development of obesity in children surviving brain tumors.
Daousi C, Dunn AJ, Foy PM, et al: Endocrine and neuroanatomic features associated with weight gain and obesity in adult patients with hypothalamic damage.
Pereira AM, Schmid EM, Schutte PJ, et al: High prevalence of long-term cardiovascular, neurological and psychosocial morbidity after treatment for craniopharyngioma. Gleeson HK, Shalet SM: The impact of cancer therapy on the endocrine system in survivors of childhood brain tumours. Crom DB, Hinds PS, Gattuso JS, et al: Creating the basis for a breast health program for female survivors of Hodgkin disease using a participatory research approach.
Crom DB, Tyc VL, Rai SN, et al: Retention of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a longitudinal study of bone mineral density.

While increases in testosterone levels are attributed to the hypertrophy and strength gained in men, it is still unclear how women are able to respond similarly to resistance training in the absence of increased testosterone.
Hormones are substances secreted from a tissue (mainly endocrine glands) that exert a biologic response on itself or other cells, and affect almost all aspects of human function.
The protein binding complicates the activity of steroid hormones, delaying the time to stimulate a biological response.
This is accomplished by altering the rate of intracellular protein synthesis, changing the rate of enzyme activity, modifying plasma membrane transport, and by inducing secretory activity (Robergs and Roberts, 1997). However, the ability for a target tissue to respond to a hormone depends on the presence of specific receptors in or on the tissue. Once there, it enters the nucleus and initiates the nuclear and cytosolic events required for the synthesis of specific proteins. Hormone secretion is usually pulsatile in nature and constant hormone release rarely exists. In a recent study by Taylor and colleagues, investigators examined the differences in growth hormone (GH) response to acute bouts of resistance exercise in weight-trained (WT) and non-weight-trained women (NWT). Women assigned to the WT group had at least one-year of consistent weight training experience, while the NWT women had no regular weight training experience for at least six-months prior to the beginning of the study.
The exercise protocol consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions for seven different exercises (bench press, leg press, seated shoulder press, leg extension, lat pulldown, biceps curl, and triceps pushdown) with one-minute rest periods between sets and exercises. The exercise protocol used in this study provided sufficient stimulus to cause GH levels to increase in both groups. However, further investigations are necessary to fully describe the relationship between hormonal responses and resistance-training in women. Main functional responses to exercise and glandular tissues and hormones involved in acute adaptation in men and women (from Robergs and Roberts, 1997). Patient Overview TS is a 23-year-old white male who was diagnosed in June 1996, at 11 years of age, with a craniopharyngioma. The purpose of this article is to review the function of hormones and a recent study exploring the acute responses of growth hormone to an acute bout of resistance exercise in weight-trained and non-weight-trained women.
They regulate growth, development, and reproduction, and augment the body’s capacity for handling physical and psychological stress. The water-soluble characteristics of amine and peptide hormones make them easily removed from the circulation allowing only a short time (minutes) to exert their function. Amine and peptide hormones exert their action on target cells by binding to specific receptors on the membrane of the target tissue. Several of the main hormones related to exercise and their responses are listed in Table 1. Growth hormone is responsible for increasing protein synthesis and for mediating the release of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), which is another potential anabolic factor (Taylor et al., 2000).
Blood samples for hormone assays were taken ten and five minutes prior to exercise, and immediately, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after exercise. Exercise variables contributing to GH release include intensity, load, rest interval, and the amount of muscle mass utilized.

Hormones differ in how they affect their target cells, and can be classified into three categories: amine, peptide, and steroid.
For example, an increase in blood glucose levels causes the release of insulin by the pancreas. They hypothesized that women with weight training experience would have a greater GH response to the exercise stimulus than the non-weight-trained women (Taylor et al., 2000). Since both groups used the same intensity, load, and rest period the differences in response may be explained by the WT women utilizing greater amounts of muscle mass during exercise.
Insulin action causes an increase in glucose uptake, resulting in lowered blood glucose levels. This was done to help minimize the estradiol effect (the most potent naturally occurring estrogen).
Additionally, the GH values measured immediately post-exercise and five minutes after were lower for the WT women. It could be assumed that due to greater exposure to resistance training, the WT women had greater amounts of lean body mass, and that training exposure also allowed for a greater relative recruitment of their motor unit pool when exercising (Taylor et al., 2000). Subsequently, TS was monitored at frequent intervals for possible tumor recurrence and complications resulting from his tumor and treatment. For example, in bone and muscle cells, the cyclic AMP produced by the action of growth hormone binding activates anabolic reactions so amino acids can be synthesized into tissue proteins. However, the overall GH response to the acute bout of resistance exercise was greater for WT women.
This in turn stresses more sarcolemma of muscle, resulting in increases in anabolic hormone levels. Shortly after the diagnosis, TS developed growth hormone and thyroid hormone deficiencies, adrenocorticosteroid insufficiency, and hypogonadism. The end result of insulin action is the inhibition of its own release as the body reaches its desired homeostasis. What this means is that when using the pre-exercise GH level as a baseline value for each group, the WT women had a greater overall increase over the duration of the study (pre-exercise to 60 minutes post-exercise) in GH in response to exercise.
Thus the authors suggest that the magnitude of hormonal response is related to the amount of muscle tissue stimulated. These multiple endocrine abnormalities were treated with hormone replacement therapy, including stress dosing of corticosteroids. Growth hormone response to an acute bout of resistance exercise in weight-trained and non-weight-trained women.

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