Muscular endurance workouts with weights,pre workout shake paleo diet,supplements to build muscle mass vegetarian,muscle fitness magazine review process - Step 1

admin | Multivitamin Benefits | 19.11.2014
On today's battlefield, in addition to cardiorespiratory fitness, soldiers need a high level of muscular endurance and strength.
Muscular strength is the greatest amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert in a single effort. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to do repeated contractions against a less-than-maximum resistance for a given time.
Although muscular endurance and strength are separate fitness components, they are closely related. Isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic muscular endurance and strength are best produced by regularly doing each specific kind of contraction. Isometric contraction produces contraction but no movement, as when pushing against a wall. Isotonic contraction causes a joint to move through a range of motion against a constant resistance.
Isokinetic contraction causes the angle at the joint to change at a constant rate, for example, at 180 degrees per second. A muscle can control more weight in the eccentric phase of contraction than it can lift concentrically.
When a muscle is overloaded, whether by isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contractions, it adapts by becoming stronger. The above descriptions are more important to those who assess strength than to average people trying to develop strength and endurance.
To have a good exercise program, the seven principles of exercise, described in Chapter 1, must be applied to all muscular endurance and strength training.
When a muscle is overloaded by isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contractions, it adapts by becoming stronger. To develop muscle strength, the weight selected should be heavier and the RM will also be different. To develop muscular endurance, the soldier should choose a resistance that lets him do more than 12 repetitions of a given exercise. For example, if his plan is to do 12 repetitions in the bench press, the soldier starts with a weight that causes muscle failure at between 8 and 12 repetitions (8-12 RM). A resistance-training program should provide resistance to the specific muscle groups that need to be strengthened.
Consecutive days of hard resistance training for the same muscle group can be detrimental. There should be at least a 48-hour recovery period between workouts for the same muscle group. When developing a strength training program, it is important to include exercises that work all the major muscle groups in both the upper and lower body.
It is important to include exercises that work all the major muscle groups in both the upper and lower body.
The best sequence to follow for a total-body strength workout is to first exercise the muscles of the hips and legs, followed by the muscles of the upper back and chest, then the arms, abdominal, low back, and neck.
A major challenge for all fitness training programs is maintaining enthusiasm and interest. Workouts for improving muscular endurance or strength must follow the principles just described. Major causes of injury when strength training are improper lifting techniques combined with lifting weights that are too heavy.
The soldier should always do weight training with a partner, or spotter, who can observe his performance as he exercises. When beginning a resistance-training program, the soldier should choose about 8 to 16 exercises that work all of the body's major muscle groups. Perhaps a simpler way to select an exercise is to determine the number of joints in the body where movement occurs during a repetition. The soldier should use very light weights during the first week (the preparatory phase) which includes the first two to three workouts. The third week is normally the start of the conditioning phase for the beginning weight trainer.
Once the soldier reaches a high level of fitness, the maintenance phase is used to maintain that level.
As with aerobic training, the soldier should do strength training three times a week and should allow at least 48 hours of rest from resistance training between workouts for any given muscle group. Timed sets refers to a method of physical training in which as many repetitions as possible of a given exercise are performed in a specified period of time. The use of timed sets, unlike exercises performed in cadence or for a specific number of repetitions, helps to ensure that each soldier does as many repetitions of an exercise as possible within a period of time. In this FM, timed sets will be applied to improving soldier's sit-up and push-up performance.
It should first be stated that improving sit-up and push-up performance, although important for the APFT, should not be the main goal of an Army physical training program.
For this reason, the best procedure to follow when doing a resistance exercise is as follows. The manner in which timed sets for push-ups and sit-ups are conducted should occasionally be varied. If all soldiers exercise at the same time, the above activity can be finished in about 3.5 minutes.
To add variety and increase the overall effectiveness of the activity, different types of push-ups (regular, feet-elevated, wide-hand, close-hand, and so forth) and sit-ups (regular, abdominal twists, abdominal curls, and so forth) can be done.
When using timed sets for push-up and sit-up improvement, soldiers can also perform all sets of one exercise before doing the other. During a timed set of push-ups, a soldier may reach temporary muscle failure at any time before the set is over.
In designing a workout it is important to know the major muscle groups, where they are located, and their primary action.
To ensure a good, balanced work-out, one must do at least one set of exercises for each of the major muscle groups. The beginning weight-training program shown at Figure 3-5 will work most of the important, major muscle groups.
The weight-training program shown at Figure 3-6 is a more comprehensive program that works the major muscle groups even more thoroughly. When doing one set of each exercise to muscle failure, the average soldier should be able to complete this routine and do a warm-up and cool-down within the regular PT time.
Train with a partner if possible, This helps to increase motivation, the intensity of the workout, and safety.
Accelerate the weight through the concentric phase of contraction, and return the weight to the starting position in a controlled manner during the eccentric phase.


Allow at least 48 hours of recovery between workouts, but not more than 96 hours, to let the body recover and help prevent over training and injury. When developing strength programs for units, there are limits to the type of training that can be done. Sandbags are convenient for training large numbers of soldiers, as they are available in all military units. Partner-resisted exercises (PREs) are another good way to develop muscular strength without equipment, especially when training large numbers of soldiers at one time. In partner-resisted exercises (PREs) a person exercises against a partner's opposing resistance. Units in garrison usually have access to weight rooms with basic equipment for resistance-training exercises. If exercise machines are available, the exercises described below also good for strength training.
The following exercises can be performed to condition the muscles of the mid-section (erector spinae, rectus abdominus and external and internal obliques).
The chart labeled Figure 3-5 will help the soldier select appropriate exercises for use in developing a good muscular endurance and strength workout. To achieve a constant speed of movement, the load or resistance must change at different joint angles to counter the varying forces produced by the muscle(s) at different angles. In the concentric phase (shortening) the muscle contracts, while in the eccentric phase (elongation) the muscle returns to its normal length.
Each type of contraction has advantages and disadvantages, and each will result in strength gains if done properly. Actually, a properly designed weight training program with free weights or resistance machines will result in improvements in all three of these categories.
These principles are overload, progression, specificity, regularity, recovery, balance, and variety.
For a muscle to increase in strength, the workload to which it is subjected during exercise must be increased beyond what it normally experiences. To obtain optimal gains, the overload must be applied throughout the full range of motion. When an exercise has progressed through one complete range of motion and back to the beginning, one repetition has been completed. This is a repetition performed against the greatest possible resistance (the maximum weight a person can lift one time).
However, to achieve enough overload, programs are designed to require sets with 70 to 80 percent of one's 1-RM. The exerciser finds and uses that weight which lets him do the correct number of repetitions. For example, the soldier should find that weight for each exercise which lets him do 3 to 7 repetitions correctly. If one cannot do at least three repetitions of an exercise, the resistance is too great and should be reduced. The key to overloading a muscle is to make that muscle exercise harder than it normally does. Usually significant increases in strength can be made in three to four weeks of proper training depending on the individual.
The recovery time between different exercises and sets depends, in part, on the intensity of the workout. Activating one muscle results in a pulling motion, while activating the opposing muscle results in the opposite, or pushing, movement.
As long as all muscle groups are exercised at the proper intensity, improvement will occur. There are also other factors to consider, namely, safety, exercise selection, and phases of conditioning. Each soldier must understand how to do each lift correctly before he starts his strength training program.
To ensure safety and the best results, both should know how to use the equipment and the proper spotting technique for each exercise. This is very important, because the beginner must concentrate at first on learning the proper form for each exercise.
After an appropriate period of rest, a second, third, and so on, set of that exercise is done in an equal or lesser time period. It does not hold back the more capable performer by restricting the number of repetitions he may do. It must be to develop an optimal level of physical fitness which will help soldiers carry out their mission during combat. As the soldiers' levels of fitness improve, the difficulty of the activity can be increased.
When performing this type of workout, pay attention to how the soldiers are responding, and make adjustments accordingly. If this happens, he should immediately drop to his knees and continue doing modified push-ups on his knees.
Exhale during the concentric (positive] phase of contraction, and inhale during the eccentric (negative) phase. Any regular resistance exercise that makes the muscle work harder than it is used to causes it to adapt and become stronger. The longer the partners work together, the more effective they should become in providing the proper resistance for each exercise. All movements, particularly during the are eccentric (negative) phase of contraction, should be done in a deliberate, controlled manner. For example, if the soldier wants to develop his upper leg muscles, he has several options.
Exercise a joint and its associated muscles through its complete range starting from the pre-stretched position (stretched past the relaxed position) and ending in a fully contracted position. For example, to develop both muscle endurance and strength, a soldier should choose a weight for each exercise which lets him do 8 to 12 repetitions to muscle failure.
Soldiers who are just beginning a resistance-training program should not start with heavy weights. With continued training, the greater the number of repetitions per set, the greater will be the improvement in muscle endurance and the smaller the gains in strength. If the workload is not progressively increased to keep pace with newly won strength, there will be no further gains.
The soldier slowly does work-related movements he wants to improve and, at the same time, he feels the muscles on each side of the joints where motion occurs. Soldiers can maintain a moderate level of strength by doing proper strength workouts only once a week, but three workouts per week are best for optimal gains.


Strength training can be done every day only if the exercised muscle groups are rotated, so that the same muscle or muscle group is not exercised on consecutive days.
When planning a training session, it is best to follow a pushing exercise with a pulling exercise which results in movement at the same joint(s). Using different equipment, changing the exercises, and altering the volume and intensity are good ways to add variety, and they may also produce better results. All weights should be selected so that proper form can be maintained for the appropriate number of repetitions.
Using light weights also helps minimize muscle soreness and decreases the likelihood of injury to the muscles, joints, and ligaments.
Although training three times a week for muscle endurance and strength gives the best results, one can maintain them by training the major muscle groups properly one or two times a week.
The exercise period, recovery period, and the number of sets done should be selected to make sure that an overload of the involved muscle groups occurs. Instead, soldiers at all levels of fitness can individually do the number of repetitions they are capable of and thereby be sure they obtain an adequate training stimulus. For example, the times listed in the chart above may prove to be too long or too short for some soldiers. These motions also detract from the effectiveness of the exercise because they take much of the stress off the targeted muscle groups and place it on other muscles. Although many installations have excellent strength-training facilities, it is unreasonable to expect that all units can use them on a regular basis. Whether the training uses expensive machines, sandbags, or partners, the result is largely the same. Soldiers should warm up, cool down, and follow the principles of exercise previously outlined. They must communicate with each other to ensure that neither too much nor too little resistance is applied. There are other resistance-training machines which, while not precisely controlling the speed of movement, affect it by varying the resistance throughout the range of motion. Muscles adapt to increased workloads by becoming larger and stronger and by developing greater endurance. Similarly, an 8-12 RM is that weight which allows a person to do from 8 to 12 correct repetitions.
For example, when a soldier trains with a 25-RM weight, gains in muscular endurance will be greater than when using a 15-RM weight, but the gain in strength will not be as great.
When a soldier can correctly do the upper limit of repetitions for the set without reaching muscle failure, it is usually time to increase the resistance. In a multi-set routine, if his goal is to do three sets of eight repetitions of an exercise, he starts with a weight that causes muscle failure before he completes the eighth repetition in one or more of the sets. Those muscles that are contracting or becoming tense during the movement are the muscle groups involved.
There should be at least a 48-hour recovery period between workouts for the same muscle groups.
The soldier should choose exercises that work several muscle groups and try to avoid those that isolate single muscle groups.
To meet this goal, and to be assured that all emergencies can be met, a training regimen which exercises all be developed and followed. In the same way, because of the nature of the sit-up, it may become apparent that some soldiers can benefit by taking slightly more time for timed sets of sit-ups than for push-ups.
Logs, ammo boxes, dummy rounds, or other equipment that is unique to a unit can also be used to provide resistance for strength training. The resister must apply enough resistance to bring the exerciser to muscle failure in 8 to 12 repetitions.
To optimize a soldier's performance, his RM should be determined from an analysis of the critical tasks of his mission. He continues to work with that weight until he can complete all eight repetitions in each set, then increases the resistance by no more than 10 percent. If the soldier's performance of a task is not adequate or if he wishes to improve, strength training for the identified muscle(s) will be beneficial. A soldier can work out three times a week, but when different muscle groups are exercised at each workout, the principle of regularity is violated and gains in strength are minimal.
For example, the legs can be trained with weights on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday and the upper body muscles on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. Thus, as a general rule, a muscle endurance or strength training workout should not be designed to work exclusively, or give priority to, those muscle groups worked by the sit-up or push-up event.
At the same time, it reduces the amount of time and work that must be devoted to push-ups and sit-ups.
The following example can be done after the regular strength workout and is reasonable starting routine for most soldiers. However, for the more advanced lifter, it will make the muscles work in different ways and from different angles thereby providing a better over-all development of muscle strength.
More resistance usually can and should be applied during the eccentric (negative) phase of contraction (in other words, the second half of each repetition as the exerciser returns to the starting position).
However, most soldiers will benefit most from a resistance-training program with an 8-12 RM. Sequence the program to exercise the larger muscle groups first, then the smaller muscles. If he can do only seven repetitions of an exercise, the weight must be reduced; if he can do more than 12, the weight should be increased.
For example, the lat pull-down stresses both the larger latissimus dorsi muscle of the back and the smaller biceps muscles of the arm. If curls are done first, the smaller muscle group will be exhausted and too weak to handle the resistance needed for the lat pull-down.
Proper exercise form and regularity in performance are key ingredients when using PREs for improving strength.
As a result, the soldier cannot do as many repetitions with as much weight as he normally could in the lat pull-down. The latissimus dorsi muscles will not be overloaded and, as a result, they may not benefit very much from the workout.



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