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admin | Best Abs Workout For Women | 29.03.2016
Almost anyone that's picked up a set of weights has or will experience symptoms of over-training at one point in there muscle building program.
Over-training is very common amongst athletes and particularly bodybuilders, since they figure that training as much as possible is the fastest way to massive muscle gains. The problem is however, that many of us increase the intensity of our workouts or get insufficient amounts of rest, or even worse, a combination of both. First, let's take a look at some of the effects of over-training and how one can prevent over-training from happening in the first place.
If you are experiencing more than one of the symptoms outlined above, you may be in a state of over-training, and should evaluate your routine as soon as possible. Many studies have indicated that over-training negatively effects the levels of hormones, as well as the hormone response in the body. The increase in cortisol levels along with the decrease in testosterone levels is a deadly combination, since this leads to protein tissue break down.
Over-training can drastically decrease the levels of antibodies and lymphocytes in your body, making you much more susceptible to illness. Now let's take a look at the different types of over-training, and what we can do to prevent it. Any form of over-training is a bad thing, however, I've personally experienced both types of over-training and can honestly say that over-training in the weight room is much worse, and much more prevalent than over-training through cardiovascular training.
Over-training with weights makes you more susceptible to nervous systems hormone and immune system issues, which all pose serious health risks. It can lead beginners down the wrong path, perhaps wasting money on unnecessary supplements, or even worse, steroids. I personally believe that only competitive athletes such as swimmers, runners and bikers run a serious risk of reaching a state of cardiovascular over-training, since there are often training for two or more hours daily.
The bottom line is that it is much easier for the average person to over-train while weight training than while cardiovascular training, and I think the effects can be more serious. If you are experiencing two or more of the symptoms outlined earlier in the article, this should raise a red flag.
Another variable you can use to determine if you are over-training is by tracking the performance of your workouts. For example, let's say last workout you were able to perform 8 pull-ups using your body-weight, but were only able to perform 6 pull-ups the following week. Determining the correct training volume can be difficult, especially when you are first starting out. You need to use your own judgment in this case, based on your recovery ability and your recovery methods. There is no point in training at a lower intensity, further breaking down the muscle tissue.
Unless you are trying to build muscle and lose fat, make sure you have eaten prior to your training session and are not hungry. Consider taking proven supplements like creatine, and antioxidants to increase performance and fight free radicals. Whether you are an aspiring bodybuilder, fitness model, competitive athlete or just want to look good in a bathing suit – this system has been proven to work time and time again! Calculating ideal weight for height is one way of determining whether one is over or underweight. People who exercise and are physically fit tend to have more lean muscle mass and lower levels of fat tissue than people who are not physically fit. A good personal trainer, nutritionist, or doctor can help one analyze ideal weight from several complex tables, rather than from simple weight to height ratio. For all those who think that 5ft 3 and 110lbs is too little, well, it's not because i have close to 10 percent body fat and i eat more than literally everyone in my family except my dad and uncle. Formula for ideal weight= height - 100 For example: your height is 165cms= 165 - 100 = 65 kgs should be your weight. Now before i ask this i know I'm not supposed to be worrying about my weight, but it's more than that.
If somebody wants to know if some weight is good for your height, we'll only know for sure, according to written text, if you're over 18. I know from that time and today I lost pounds due to the fact I starved myself to stay “skinny.” I know this is wrongdoing and it is a sin but I do not like to get hurt. Two or three minutes of trying to get to class is quite an exercise since there's hallway jams.
My doctor says everybody is different and my metabolism works really fast and that's why I'm so thin. Everyone at school is amazed at how much I eat and do not have a single ounce of fat in my body. Also notice the gradual increase in Women’s body mass index over time, until age 50-60. While consensus clearly supports heavy lifting at regular intervals to support muscle gains, anyone over 50 needs to understand the increased injury risk this introduces. An alternating workout approach provides the additional benefit of keeping the workouts more interesting, reducing the boredom factor. For more information on getting into the very best shape of your life after age 50, be sure to check out BestFit 50. Third, depending on genetic makeup, many people respond better to heavy lifting to stimulate new muscle growth.  To be sure, some may respond better to lighter weights and higher reps, another good reason to continually rotate heavy and lighter routines. Heavy lifting isn’t for everyone, and it can increase the risk of injury, including joints, tendons and the muscles themselves.  For  someone new to resistance training, heavy lifting is out of the question for at least the first six months. During this initial time, a new lifter must develop muscle and tendon strength, and also new blood supply and nerve connections.  Additionally, high core strength will be required for heavy lifting.
Perhaps most importantly, a good personal trainer can help a new lifter gauge progression, helping to make decision on when the client is ready to progress to heavier weights and at what increments the increases in weight should be added. For these reasons, a new lifter should always seek council with a qualified personal trainer who understands their goals and their present ability levels. When I wake up, I down 2 large glasses of water, then I eat my oatmeal, with a banana, tablespoon of ground Flax Seed, tablespoon of Chia seeds, some walnuts or almonds, topped with organic cinnamon and Pure Maple Syrup. Very sensible progression plan Keith, keep introducing more free weight work into your sessions and really focus on your diet, you’ll be amazed by what can happen, over 50 rocks!
Although you may not typically think of the skin as an organ, it is in fact made of tissues that work together as a single structure to perform unique and critical functions. The stratum basale (also called the stratum germinativum) is the deepest epidermal layer and attaches the epidermis to the basal lamina, below which lie the layers of the dermis.
In a growing fetus, fingerprints form where the cells of the stratum basale meet the papillae of the underlying dermal layer (papillary layer), resulting in the formation of the ridges on your fingers that you recognize as fingerprints. As the name suggests, the stratum spinosum is spiny in appearance due to the protruding cell processes that join the cells via a structure called a desmosome. The keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum begin the synthesis of keratin and release a water-repelling glycolipid that helps prevent water loss from the body, making the skin relatively waterproof.
The stratum granulosum has a grainy appearance due to further changes to the keratinocytes as they are pushed from the stratum spinosum. The stratum lucidum is a smooth, seemingly translucent layer of the epidermis located just above the stratum granulosum and below the stratum corneum.
The stratum corneum is the most superficial layer of the epidermis and is the layer exposed to the outside environment (see [link]). The dermis might be considered the “core” of the integumentary system (derma- = “skin”), as distinct from the epidermis (epi- = “upon” or “over”) and hypodermis (hypo- = “below”).
The papillary layer is made of loose, areolar connective tissue, which means the collagen and elastin fibers of this layer form a loose mesh. Underlying the papillary layer is the much thicker reticular layer, composed of dense, irregular connective tissue.
The hypodermis (also called the subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia) is a layer directly below the dermis and serves to connect the skin to the underlying fascia (fibrous tissue) of the bones and muscles.
Lipid Storage The hypodermis is home to most of the fat that concerns people when they are trying to keep their weight under control. Where the fat is deposited and accumulates within the hypodermis depends on hormones (testosterone, estrogen, insulin, glucagon, leptin, and others), as well as genetic factors.
In many animals, there is a pattern of storing excess calories as fat to be used in times when food is not readily available. The color of skin is influenced by a number of pigments, including melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin. It requires about 10 days after initial sun exposure for melanin synthesis to peak, which is why pale-skinned individuals tend to suffer sunburns of the epidermis initially. Too much sun exposure can eventually lead to wrinkling due to the destruction of the cellular structure of the skin, and in severe cases, can cause sufficient DNA damage to result in skin cancer.


Integumentary System The first thing a clinician sees is the skin, and so the examination of the skin should be part of any thorough physical examination. Albinism is a genetic disorder that affects (completely or partially) the coloring of skin, hair, and eyes.
Other changes in the appearance of skin coloration can be indicative of diseases associated with other body systems.
This ABC video follows the story of a pair of fraternal African-American twins, one of whom is albino. The dermis connects the epidermis to the hypodermis, and provides strength and elasticity due to the presence of collagen and elastin fibers.
The epidermis provides protection, the dermis provides support and flexibility, and the hypodermis (fat layer) provides insulation and padding.
The papillary layer of the dermis is most closely associated with which layer of the epidermis?
What determines the color of skin, and what is the process that darkens skin when it is exposed to UV light?
As the cells move into the stratum spinosum, they begin the synthesis of keratin and extend cell processes, desmosomes, which link the cells.
Whether you are a bodybuilder, athlete, or just someone that wants to add some additional mass to your frame, you need to train hard and be consistent-that's a given. The trick is finding the right balance between workout volume and intensity, and rest and recovery. Over-training effects the entire body, and can seriously impact the results of your muscle building program. The same book that is literally changing the lives of hundreds of skinny, average and chubby guys and gals. It is not just another e-book with a bunch of boring pages that you won't even finish reading. This formula can be used by people over 16 years old because our height genes stop after 16.
I am working out because im part of a football team and i was just wondering what i should get my weight to? If you are over age 50, you REALLY ought to see this page, proving that having a BMI of 25 to 30 is actually healthiest, and not overweight. Calculating BMI is one of the best methods for population assessment of overweight and obesity. Other ways to measure obesity are skinfold thickness measurements, calipers, underwater weighing, bioelectrical impedance, dual-energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA), and isotope dilution. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea and respiratory problems, and some cancers including endometrial, breast, and colon. Yes, but however, the criteria used to interpret the meaning of the BMI number for children and teens are different from those used for adults.
If you can provide that’s helpful, sound like it may be more of a diet issue, let us know! The skin and its accessory structures make up the integumentary system, which provides the body with overall protection. It is made of four or five layers of epithelial cells, depending on its location in the body.
The cells in the stratum basale bond to the dermis via intertwining collagen fibers, referred to as the basement membrane. A basal cell is a cuboidal-shaped stem cell that is a precursor of the keratinocytes of the epidermis. Fingerprints are unique to each individual and are used for forensic analyses because the patterns do not change with the growth and aging processes.
If you zoom on the cells at the outermost layer of this section of skin, what do you notice about the cells?
As new keratinocytes are produced atop the stratum basale, the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum are pushed into the stratum granulosum.
The cells (three to five layers deep) become flatter, their cell membranes thicken, and they generate large amounts of the proteins keratin, which is fibrous, and keratohyalin, which accumulates as lamellar granules within the cells (see [link]). The increased keratinization (also called cornification) of the cells in this layer gives it its name. It contains blood and lymph vessels, nerves, and other structures, such as hair follicles and sweat glands.
This superficial layer of the dermis projects into the stratum basale of the epidermis to form finger-like dermal papillae (see [link]). It is not strictly a part of the skin, although the border between the hypodermis and dermis can be difficult to distinguish.
In much of the developed world, insufficient exercise coupled with the ready availability and consumption of high-calorie foods have resulted in unwanted accumulations of adipose tissue in many people.
Recall that melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes, which are found scattered throughout the stratum basale of the epidermis. Dark-skinned individuals can also get sunburns, but are more protected than are pale-skinned individuals. Most skin disorders are relatively benign, but a few, including melanomas, can be fatal if untreated. Liver disease or liver cancer can cause the accumulation of bile and the yellow pigment bilirubin, leading to the skin appearing yellow or jaundiced (jaune is the French word for “yellow”).
The epidermis consists of several layers beginning with the innermost (deepest) stratum basale (germinatum), followed by the stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum (when present), and ending with the outermost layer, the stratum corneum. It has only two layers: the papillary layer with papillae that extend into the epidermis and the lower, reticular layer composed of loose connective tissue.
Describe how the cells change as they become integrated into the different layers of the epidermis.
As the stratum basale continues to produce new cells, the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum are pushed into the stratum granulosum. This is where the experts derived the famous statistic, that over 50 percent of American Women have a BMI over 25 and hence are considered overweight. Each percentile line has a curved shape, even for skinny women at 25th and 10th percentiles. There is a gap between the children’s and adult data, because the data sources are different. At less than 50th percentile, men have a higher BMI than women, which is generally thought to be due to men’s greater skeletal muscle mass. Because the calculation requires only height and weight, it is not costly and it’s simple to use for clinicians and for the general public. However these methods are not always readily available, they are either expensive or need highly trained personnel.
For children and teens, BMI age, and gender-specific percentiles are used for two basic reasons: 1) the amount of body fat changes with age, and 2) the amount of body fat differs between boys and girls. At 68, I bench 145, 3 sets of 12, and the same for incline and decline benches, along with flys, same sets and #, with 35 dumb bells. The skin is made of multiple layers of cells and tissues, which are held to underlying structures by connective tissue ([link]).
Keratin is an intracellular fibrous protein that gives hair, nails, and skin their hardness and water-resistant properties. A finger-like projection, or fold, known as the dermal papilla (plural = dermal papillae) is found in the superficial portion of the dermis. All of the keratinocytes are produced from this single layer of cells, which are constantly going through mitosis to produce new cells. It is interesting to note that the “spiny” nature of this layer is an artifact of the staining process.
These two proteins make up the bulk of the keratinocyte mass in the stratum granulosum and give the layer its grainy appearance. The dermis is made of two layers of connective tissue that compose an interconnected mesh of elastin and collagenous fibers, produced by fibroblasts ([link]). Within the papillary layer are fibroblasts, a small number of fat cells (adipocytes), and an abundance of small blood vessels. The hypodermis consists of well-vascularized, loose, areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue, which functions as a mode of fat storage and provides insulation and cushioning for the integument. This stored fat can serve as an energy reserve, insulate the body to prevent heat loss, and act as a cushion to protect underlying structures from trauma.
Men tend to accumulate fat in different areas (neck, arms, lower back, and abdomen) than do women (breasts, hips, thighs, and buttocks).
Although periodic accumulation of excess fat may have provided an evolutionary advantage to our ancestors, who experienced unpredictable bouts of famine, it is now becoming chronic and considered a major health threat.


The melanin is transferred into the keratinocytes via a cellular vesicle called a melanosome ([link]). Melanosomes are temporary structures that are eventually destroyed by fusion with lysosomes; this fact, along with melanin-filled keratinocytes in the stratum corneum sloughing off, makes tanning impermanent. Moles are larger masses of melanocytes, and although most are benign, they should be monitored for changes that might indicate the presence of cancer ([link]). A couple of the more noticeable disorders, albinism and vitiligo, affect the appearance of the skin and its accessory organs. Individuals with albinism tend to appear white or very pale due to the lack of melanin in their skin and hair. Tumors of the pituitary gland can result in the secretion of large amounts of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which results in a darkening of the skin. The topmost layer, the stratum corneum, consists of dead cells that shed periodically and is progressively replaced by cells formed from the basal layer.
The hypodermis, deep to the dermis of skin, is the connective tissue that connects the dermis to underlying structures; it also harbors adipose tissue for fat storage and protection. Individuals with darker skin have darker, more abundant melanin, whereas fair-skinned individuals have a lighter shade of skin and less melanin. The cells become flatter, their cell membranes thicken, and they generate large amounts of the proteins keratin and keratohyalin. The adult data (from the NHANES III survey) is more recent ( 1988-1994 ), whereas the body-mass-index-for-age charts from the CDC are based from a mix of data from old and recent sources. But after age 30, for the 50th percentiles or higher, overweight women rise to higher BMI levels than men. To determine if excess weight is a health risk, a healthcare provider would need to perform further assessments. The use of BMI allows individuals to compare their own weight status to that of the general population. Skin that has four layers of cells is referred to as “thin skin.” From deep to superficial, these layers are the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum.
The keratinocytes in the stratum corneum are dead and regularly slough away, being replaced by cells from the deeper layers ([link]). Dermal papillae increase the strength of the connection between the epidermis and dermis; the greater the folding, the stronger the connections made ([link]).
As new cells are formed, the existing cells are pushed superficially away from the stratum basale.
The nuclei and other cell organelles disintegrate as the cells die, leaving behind the keratin, keratohyalin, and cell membranes that will form the stratum lucidum, the stratum corneum, and the accessory structures of hair and nails. This dry, dead layer helps prevent the penetration of microbes and the dehydration of underlying tissues, and provides a mechanical protection against abrasion for the more delicate, underlying layers. In addition, the papillary layer contains phagocytes, defensive cells that help fight bacteria or other infections that have breached the skin.
The body mass index (BMI) is often used as a measure of fat, although this measure is, in fact, derived from a mathematical formula that compares body weight (mass) to height. Exposure to the UV rays of the sun or a tanning salon causes melanin to be manufactured and built up in keratinocytes, as sun exposure stimulates keratinocytes to secrete chemicals that stimulate melanocytes.
Although neither is fatal, it would be hard to claim that they are benign, at least to the individuals so afflicted. Similarly, Addison’s disease can stimulate the release of excess amounts of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which can give the skin a deep bronze color.
The stratum basale also contains melanocytes, cells that produce melanin, the pigment primarily responsible for giving skin its color.
The nuclei and other cell organelles disintegrate as the cells die, leaving behind the keratin, keratohyalin, and cell membranes that form the stratum lucidum and the stratum corneum. I say my tummy is a bit big, but I still don't care and just go on eating my healthy foods! These assements may include skinfold thickness measurements, evaluations of diet, physical activity, family history and other appropriate health screenings. I then switched to a gym and worked the Techno-Gym and Cybex machines, along with 20 minutes of HIIT cardio on the bike and rowing machine.
It also has numerous sensory, and autonomic and sympathetic nerve fibers ensuring communication to and from the brain. The stratum spinosum is composed of eight to 10 layers of keratinocytes, formed as a result of cell division in the stratum basale ([link]). Cells in this layer are shed periodically and are replaced by cells pushed up from the stratum granulosum (or stratum lucidum in the case of the palms and soles of feet).
This layer also contains lymphatic capillaries, nerve fibers, and touch receptors called the Meissner corpuscles.
Collagen fibers provide structure and tensile strength, with strands of collagen extending into both the papillary layer and the hypodermis. Therefore, its accuracy as a health indicator can be called into question in individuals who are extremely physically fit.
Not only is this a problem for the individuals affected, but it also has a severe impact on our healthcare system. The accumulation of melanin in keratinocytes results in the darkening of the skin, or a tan. Individuals with albinism tend to need more protection from UV radiation, as they are more prone to sunburns and skin cancer. A sudden drop in oxygenation can affect skin color, causing the skin to initially turn ashen (white).
Melanin is transferred to keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum to protect cells from UV rays. And then my friends, Sarah and Emma (twins) are around 4'11" ish and they are around 80-90 lbs or so (or at least that's what it looks like) and they don't care if they might look underweight, because they know for a fact that they are healthy, and they go on eating their healthy foods and playing soccer, with the occasional candy bar of course. And highly trained athletes tend to have a high BMI because of increased muscularity rather than increased body fatness. January 1, 2013, I introduced more heavy lifting with bench press and the larger Cybex machines with plates.. The first is a Merkel cell, which functions as a receptor and is responsible for stimulating sensory nerves that the brain perceives as touch.
Interspersed among the keratinocytes of this layer is a type of dendritic cell called the Langerhans cell, which functions as a macrophage by engulfing bacteria, foreign particles, and damaged cells that occur in this layer. Changes in lifestyle, specifically in diet and exercise, are the best ways to control body fat accumulation, especially when it reaches levels that increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes. This increased melanin accumulation protects the DNA of epidermal cells from UV ray damage and the breakdown of folic acid, a nutrient necessary for our health and well-being. They also tend to be more sensitive to light and have vision problems due to the lack of pigmentation on the retinal wall. With a prolonged reduction in oxygen levels, dark red deoxyhemoglobin becomes dominant in the blood, making the skin appear blue, a condition referred to as cyanosis (kyanos is the Greek word for “blue”). It’s been awesome to see the changes already taken place as I step it up and progress!
It has a fifth layer, called the stratum lucidum, located between the stratum corneum and the stratum granulosum ([link]). Cosmetic procedures, such as microdermabrasion, help remove some of the dry, upper layer and aim to keep the skin looking “fresh” and healthy. Collagen injections and Retin-A creams help restore skin turgor by either introducing collagen externally or stimulating blood flow and repair of the dermis, respectively. In contrast, too much melanin can interfere with the production of vitamin D, an important nutrient involved in calcium absorption.
Treatment of this disorder usually involves addressing the symptoms, such as limiting UV light exposure to the skin and eyes.
This happens when the oxygen supply is restricted, as when someone is experiencing difficulty in breathing because of asthma or a heart attack.
Thus, the amount of melanin present in our skin is dependent on a balance between available sunlight and folic acid destruction, and protection from UV radiation and vitamin D production. In vitiligo, the melanocytes in certain areas lose their ability to produce melanin, possibly due to an autoimmune reaction.
However, in these cases the effect on skin color has nothing do with the skin’s pigmentation. Melanin gives hair and skin its color, and also helps protect the living cells of the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage.




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