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A not even terribly high dose of curcumin – the principal bioactive ingredient in turmeric powder – causes a steep rise in the amount of testosterone in the blood of male rats. The Nigerians studied the joint effect of gallic acid – a substance present in tea and grapes – and curcumin on the testes. The researchers wondered whether high concentrations of gallic acid reduce the production of sperm and testosterone as a result of pro-oxidant effects – and if so, whether curcumin, which has a convincing antioxidant effect, can counteract these effects.
At the end of the 30 days, the sperm quality of the gallic-acid group had deteriorated, but that of the curcumin group had improved. The testosterone concentration in the blood of the gallic-acid group was 32 percent lower than in the control group.
The raised testosterone level was the consequence of heightened activity of enzymes such as 3-beta-HSD and 17-beta-HSD in the testes.
Curcumin had precisely the opposite effect, and also reduced the concentration of malondialdehyde [MDA] [Structural formula shown on the right]. The researchers suspect that curcumin deactivates free radicals in the testes and that this helps the testes to function better. The human equivalent of the dose that the Nigerians tried out would be between 1 and 1.5 g curcumin per day. Combined administration of curcumin and gallic acid inhibits gallic acid-induced suppression of steroidogenesis, sperm output, antioxidant defenses and inflammatory responsive genes. In this study, we investigated the effects of administration of gallic acid (Gal) with or without curcumin (Cur) on the sperm output, steroid level and antioxidant defenses in rat testis in vivo and the expression of inflammatory responsive genes in vitro. Shape-shifters, often mistaken as werewolves, are descended from the ancient spirit warriors of the Quileute tribe. When a member of the current generation comes across the scent of vampires, his physique will build before he phases for the first time. The legend goes that one spirit warrior, Utlapa, wanted to use this power to enslave neighboring tribes, the Hohs and the Makahs. Sam Uley: Sam is the wolf that scares Laurent away from Bella Swan in New Moon, and is described as enormous, jet black, as tall as a horse, but thicker and much more muscular, with dagger-like incisors, and a grisly snarl like a prolonged crack of thunder.
Jacob Black: As a wolf, Jacob grows to be bigger than Sam Uley, and has deep rusty-brown fur.
Leah Clearwater: As the only female member of the pack, Leah is much smaller than the males, with light gray fur.
Collin Littlesea: Collin has reddish brown fur, with a darker color on his legs, face and tail. The appearances of the seven other wolves that join the pack at the end of Breaking Dawn are not specified.
Active shape-shifters crop their hair short, as the length of their hair correlates with the length of their fur.
The wolves become similar in their human forms, partly due to their appearances (hard-muscled bodies, unusual height and cropped hair) and the synchronization of their movements, so that they could be mistaken for biological siblings. The instinct to phase is only triggered when a tribal member crosses the scent of vampires and senses the tribe's need of protection.
The transformation can happen at any time, and is not dependent upon a full moon, unlike the Children of the Moon.
To become human again, the shape-shifter needs to calm down and concentrate on phasing back into human form.
Quileute wolves reach great speed, in excess of one hundred miles per hour, which allows them to outrun motor vehicles. Even in their human forms, shape-shifters are easily faster and have greater endurance than all humans: "Then I turned and sprinted through the parking lot, across the road, and into the bordering forest. The wolves caught Laurent, showing that they are as fast as or faster than most vampires; however, they were unable to catch Victoria, who is an exceptionally fast vampire and gifted with self-preservation. Their reflexes are highly developed: "With stunning speed, Jacob yanked a can opener from the counter and launched it at Jared's head. While in human form, their strength is near- superhuman, In their wolf form, not only they much larger than normal wolves, they are also supernaturally stronger. Discussing being a wolf with Bella in New Moon, Jacob explains, "It's what we're made for, Bells.
Jacob can withstand cold temperatures due to his constant body temperature of 108.09 F degrees (42°C). This high temperature allows the shape-shifters to withstand very cold weather and makes it difficult for them to become overheated. The actual transformation between human and wolf is described in the greatest detail in New Moon.
While their skin is much more durable than that of a human being (to the degree that the bones in Bella's hand are broken when she punches Jacob in the face), it is not granite hard like a vampire's. The wolves bear an animal scent that makes them unappetizing to vampires, making it easier for vampires to resist the temptation caused by their blood.
However, some shape-shifters can get used to the smell of the vampires, such as Seth Clearwater and Jacob Black in Breaking Dawn. In their wolf forms, shape-shifters show the general behavior of their titular animals, though they retain their human intelligence, memories and character, up to and including showing their human eyes. The dominant male, the Alpha, can force the other pack members to obey his orders against their will.
Alpha status is related to lineage, with Sam being the exception due to Jacob, the born Alpha, having no interest in leading the pack. In Breaking Dawn, it is found out that Bella Swan is able to mentally shield a whole pack of shape-shifters by focusing solely on its Alpha, with the protection cascading down through the ranks. In the context of the Twilight Saga, the term "shape-shifter" is used as a title applied only to the direct descendants of Taha Aki who have actually phased - that is the members of the Uley pack, the Black pack, and Ephraim Black's pack. Being both descendants and fathers of shape-shifters, Harry Clearwater, Joshua Uley, Quil Ateara III and Billy Black have the right genetic makeup and the potential for phasing. In the movies New Moon, Eclipse, and Breaking Dawn, the members of the pack all have the same tattoo on their right shoulder. The tattoo was created for film merchandise much like the Cullen Crest and the Volturi symbol.

The issue of imprinting is also critical as it is how the shape-shifters find their soulmates. In Breaking Dawn, Seth is informed that Bella and Edward have returned home and that Bella has contracted a rare disease. Researchers from Redeemer’s University in Nigeria wrote about it in the Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. For 30 days the rats were given either no active ingredients [Control], 100 mg gallic acid per kg bodyweight, 100 mg curcumin per kg bodyweight, or 100 mg gallic acid + 100 mg curcumin per kg bodyweight.
In the rats that had been given both substances, the sperm quality had also improved, but less than it had in the curcumin group. In the curcumin group the testosterone concentration in the blood was 257 percent higher than in the control group and in the combination group it was 184 percent higher.
But by taking supplements it’s not so difficult to take in the amount of curcumin that would improve your testes functioning. There are supplements on the market that would give you that amount in just a couple of capsules. Back then, warriors and chiefs could leave their bodies and wander as spirits, communicate with animals, and hear each other's thoughts. Unwilling to use the warriors' powers for such monstrous purposes, his chief, Taha Aki banished him from the tribe. In Eclipse, his fur becomes shaggier than the other wolves' due to the fact that he allows his hair to grow to chin-length. Quil Ateara V and Sam Uley joke with one another that Sam's black fur is due to his "black heart", while Quil's chocolate-brown fur reflects how "sweet" he is. This links clearly with the actual changes in the boys as well, which Bella notes, although she doesn’t connect the two phenomenons until later.
There's no exact age to determine whether the member is old enough for the gene to activate, only the numbers needed to counter the numbers of approaching vampires. The transformation generally occur roughly when a boy reaches manhood, and is accompanied by a sudden growth spurt lasting for about two months. In new shape-shifters, the change is involuntary, since they have not yet learned to control it.
The initial transformation seems to be triggered by anger, as explained by Jacob when he tells Bella about his first transformation. Jacob later explains to Bella that this swiftness may stem from his ancestry to Ephraim Black, a tribal chief.
According to Jacob, it is better and faster than a motorcycle, and that is "the best part" of being a wolf.
Jared's hand flicked up faster than I would have thought possible, and he snagged the tool just before it hit his face." Also in Eclipse, at the Quileute bonfire, Paul harassed Jacob into giving him his hot dog.
Bella feels it first on the way home from the movies in New Moon, when she believes Jacob has got a fever. It also makes it very difficult for vampires to harm them in combat, due to vampires being extremely sensitive to high temperatures.
While not immortal if they choose to quit phasing, these capabilities allow them to continue fighting even after serious injury. It is possible that their scent is less revolting to vampire hybrids due to their half-human sides.
It is not clear whether it is heightened in other circumstances, but they certainly know vampires at a distance, finding their smell sickly sweet and repellent.
They both spent time with the Cullen family, and feel more comfortable than before around vampires. In Breaking Dawn, Jacob was able to hear Quil playing with Claire at First Beach from his bedroom. Pack members are also telepathically linked with each other, enhancing their coordination during hunts and fights but allowing little or no privacy at any time.
However, should a genetical Alpha be unavailable, it is possible for a pack to select a new Alpha from, possibly, its ranks. A comparison with a computer net appears therefore obvious, suggesting that a pack does not simply operate as a highly integrated group of intelligent and trained wolves but is almost a neural net with multiple consciousness foci operating together, the Alpha's being the coordinator.
However, they've never been mentioned to phase, making them indistinguishable from unshifting human beings; the title therefore is not applied to them. He discovers that they have 24 pairs of chromosomes, one more than a human and one less than a vampire, but the same number as vampire hybrids. It is only moderatel toxic to the liver but can cause a marked disturbance, in the bodyrquote s endogenous production of testosterone. Gallic acid has a wide range of protective properties, but in high quantities it turns out to be an oxidant. However, a change impacted the tribe members hugely during Taha Aki's leadership and permanently changed their powers to shape-shifting into giant wolves.
One day, the chief left his body in a hiding place to sweep through the valley in his spirit form, searching the area for anything that may pose a threat to the tribe. When the wolves rescue Bella from Laurent, she realizes that the russet wolf has Jacob's familiar, black-brown eyes. No real explanation of this phenomenon is given; none, perhaps, should be sought for - variability is the one fundamental of living beings. She describes the shape-shifters as "four really big half-naked boys." As humans, they are between 6'0" and 7'0" tall, and after phasing become bigger, more muscular, and harder in look and substance.
He phased later than most due to his happiness with her, and then all it took was his father telling him he looked weird to set him off. It could be because Jacob is also Quil Ateara II's great-grandson and he has inherited the shape-shifting gene from both sides of his family. When the Cullens ran, they all but turned invisible with speed." This may have to do with the werewolves being quadrupeds (using four feet to run) as opposed to bipedal vampires.
A full pack can easily overpower and kill any vampire, and, as seen in Eclipse, is a formidable force when dealing with an army of newborns. Vampires' temperatures are lower than humans'; it is possible that the wolves' and vampires' physiological differences reflect the tension between the two species. Bella witnesses this for herself during the climatic battle in Eclipse when she sees Seth easily biting through Riley's skin.

Their sense of sight is known to be ten times better than the average human, twice as good as the average bird of prey's.
The Alphas of two different packs are able to communicate telepathically, and can control what thoughts they share, while the subordinates of different packs don't show this ability. Even if it's implied, it is unknown whether this characteristic is also extended down the pack hierarchy. Though possible, it is not known whether a lower-ranking pack member can challenge the Alpha for status.
This link may also make them vulnerable to mind-based powers, making them easy targets to mind attacks. The exact nature of the extra chromosome is unknown, but it may carry the genes needed for the shape-shifting abilities of the bearer.
Sam and the others fear the harm the child could bring and plan to destroy the Cullens including Bella and her hybrid spawn. The inhibitory effects of Gal on plasma testosterone level, glutathione levels, activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and steroidogenic enzymes, 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) and 17?-HSD in the rat testis was blocked by Cur. Utlapa followed him and possessed his body, then cut his own body's throat to prevent Taha Aki's return. The effects of this sort of transformation is shown in the relationship between Sam and Emily, and the disfiguring injuries she suffered when he lost control near her. It is stated that a fast wolf can outrun an average vampire and, conversely, a fast vampire can outrun an average wolf.
It seems that speed is their real weapon, along with the exchange of thoughts within the pack that makes them able to coordinate when they hunt. Bella notes that Jake handles her "too roughly", and that, when he hugs her, it's so "crushing" that it nearly suffocates her.
After Jacob was crushed by a newborn in Eclipse, his skeleton healed before Carlisle could set his bones, forcing Carlisle to break a number of them to induce proper healing.
It is unknown if shape-shifters can see into the invisible spectrum of light, like vampires. Jacob never uses his voice to impose his will on his pack mates, even if he has a stronger power than Sam.
The hypothesis is that it is somehow passed down only in Y-chromosome carrying sperm, which would explain why almost all shape-shifters are male, while the occasional extra chromosome being passed down in an X-chromosome carrying sperm could be the basis of Leah Clearwater's appearance.
It can be stacked with a number of different steroids and yield even greater results, Cypionate is the most popular testosterone used by athletes and is still produced in Spain under the brand name Testex Elmu and under numerous manufacturers labels with the generic name.
Interestingly, the level of testosterone and the activities of the steroidogenic enzymes were significantly increased after treatment with Cur alone.
The chief wandered for a while in spirit form, watching the thief do horrible things to his people.
However, he seems to have a better control over it than most, even able to phase in a flying leap. He doesn't seem as aware of his strength as the vampires, but this could be due to the newness of his phasing. In Breaking Dawn, Jacob comments that even a bullet through his temple might not be enough to kill him. Or, alternatively, it may be that it is passed regularly by both sexes (both males and females) and that testosterone may be needed as a co-inducer for the shape-shifting complex together with whatever external trigger needed for phasing - Leah having a high concentration of testosterone in her bloodstream.
They are soon joined by Seth's sister, Leah, who wanted to get away from Sam and protect her brother.
Malondialdehyde concentration was unchanged following Gal treatment, while a significant decrease in malondialdehyde level was observed following treatment with Cur alone or in combination with Gal. However, this healing factor is not completely reliable and can be neutralized if vampire venom is inserted into the shape-shifter's system. After the birth of Renesmee, Jacob imprints on her and the shape-shifters' feud with the Cullens is put to an end as it is strictly forbidden for any shape-shifter to harm the object of another shape-shifter's imprinting. We further analyzed the effects of Cur and Gal (25-100?M) on the 93RS2 Sertoli cell-lines and observed that Cur blocked the Gal-induced suppression of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-?
While venom alone isn't generally enough to kill a healthy shape-shifter, it can be fatal in combination with other injuries. And nothing matters more than her." Once shape-shifters have imprinted, they will feel the need to constantly be in their soulmate's presence and to unconditionally give them whatever they want or need.
Should the imprintee be an infant, the shape-shifter will act as an older brother; romantic feelings will not develop until she comes of age. Rushing back to the village as the wolf, he met a party of warriors, and tried to make himself known by yelping Quileute songs. Furthermore, the stimulatory or inhibitory effects of Gal on the expressions Tgf-?1 and CD-14 was concentration-dependent and could be blocked by Cur.
One of the warriors, an elderly man named Yut, realized that the wolf was under a spirit's control, and, disobeying the usurper Utlapa's orders not to enter the spirit world, left his body to talk to the beast. The false chief, alarmed at Yut entering the spirit world as he feared that his treachery would be revealed, killed the warrior. It is shape-shifter law that no wolf may harm the imprintee of a fellow pack member, as this will lead to destructive in-pack fighting.
Taha Aki became enraged, and lunged to kill the man; his emotions were too much for the wolf, and it transformed into a magnificent human, the glorious flesh interpretation of Taha Aki's flawless spirit. Overall, Cur has stimulatory reproductive effects and could protect the testis from the toxic effects of Gal by mechanisms that could not be explained by its effects on the expressions of inflammatory cytokines but by its anti-oxidant properties. Taha Aki sired many children, and found out that his sons, at the age of manhood, could transform into wolves as well.

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