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admin | Natural Testosterone Replacement | 13.08.2014
HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE SIDE EFFECTS PICTURESIncreasing muscle mass, andsuper curious about side , . Growth hormone is a protein hormone of about 190 amino acids that is synthesized and secreted by cells called somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary.
Keeping this distinction in mind, we can discuss two major roles of growth hormone and its minion IGF-I in physiology. Production of growth hormone is modulated by many factors, including stress, exercise, nutrition, sleep and growth hormone itself. Growth hormone also feeds back to inhibit GHRH secretion and probably has a direct (autocrine) inhibitory effect on secretion from the somatotroph. Integration of all the factors that affect growth hormone synthesis and secretion lead to a pulsatile pattern of release. States of both growth hormone deficiency and excess provide very visible testaments to the role of this hormone in normal physiology. Clinically, deficiency in growth hormone or defects in its binding to receptor are seen as growth retardation or dwarfism. I started taking Neotropin made by Neo Labs in January – 3 iu morning and 3 iu evening. It is a major participant in control of several complex physiologic processes, including growth and metabolism. Fat cells (adipocytes), for example, have growth hormone receptors, and growth hormone stimulates them to break down triglyceride and supresses their ability to take up and accumulate circulating lipids.


A majority of the growth promoting effects of growth hormone is actually due to IGF-I acting on its target cells. The major role of growth hormone in stimulating body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-I.
In some cases, a direct effect of growth hormone has been clearly demonstrated, in others, IGF-I is thought to be the critical mediator, and some cases it appears that both direct and indirect effects are at play. This effect reflects increased amino acid uptake, increased protein synthesis and decreased oxidation of proteins. Growth hormone is often said to have anti-insulin activity, because it supresses the abilities of insulin to stimulate uptake of glucose in peripheral tissues and enhance glucose synthesis in the liver. Somatostatin inhibits growth hormone release in response to GHRH and to other stimulatory factors such as low blood glucose concentration.
Ghrelin binds to receptors on somatotrophs and potently stimulates secretion of growth hormone.
High blood levels of IGF-I lead to decreased secretion of growth hormone not only by directly suppressing the somatotroph, but by stimulating release of somatostatin from the hypothalamus. Such disorders can reflect lesions in either the hypothalamus, the pituitary or in target cells. The manifestation of growth hormone deficiency depends upon the age of onset of the disorder and can result from either heritable or acquired disease.
IGF-I stimulates proliferation of chondrocytes (cartilage cells), resulting in bone growth.


Somewhat paradoxically, administration of growth hormone stimulates insulin secretion, leading to hyperinsulinemia.
In children and young adults, the most intense period of growth hormone release is shortly after the onset of deep sleep. A deficiency state can result not only from a deficiency in production of the hormone, but in the target cell's response to the hormone. Clinical signs of acromegaly include overgrowth of extremities, soft-tissue swelling, abnormalities in jaw structure and cardiac disease. Growth hormone does seem to have a direct effect on bone growth in stimulating differentiation of chondrocytes. He weighed 8.5 pounds at birth, but by 5 years of age was 105 pounds and 5 feet 4 inches tall.
The excessive growth hormone and IGF-I also lead to a number of metabolic derangements, including hyperglycemia.



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