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admin | Hormone Supplements | 08.08.2015
Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is effective and safe when used to treat growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children. Switching from Genotropin to Omnitrope solution has no impact on efficacy or safety in children with GHD, and the various rhGH preparations are well tolerated.
In an attempt to address this issue, the current paper analyzes data from three phase 3 clinical studies10,11,13,14 to assess the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of Omnitrope in children switching from Genotropin to Omnitrope, compared with continuous Omnitrope treatment alone. Table 1 summarizes the demographic and baseline characteristics of the intent-to-treat population in the three studies, which are broadly similar despite some minor differences in the age and gender profiles.
Summary of demographic and baseline characteristics of the intent-to-treat population in the AQ, Lyo, and Spanish studies.
EfficacyComparison of the (Standardized) Growth Development Between Switched and Nonswitched PatientsThe curves for the development of height (Figure 2) and height SD score (SDS) (Figure 3, Table 2) do not show any apparent differences between children who received Genotropin followed by Omnitrope liquid and children treated continuously with either Omnitrope lyo or liquid. Figure 6, Table 3) over time are nearly identical and parallel, with differences at baseline carried forward during the treatment phase for all three studies.
Comparison of differences in height SD score from baseline between the AQ, Lyo, and Spanish studies. Comparison of differences in height velocity SD score from baseline between the AQ, Lyo, and Spanish studies. Concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 rose during treatment with rhGH (Table 4) in all three studies, and the trend appeared to be comparable between studies. Comparison of differences in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP)-3 from baseline between the AQ, Lyo, and Spanish studies. Model-Based AnalysisA log-function model fitted growth data observed during 9 months of treatment with Genotropin.
Nine examples of individual prediction intervals versus observed growth data in switched patients. Incidence of adverse drug reactions during the first 18 months of treatment in all three studies. Incidence of anti-growth hormone (GH) antibodies* during the first 18 months of treatment and overall. Similarly, no patient in the Lyo study developed anti-hGH antibodies during the first 18 months of treatment with Omnitrope Lyo. DiscussionThe present study confirms what has already been established in the phase 3 Omnitrope trial,10,11 in that there is no difference in the efficacy or safety of patients switched from Genotropin to Omnitrope compared to patients receiving Omnitrope throughout the treatment period.The authorsa€™ analysis has certain limitations. Finally, despite the potentially devastating consequences on height and other outcomes, poor adherence is relatively common among patients receiving rhGH.
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If there is some problem in a person’s body or anything like that, he must be cured and treated accordingly. Injections have rapid effect and they provide the growth hormones just as they are produced by the pituitary glands.
The substances provided in the food supplements and pills actually relate to their capability to instigate the pituitary glands to produce more growth hormones. The pills and food supplements containing natural growth hormones are administered as per the directions of the doctors and these can not be taken by a person himself.
HGH Supplements and the World of InternetGrowth hormones are produced in the human body at the motivation of the Growth Hormone receptors to the pituitary glands. HGH Products and Sleep or InsomniaHGH hormone products are available to the public for their proper growth. Growth Hormone Supplements -Injections and PillsHGH hormones are available both in the form of injections as well as pills. What are GHR -Human Growth Hormone Releasers and Enhancers?HGH hormone is produced in the body naturally and its production starts decreasing after you have reached the puberty age. HGH supplements for Body Growth – Is It Really Beneficial?Either HGH supplements or injections may be used to get their benefits.
Ageing is associated with certain problems related to neuroendocrine phenomena including Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), dementia and cognitive dysfunction (Rehman and Masson, 2001). GH measurement: Blood samples were prepared from tail vein of rats in both healthy young and aged groups. The results of the present study demonstrate that intra-hippocampal injection of GH ameliorates spatial learning and memory deficits in animals serving to model AD in a dose-dependent manner. However, it has been suggested that switching between different types of rhGH can have a detrimental effect on patients. Changes to height, height SD score (SDS), height velocity SDS, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels, and IGF binding protein (IGFBP-3) levels were assessed using data from three trials.


Over an 18-month period there were no observable differences between the three groups with respect to height, height SDS, height velocity SDS, IGF-1 levels, and IGFBP-3 levels.
As a result, each treated group of children can be arbitrarily subdivided into poor, average, and good responders dependent upon growth response. The comparison between the two groups has already been discussed in a previous publication.10 Thus, the current paper assesses outcomes of group B only, and compares these results with patients continuously treated with Omnitrope in the Lyo and Spanish studies. Standardized growth curves were compared before and after switching from Genotropin to Omnitrope (AQ study) and with continuous Omnitrope treatment (Lyo and Spanish studies) at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months.
In the AQ study, one patient was excluded due to noncompliance during the first month, and another at month 15, also for noncompliance. The curves for parameters describing height velocity show a similar decline after reaching slightly different peak responses after the first 3 months of treatment.
Based on this model, the height up to month 18 was predicted and compared to the corresponding observed data. For example, in the Spanish study, only 10 of the 69 children experienced an ADR at any time during the 5-year follow-up.
For instance, no relevant increased risk of anti-GH antibodies emerged following the switch from Genotropin to Omnitrope liquid.
The only child who developed anti-GH antibodies showed the first positive results by month 30.In the Spanish study, two children showed sustained positive antibody results for at least three consecutive visits during the first 9 months of treatment. Firstly, these results are based on a post-hoc analysis rather than from a prospective comparative trial. Indeed, some studies suggest that nonadherence rates are between 36%a€“49%.20 In the AQ study, there was no examination addressing whether adherence rates differed before and after the switch. We doesn't provide cattle fat products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully.
The amalgamation of 191 amino acids in a certain type of structure is injected into the blood stream. This way, the GH hormones produced in the body will be just according to the requirements of the body.
A lot of medical tests are also involved in the process before and after the injections of natural growth hormones.
Some food supplements may also prove effective to stimulate pituitary glands to secrete HGH hormone. Bodybuilding and muscle building has remained no more difficult with the advent of HGH hormones. This finding add more to the previous findings in the favour of the beneficial effect of the GH on spatial learning and memory.
This result was corroborated by the model data, whereby most data points for Omnitrope-treated children fell within the defined limits of the prediction model based on Genotropin data. Figure 7 shows the prediction intervals together with the observed height measurements up to month 9 and beyond. During the first 9 months, only five patients were affected by ADRs, and in the second 9-month period only three patients were affected.
The presence of anti-GH antibodies in more than one test during the first 9 months of treatment with Omnitrope liquid could be detected in only one patient (Table 6).
However, the current analysis was not intended to demonstrate that Omnitrope has an efficacy and safety profile similar to that of Genotropin, which was already known.
Pituitary glands in the human brain are responsible for the proper production of these hormones. They must be provided to the GH hormones deficient people in the form of supplements, pills or injections.
Therefore, the use of GH hormones drugs and other products are used by all sorts of people. Further, the smaller amounts of injections are required to be administered to the patients.
The etiology and pathogenesis of AD are still under intensive investigations (Khachaturian, 2000). Injection was made through 2 μL Hamilton syringe connected to a short piece of polyethylene tube and an injection needle (gage 27). To our knowledge this is the first study in its kind that direct administered GH in the hippocampus. Both concentration and function of acetylcholine (Ach), an essential neurotransmitter required for learning and memory processing, is decreased in patients with AD (Francis, 2005) not only in the cerebral cortex, but also in subcortical structures, the hippocampus and hypothalamus (Lamperti et al., 1992). In a more traditional approach, the (standardized) growth curves were compared between switched children and children continuously treated with the same GH. Only one patient was affected in both study periods.In general, more ADRs were observed during the first than the second 9-month period of treatment, whether the patients were switched from Genotropin to Omnitrope liquid or stayed continuously on the same treatment (Table 5).


After the 18-month period, another case of possible immunogenicity was detected, but this was of very short duration. The real value of this analysis was to address the frequently debated fact that patients should not be switched between treatments. The only thing that matters in this regard is the proper administration of the drug by some authentic doctors. Side effects of the injections may be faster as compared to those of such substances that are taken orally. The price of one month injections is almost $1000-$1500 while those of supplements may be almost $50-$150.
Atrophy of cholinergic neurons (up to 90%) in the basal forebrain formation have been well documented in end-stage of AD. The second analysis is based on a log-function model fitted to the growth observed during the 9 monthsa€™ treatment with Genotropin, and then used to predict growth for a subsequent 9 months as if Genotropin treatment had continued.
Patients with height measurements outside the predicted limits were also outside at baseline.
This analysis showed no signal that switching rhGH preparation would undermine safety or efficacy, and there was no evidence of any difference in clinical outcomes with the various rhGH preparations.
The side effects of the oral dosages are also slower and may be tackled without much problem.
It appears that GH and in some extents IGF-1 affects most of the major neurotransmitters differently in several brain regions, including the noradrenergic, dopaminergic, glutaminergic (at least at the receptor level), opoidergic and cholinergic systems. These predictions were compared to the observed height after the switch to Omnitrope liquid.
Figure 8 shows individual predicted intervals versus observed growth in nine representative switched patients.
For all injections, the needle was left in place for a further 3 min to prevent backflow and to allow the infusion. Moreover GH or IGF-1 may be used as exogenous pharmacological agents for enhancing cell genesis in the CNS. Concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured as further surrogates of GH efficacy.The incidences of anti-GH antibodies during the first and second 9 months of treatment as well as overall in switched and in nonswitched patients were compared to assess immunogenic potential.
The Effect of Intra-Hippocampal Injection of Growth Hormone on Spatial Learning and Memory in Animal Model of Alzheimer’s Disease.
Safety was assessed based on the overall incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADR), as well as in the first and second 9-month periods of treatment in switched and nonswitched patients.Descriptive statistics are provided as means A± SD or 95% CI. However, it is known that the most sensitive period regarding immunogenicity in GH treatment is the first year following treatment initiation,19 and this time period is covered within this analysis. The maze was divided geographically into four equal size quadrants and release points were designed in each quadrant as North (N), East (E), South (S) and West (W).
Further studies with a longer follow-up are needed to confirm the promising profile seen in this switch analysis.
A hidden circular escape platform (12 cm in diameter), was emerged 2 cm below the water level and was located in the center of the northeast quadrant. Some fixed visual cues including computer, desk, shelves, posters and illumination lights were placed on the walls around the pool. In aged rats, subcutaneous administration of growth hormone for 28 days was found to increase microvascular density and blood supply on brain cortical surface. A camera was positioned above the center of the pool which was connected to a computer to record the animal motions. Some evidences showed that GH administration reduces oxidative stress in hippocampus of aged rats by enhancing mitochondrial efficiency, limiting the generation of free radicals, or increasing the activity of enzymes that regulate oxidative stress.In conclusion, this study for the first time shows that central administration of GH ameliorate impairment of spatial learning and memory in aged rats with AD-like cognitive deficiency and it may be useful in the treatment of men. Surely this usefulness need more and deep human studies.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThis study was supported by Physiology Research Center (grant No. PRC-22), Ahwaz Jondishapour University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS) and Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrine and Metabolism, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. In each trial, the animals were allowed 60 sec to find the platform, after then were allowed to remain there for 30 sec, if did not find the platform within 60 sec animals were gently guided to the platform. After the completion of a trial, animals were returned to a holding cage for an intertrial interval of 60 sec. After 24 h of the last trial, platform was removed and rats were released from southwest as a probe trial (consisted of a 60 sec free swim period) and the time spent in the target quadrant was recorded (Alaeia et al., 2008).



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