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admin | Matrix Exercise Equipment | 10.04.2015
A single muscle contains around 1000 muscle fibres running down the length of the muscle and joined together.
The sarcomere – structure to function Hansen and Huxley realized that the interlocking structure of the thick and thin filaments allows them to slide past one another.
Energy for Muscle Contraction So much energy is needed when muscles contract that ATP gets used up very quickly. Aerobic Respiration Most ATP is generated via oxidative phosphorylation in the cell’s mitochondria. Slow and Fast Twitch Muscle Fibres Skeletal muscles are made up of two types of muscle fibres- slow twitch and fast twitch. SLOW TWITCH FIBRESFAST TWITCH FIBRES Appearance__________ Characteristics Rich in _________ (a red-coloured protein that stores oxygen).
SLOW TWITCH FIBRESFAST TWITCH FIBRES AppearanceRedWhite Characteristics Rich in myoglobin (a red-coloured protein that stores oxygen). Skeletal Muscle Structure – Molecular Level Titin – Connects myosin to the Z-lines in the sarcomere – It is very elastic Able to stretch up to 3 times. Ca 2+ is a Trigger For Contraction F12-9 Troponin and tropomyosin (associated with actin filaments) prevent myosin heads from compleating the power stroke; like a safety latch on a gun.
For relaxation to occur, calcium concentrations within the cytosol need to drop, and calcium needs to unbind from troponin C.
Sources of Energy For Contraction Muscle cells are unusual in the they require modest levels of ATP when at rest, and substantial amounts of ATP during intense contraction. Skeletal muscle fibres can be classified into three groups, based on their speed of contraction, and their resistance to fatigue during intense stimulation: A) Fast-twitch glycolytic fibres.
Tension Developed in a Muscle is a Function of Sarcomere Length The resting length of the muscle needs to be optimum to produce maximal tension. F12-14(a): When the muscle length is short, the sarcomeres cannot shorten very much before the myosin filaments run into the Z disks at each end.
Exciting-Contraction (E-C) Coupling APs resulting from transmitter release triggers muscle contraction.
Muscle APs in the t-tubules activates dihydropyridine (DHP) receptors, which open Ca 2+ channels. Muscle Fatigue Muscle fatigue is a condition in which the muscle is no longer able to generate or sustain the expected power output. However, other factors which may contribute to fatigue may arise from: A) Depletion of glycogen stores within the muscle.
Temporal Sequence of E-C Coupling F12-11 A single contraction- relaxation cycle in the muscle is known as a twitch. Summation of Twitches Produces a Tetanus F12-15 The summation of twitches upon repeated stimulation causes an increase in tension up to a state of maximal contraction known as a tetanus. The Somatic Motor Neuron and the Muscle Fibres it Innervates is Called a Motor Unit An AP in the motor neuron causes all the muscle fibres it innervates to contract. Nervous Control of Recruitment Order of recruitment is highly correlated with the diameter and conduction velocity of the axon, the size of the motor neuron cell body and the size and strength of the muscle fibres in the motor unit. The size principle serves two purposes: A) allows the most fatigue-resistant fibres to be recruited first and keeps the most fatigable fibres in reserve until higher forces need to be generated.
Asynchronous Recruitment The nervous system recruits different motor units at different times to maintain muscle tension.
Muscle Disorders Could result from failure in signaling in the nervous system, failure of synaptic transmission and problems with the muscle itself. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to the absence of a cytoskeletal protein known as dystrophin. Resistance exercise and microgravity are conditions that produce changes in skeletal muscles.
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Hypertrophy - Hypertrophy is a training adaptation and refers to the increase in length of the Sacromere of a muscle fibre and henceforth the overall size of the muscle altogether. Everyone knows that a brown wholemeal bread has higher fibre content and less sugars and so helps to lower blood sugar and aid digestion. Sacrolemma folds inwards across the muscle fibre, these folds are called transverse (T) tubules, they help spread electrical impulses throughout the sarcoplasm. This is where myosin and actin filaments slide over one another to make sarcomeres contract. Aerobic respiration only works when there’s oxygen so its good from long periods of low- intensity exercise, e.g. The end product of glycolysis is pyruvate which is converted to lactate by lactate fermentation. The equation for this is ADP + PCr ATP + Cr (Creatine) PCr is stored inside cells and the ATP-PCr system generates ATP very quickly. The unbinding of calcium from troponin C causes troponin (a complex of three molecules including troponin C) and tropomyosin to return to their off positions; ie. F12-14(e): If the muscle length is too long, the filaments in the sarcomere barely overlap and cannot form many crossbride links. The combination of electrical and mechanical events in the muscle fibre is called excitation-contraction coupling. Its thought to mainly arise from failure in excitation-contraction coupling within the muscle than from presynaptic factors. B) Accumilation of H + from the buildup of lactic acid and the increased production of inorganic phosphate from ATP breakdown. Latent period is the time needed for Ca 2+ to diffuse from the SR to initiation of the power stroke. In a muscle, the tension and its duration can be varied by: (a) Changing the number of motor units responding at one time. B) the increment of force generated by successively activated motor units will be roughly proportional to the level of force at which each individual unit is recruited.
Muscle cramps are caused by hyperexcitability of the somatic motor neuron controlling the muscle. These muscle fibres have tiny tears which allow Ca 2+ ions to enter them and activate enzymes that break down fibre components. Muscle Tissue Muscle accounts for nearly half of the body’s mass - Muscles have the ability to change chemical energy (ATP) into mechanical. Match the scientific name for the bones on the left of the table with the common names by dragging them to the table. My interest tailed off a little but then i returned 2012 and increased my activity within the community 10 fold. This may also be possible if you work in a shop, as a security guard, on a reception desk or many other jobs.
They are attached to the skeleton by tendons, which transmit the muscle force to the bone and can also change the direction of the force. They contain many nuclei, their cytoplasm is packed full of microfibrils, bundles of protein filaments that cause contraction, they also contain ATP for contraction.
The simultaneous contraction of lots of sacromeres means the myofibrils and muscle fibres contract. At the same time the banding pattern of the sarcomere changes; light bands, formed by actin, shrink as the filaments become more interlocked.
PCr runs out after a few seconds so its used during short bursts of vigorous exercise, e.g. Contraction is initiated when Ca 2+ binds to troponin causing tropomyosin to change its shape and expose the rest of the myosin binding site to complete the power stroke. During relaxation, the SR removes Ca 2+ from the cytosol and sarcomeres return to resting length.
An unfused (or incomplete) tetanus results when the muscle has a chance to slightly relax between stimuli, although maximal tension is achieved. As the highest threshold for motor neurons are recruited, the muscle contractions are reaching a maximum. Stretching the muscle relieves muscle cramps by sending sensory information back to the CNS to inhibit the motor neurons.
There are three types of skeletal muscle fibres in our body sub serving different contractile requirements. Examples are found in the skull and pelvic girdle – areas of the body where great strength is required. There are 6 types of synovial joint, and each type has its own characteristic range and type of movement. When muscles contract (shorten), they exert a pull on that tendon which acts across the joint to make a joint move.

Set shot – Basketball (Teach and class practice) a) Attempt to break the skill down into ‘PHASES’.
Cardiac Muscle- contracts without conscious control, like smooth muscle but its only found in the heart.
During the relaxation phase, actin and myosin are not bound together, and the thick and thin filaments of the sarcomere slide back to their original position with the aid of elastic molecules (eg.
Anaerobic metabolism of glucose is not efficient and makes cells acidic through the production of lactic acid. The speed of contraction with repeated stimulation is determined by the isoforms of myosin present in the thick filaments. C) Increased production of extracellular K + production with maximal exercise depolarizes the membrane potential and decreases release of Ca 2+ from the SR.
Inheritance in part determines the fibre-type composition, however it can also be changed by altering the fibres metabolic characteristics.
Reduced stress results in bone weight and strength reduction – ATROPHY – usually after a lay-off due to injury. FUNCTIONS OF LIGAMENTS, TENDONS AND CARTILAGE Ligaments, tendons and cartilage provide the strength, mobility and protection needed to help the joints, increase the flexibility and provide a greater range of movement.
Aerobic metabolism is very efficient but requires an adequate supply of oxygen to the muscles. Acidosis of lactic acid dumped into the bloodstream may influence the sensation of fatigue perceived in the brain. E-C coupling refers to the combination of events where a nerve AP evokes a muscle AP leading to contraction.
These joints are important for physical activity – they are often put under a great deal of stress (e.g. The muscle AP activates voltage-gated DHP receptors in t-tubules, causing calcium channels (mechanically linked to DHP receptors) to open in the SR. In the relaxed state muscle is compliant (can be stretched) In the contracted state muscle exerts a pulling force, causing it to shorten or generate force. Small cell bodies have a high transmembrane resistance (R high )because they have a smaller surface area and fewer channels. Thus, according to Ohms law (V= IR high ), the synaptic currents produce large excitatory graded potentials (EPSPs) which readily fire APs.
The muscle that bends (flexes) the joint is called the flexor muscle, and the muscle that straightens (extends) the joint is called the extensor muscle. However, the velocity of the APs as they travel towards the axon terminals are slow because of the small diameter axons. Twitch duration is dependent on the rate at which Ca 2+ is removed from the cytosol by the SR. In contrast, in large motor neurons, the cell bodies have a larger surface area and more channels; thus, a lower transmembrane resistance (R low ). Acquired disorders, such as weakness resulting from infectious diseases, such as, influenza, poisoning by toxins such as that producing botulism (botulinum toxin) and tetanus (tetanus toxin). How they work Muscle fibres contract __________ Produce less powerful contractions that can be sustained over a long period of time – high resistance to ____________ Energy released through __________ respiration. The synaptic currents therefore produce subthreshold EPSPs (V= IR low ), making it harder to trigger APs.
Muscle fibres contract _________ Produce powerful contractions ONLY over a short period of time – _______ resistance to fatigue.
Produce less powerful contractions that can be sustained over a long period of time – high resistance to fatigue Energy released through aerobic respiration. Resistance to fatigue with repeated stimulation is thought to result from preventing buildup of lactic acid. Asynchronous recruitment of motor units ensures that muscles do not fatigue during sustained contraction.
The size principle ensures that the smallest motor neurons are recruited first; these normally innervating slow-twitch oxidative fibres. Produce powerful contractions ONLY over a short period of time – low resistance to fatigue. Maintaining posture, _________________________ Good for short bursts of _________and power E.g.

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