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American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology Published 1 August 2002 Vol. The individual functional significance of the various creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes for myocardial energy homeostasis is poorly understood. A water-filled balloon custom made of polyvinyl chloride film was connected to a pressure transducer (Statham P23 Db, Gould Instruments; Glen Burnie, MD) for continuous recording of LV pressure and heart rate. In the time domain, the amplitudes of the resonances of ATP, PCr, and Pi, which are proportional to the number of phosphorus atoms in the respective compound, were determined using the “AMARES”-routine including prior knowledge. Intracellular pH (pHi) was determined by comparing the chemical shift of the Pi and PCr peaks in each spectrum to values from a standard curve.
Total CK activity and the proportion of this activity attributable to each isoenzyme of CK was measured using methods previously described. Body weight, LV weight, and LV weight-to-body weight ratios were similar in both groups, ruling out gross cardiac hypertrophy (Table1). Furthermore, there was no difference in citrate synthase, a marker of mitochondrial density, and in total LDH activities (see Table 1) or LDH isoenzyme distribution, an index of the ratio of oxidative to glycolytic capacity (data not shown). It is a widely accepted rule in science and research that you must NEVER take the findings of one research paper as absolute, irrefutable fact. Most research findings stem from a previous repository of accepted knowledge, meaning we can make a reasonably well substantiated claim that ‘x’ will end in ‘y’.
Dr Theo Wallimann explains how an ageing heart contains considerably less phosphocreatine and ATP (your bodies main energy currency), which negatively effects the energy pathways and overall efficiency of the heart. NOTE: If you have an underlying heart condition of any sort, it is prudent to contact your Doctor first before commencing a nutrition supplement regime. But before indulging yourself in creatine intake, make a little research on its side effects on the body. Consuming creatine power may cause dehydration during any sports activity as it pulls body water towards skeletal muscles.
This results in electrolyte imbalance in the body which can cause poor performance in any physical activity.
Moreover, due to energy boost as a result of creatine intake, people overdo physical activity that leads to muscle injury, cramps, or damage. Consuming creatine for improving sports performance not only increases muscle volume but also results in weight gain. Along with the above side effects, intake of creatine also causes fatigue, headaches, breathing problems and fever in some cases. Creatine when consume in comination with caffeine and herb ephedra causes serious health risk like stroke. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology Published 1 July 2001 Vol. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) results in a fetal shift in myocardial creatine kinase (CK) expression.
Studies were performed in accordance with the “Position of the American Heart Association on Research Animal Use,” and protocols were approved by the Animal Care Committee of the University of Minnesota. Measurements were performed in a 40-cm bore 4.7-T magnet interfaced with a Spectroscopy Imaging Systems (Fremont, CA) computer console as previously described (13, 31). A double-tuned (200 MHz for 1H and 81 MHz for31P) surface coil (diameter, 28 mm) was used for RF transmission and signal detection as previously described (27).
Whereas transgenic hearts lacking the M subunit of CK (M-CK) show unaltered cardiac energetics and left ventricular (LV) performance, deletion of M-CK in combination with loss of sarcomeric mitochondrial CK (ScCKmit) leads to significant alterations in myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolites. Be Wieringa (University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands) by gene targeting as previously reported (24).
Retrograde perfusion via the aorta was carried out at a constant coronary perfusion pressure of 75 mmHg at 37°C. After 16 min of baseline perfusion, these hearts were freeze clamped, the tissue was homogenized in 0.4 N perchloric acid at 0°C, and aliquots of the homogenate were removed for protein determination. CK activities were measured in international units per milligram of protein and converted to micromolars per second using the measured concentrations of cardiac protein.
It is imperative that we consider the overall body of information before we come to an agreed conclusion on a subject matter.
Now although research has shown that creatine supplementation has little effect on cardiac output, the ability of creatine to strengthen overall muscle tissue did improve quality of life. It is popularly taken as supplement by athletes or body builders to build more muscles, enhance performance and to boost energy. Though it acts as an instant energy booster, it has several effects on the functioning of the body. So it is advisable to avoid creatine intake for persons who are suffering from kidney diseases or diabetes.
Sudden increase in muscle mass makes it more prone to injury or damage as it takes time for the body to adjust with the change. Gastrointestinal discomforts such as vomiting, stomach cramps, diarrhea and reduced appetite are the effects of creatine on the body. Moreover, one should be careful about the dose of creatine intake as exceeding the dose limit worst the situation. Weight gain issue has been noticed in many sports person who take creatine regularly to boost their energy level.Weight gain occurs because creatine helps muscles to entrap more water.


It has been also noticed that creatine consumption results in irregular heartbeats in some people. With all these associated side effects with creatine consumption, measure all pros and cons of its effects on your body before making a diet plan including creatine. Because CK plays an important role in intracellular energy production, transport, and utilization, this study was performed to characterize changes in CK expression and CK flux in severe pressure-overload LVH.
The creatine kinase (CK) system plays an important role in myocardial energy metabolism by maintaining ADP levels high at the mitochondria, where ATP is generated, and low at sites of ATP utilization (21, 45). Animals were intubated and ventilated with a respirator with supplemental oxygen; arterial blood gases and pH were maintained within the physiological range. For each measurement, ?3 ? 106 microspheres were administered into the left atrial catheter.
The LV pressure signal was used to gate NMR data acquisition to the cardiac cycle, whereas respiratory gating was achieved by triggering the ventilator to the cardiac cycle between data acquisitions. PCr and ATP values were obtained from the spectra calibrated with the biopsy-measured ATP levels. A chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse sequence was employed to saturate the ATP? resonance (12); this sequence consisted of a 90° Sinc RF excitation pulse followed by a short half-sine gradient pulse in all three orthogonal axes to enhance the dephasing of transverse magnetization.
These results demonstrate that M- and B-CK containing isoenzymes are unable to fully substitute for the loss of ScCKmit. The balloon was inflated to set LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) between 6 and 8 mmHg for all hearts, and the balloon volume was then held constant.
To improve homogeneity of the NMR-sensitive volume, the perfusate level was adjusted so that the heart was submerged in buffer. Thus the ATP resonance area in the first spectrum of each heart was set to the average concentration of ATP measured biochemically for that group. Maximal activities of CK isoenzymes and isoenzyme distribution relative to total CK activity are summarized in Table2. Creatine is used as an energy source in the creatine kinase system, which is an energy source to the heart, therefore it is not unreasonable to suggest that creatine supplementation may feed into the functioning of the heart in one way or another. So indirectly then, creatine supplementation can enable people to be more active, which in turn supports the daily function of the heart and related energy systems. So if you are in extensive weight lifting, body building or athlete training then creatine powder would be helpful to improve endurance performance. Creatine consumption sometimes also gives rise to skin problem like pigmented purpuric dermotosis. Ascending aortic banding in 8-wk-old dogs resulted in LVH with a 92% increase in relative LV mass. The latter is postulated to contribute to the maintenance of a high free energy of ATP hydrolysis, thereby enhancing the efficiency of the energy utilization processes (43).
When the LV and distal aortic pressures were measured, the band was tightened until a peak systolic pressure gradient of 20–30 mmHg was achieved across the narrowing. A polyvinyl chloride catheter (outer diameter, 3.0 mm) filled with heparin-saline was introduced into the right femoral artery and advanced into the ascending aorta.
Free creatine (Crfree) was calculated by subtracting the PCr values from the biopsy measurement of total creatine. This CHESS sequence was applied repetitively to ensure complete saturation of the ATP? resonance. We conclude that ScCKmit, in contrast to M-CK, is critically necessary to maintain normal high-energy phosphate metabolite levels in the heart. Contractile performance data were collected on-line at a sampling rate of 200 Hz using a commercially available data-acquisition system (MacLab ADInstruments; Milford, MA). The ?-ATP resonance area of each heart was used as an internal standard to convert resonance areas of PCr and Pi to their respective concentrations. Aliquots of the supernatant were applied to a HPLC column (Supelcosil LC-18, 4.6 ? 250 mm, Supelco). The percentage of total CK activity attributable to each isoenzyme was measured using a Helena Cardio-Rep CK isoenzyme analyzer (17). In addition, a CK shuttle has been proposed, wherein high-energy phosphate transport within the cell is facilitated by the higher diffusibility of creatine and phosphocreatine (PCr) relative to ADP (5, 44).In postinfarction-remodeled hearts and in failing hearts, a fetal shift of myocardial CK expression has been reported, with a decrease in the MM-isoform and increases in the MB- and BB-isoforms (9, 14,16-19).
The chest was then closed, the pneumothorax was evacuated, and the animals were allowed to recover. A left thoracotomy was performed in the fifth intercostal space, and the heart was suspended in a pericardial cradle.
Radioactivity in the myocardial and blood reference specimens was determined using a ?-spectrometer (Packard; Downers Grove, IL) at window settings chosen for the combination of radioisotopes used during the study. This repetition time allowed full relaxation for ATP and Pi resonances and ?95% relaxation for the PCr resonances (31). The repetition time for signal acquisition of 12 s provided fully relaxed ATP? and PCr resonances. The genotype of each mouse was confirmed by measuring the isoenzymes of CK present using a Helena Cardio-Rep CK isoenzyme analyzer (Helena Diagnostika). All hearts were paced at 7 Hz using monophasic square wave pulses delivered from a Hugo Sachs Elektronik stimulator (model 201, Hugo Sachs Elektronik; Hugstetten, Germany) through salt bridge pacing wires made of polyethylene-160 tubing filled with 4 M KCl in 2% agarose. Single spectra were collected for 8-min periods and consisted of 256 consecutive free induction decays.


Similar findings were observed in a canine model of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) produced by ascending aortic banding (42).
LVH occurred progressively as the area of aortic constriction remained fixed in the face of normal body growth. A heparin-saline-filled catheter was introduced into the LV through the apical dimple and secured with a purse-string suture.
Activity in each energy window was corrected for overlapping activity and for background activity. Control spectra were acquired with the saturation carrier frequency setting on the opposite side of the PCr resonance with a frequency difference identical to that between PCr and ATP?. The experimental protocol for the present study followed the American Physiological Society guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals. The column effluent was analyzed at 205 nm for ATP, and amounts were calculated using external standards. Although the mechanism and functional consequences of these CK isoform shifts in the overloaded and failing heart are unclear, previous studies have demonstrated that decreases of CK activity have the potential to affect myocardial performance.
Radiofrequency (RF) transmission and signal detection were performed with previously described surface coils (13, 31, 46).
As a result, the baseline Pi resonance in the present study was too small to be reliably separated from the 2,3-DPG resonance and from background noise. Myocardial CK flux was examined using31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy magnetization transfer.
Thus in rats in which the CK system was inhibited with iodoacetate or by chronic feeding of a creatine analog, the ability of the heart to respond to an increased workload was impaired (22, 40). An NMR surface coil was sutured to the anterior LV wall overlying the region perfused by the left anterior descending coronary artery. A capillary containing 15 ?l of 3 M phosphonoacetic acid was placed at the coil center to serve as a reference. Consequently, Pi values were calculated as the difference between the integral of the Pi region during baseline conditions and during each experimental condition and are reported as ?Pi. The CK forward rate constant was similar in normal and LVH hearts at baseline and did not change in either group during dobutamine treatment. In transgenic mice lacking CK-MM and mitochondrial CK (CK-mito), a higher myocardial free ADP concentration was required to maintain ATP synthesis (33, 34).
The surface coil was constructed of a single turn of copper wire and incorporated a 33-pF capacitor; surface coils were 28 mm in diameter, respectively.
The proton signal from water was used to homogenize the magnetic field and to adjust the position of the animal in the magnet so that the coil was at or near the magnet and gradient isocenters (31). With the use of other aliquots, total creatine content was measured using the method of Kammermeier (8).
Consequently, the present study was performed to determine whether abnormal CK isoform expression during pressure-overload hypertrophy induces alterations in high-energy phosphate kinetics that limit contractile performance. The surface coil leads were connected to a balanced-tuned circuit external and perpendicular to the thoracotomy incision. With the use of the static magnetic field magnitude gradient and adiabatic inversion pulses, signal origin was restricted to a column coaxial with the surface coil (perpendicular to the LV wall); column dimensions were 23 ? 23 mm in LVH hearts and 18 ? 18 mm in normal hearts (46,47).
Noncollagen protein was measured by the method of Lowry with bovine serum albumin as the standard (11). Thus, although pressure-overload LVH caused alterations of expression of both CK mRNA and protein levels, LV performance and oxygen consumption in response to dobutamine were normal. The pericardial cradle was released, and the heart was allowed to assume its normal position. Within this column, the signal was further localized to five voxels across the LV wall from epicardium to endocardium using the RF magnetic field magnitude generated by the surface coil gradient (31). Total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, LDH isoforms, and citrate synthase activity were measured as previously described (14). Animals were placed on a circulating water heating blanket, which maintained body core temperature at 37 ± 1°C, and positioned within the magnet. The details of the adiabatic inversion pulses, the plane rotation adiabatic BIR-4 pulse, the Fourier coefficients, and the multiplication factors employed to construct the voxels have been previously reported (13, 31). Creatine transporter protein was quantified by Western blot as previously published by our group (15). This finding suggests that the CK alterations result in a need for higher ADP levels to maintain ATP synthesis in the hypertrophied heart.
Chemical shifts were measured relative to PCr, which was assigned a chemical shift of ?2.55 parts per million relative to 85% phosphoric acid.
Intracellular pH was determined from the chemical shift of Pi relative to the PCr resonance peak (4). Because of off-resonance problems associated with the ATP? resonance peak, the ATP? resonance was integrated for determination of ATP content.
Calibration of the epicardial voxel ATP content was performed using chemically determined ATP in an epicardial biopsy obtained at the conclusion of study.



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