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Thousands of books and articles have been written about the staking out and guarding of territories by animals, birds, fish and primates. Every country is a territory staked out by clearly defined boundaries and sometimes protected by armed guards. A territory is also an area or space around a person that he claims as his own, as if it were an extension of his body. This chapter will deal mainly with the implications of this air space, how people react when it is invaded and the importance of sometimes keeping an 'arms-length' relationship.
Most animals have a certain air space around their bodies that they claim as their personal space. Like most animals, each human has his own personal Portable 'air bubble', which he carries around with him; its size is dependent on the density of the population in the place where he grew up. Research shows that people in prisons appear to have larger personal space needs than most of the community, which results in the prisoners being constantly aggressive when approached by others. We'll now discuss the radius of the 'air bubble' around suburban middle-class people living in places such as Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, North America, Northern Europe, Scandinavia, Canada or anywhere a culture is 'Westernized' such as Singapore, Guam and Iceland. This means that putting your arm, in a friendly way, around someone you've just met may result in that person feeling negative towards you, even though they may smile and appear to enjoy it in order not to offend you.
Women stand slightly closer to one another, face each other more and touch more than men do with other men. If you want people to feel comfortable around you, the golden rule is 'keep your distance'.
The distance that two people keep their hips apart when they embrace reveals clues about the relationship between them. Lovers press their torsos against each other and move within each other's close Intimate Zones.
Crowding at concerts, cinemas, in trains or buses results in unavoidable intrusion into other people's Intimate Zones, and people's reactions are fascinating to watch.
It's simply each person's attempt to hide their emotions from others by wearing a neutral mask. We often hear words such as 'miserable', 'unhappy' and 'despondent' used to describe people who travel to work in the rush hour on public transport. The people travelling on the Underground aren't unhappy; they're just masking their emotions.
An angry mob or group of protesters fighting for a mutual purpose does not react in the same way as an individual does when his territory is invaded; in fact, something very different occurs. Only in recent years have governments and town planners begun to understand the effect that high-density housing projects have in depriving individuals of their personal territory.
Interrogators use territorial invasion techniques to break down the resistance of criminals being questioned. When a person claims a space or an area among strangers such as a seat at the cinema, a place at the conference table or a towel hook at the health club, he does it in a predictable way. At the cinema, if you choose a seat more than halfway between the end of the row and the nearest other person, that other person may feel offended if you are too far away from him or he may feel intimidated if you sit too close.
A young Italian couple migrated from Italy to live in Sydney, Australia and were invited to join a local social club. This situation illustrates the complications that can happen when cultures with different space needs come together.
Moving into the Intimate Zone of the opposite sex is a way of showing interest in that person and is commonly called an advance'. What seemed to the Italian couple to be a perfectly normal social encounter was being interpreted by the Australians as a sexual advance. The above illustration shows the negative reaction of a woman on whose territory a man is encroaching. Americans born and raised in a city usually stand 18 to 48 inches (46-122cm) from each other and stand in the same place while talking. The amount of Personal Space someone needs is relative to the population density where they live.
Two businessmen in a refined urban environment whose rural upbringing may become more apparent by virtue of the large reach in their handshake.
Rural people tend to stand with their feet firmly planted on the ground and lean forward to meet your handshake, whereas a city dweller will step forward to greet you. Farming equipment salespeople who live in cities find this information useful for calling on farmers in sparse rural areas.
Property a person owns or a space he regularly uses constitutes a private territory and, just as with his personal bubble, he'll fight to defend it.
Studies carried out by Desmond Morris into seating positions in libraries showed that leaving a book or personal object on a library desk reserved that place for an average of 77 minutes; leaving a jacket over a chair reserved it for two hours. If the boss of the house asks a visitor to be seated and the person innocently sits in the wrong chair, the boss can become agitated about this invasion of his territory and be put on the defensive. People driving a car can react in a way that's often completely unlike their normal social, territorial behavior.
A motor vehicle seems to have a magnifying effect on the size of a person's Personal Space.
The perceived territorial rights of our cars extend beyond the car to ownership of the space we are parked in. For some people, the car becomes a protective cocoon in which they can hide from the outside world. Look at the next photo and decide what the possible scenarios could be between the two people, based entirely on their spatial distances. Both people are from urban environments and the man is making an intimate approach to the woman.
Others will invite or reject you, depending on the respect that you have for their Personal Space.
It is estimated that over 200 people have died in their attempt to reach the summit of Mount Everest. Climbing Mount Everest is a four-day endeavor, not counting the seven day hike to Base Camp nor the two week layover where climbers allow their bodies to acclimate to the high altitude environment. Bodies of those who died at Advanced Base Camp are also left lying where they succumbed to the cold. George Mallory died in 1924 and was the first to make an attempt to reach the summit of the world’s highest mountain.
Climbers often stack rocks and packed snow around the bodies in an effort to protect them from the elements. It is assumed that this person died while resting against a snow bank which has since evaporated leaving the body in this odd raised position. The body of Shriya Shah-Klorfine is located 300m below the summit of Mount Everest. Shriya reached the summit where she stayed for 25 minutes celebrating her accomplishment. Some die from falls leaving their bodies in a location where they can be seen but not recovered.
Francys Arseniev, an American women who fell while descending with a group (that included her husband), pleaded with passerby’s to save her.
Sadly, even with modern-day technology the number of climbers dying on Mount Everest continues. In 2013, the deaths continued with the following climbers meeting an unfortunate demise: Mingma Sherpa (fell into a crevasse), DaRita Sherpa (exhaustion), Sergey Ponomarev (exhaustion), Lobsang Sherpa (fell), Alexey Bolotov (fell), Namgyal Sherpa (unknown), Seo Sung-Ho (unknown), Mohammed Hossain (unknown), and one unknown man (died on descent). In 2014, a group of about 50 people preparing the season’s climbers, were hit by the avalanche at more than 20,000 feet (just above base camp in the Khumbu Ice Fall). NEW: Altered Dimensions Classified AdsAltered Dimensions serves HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS of visitors each month. Altered Dimensions Podcast – check out our show!Take us on the road with you (and hear my Texas twang)! NOTE: Please take a moment to complete this 30-second survey required by our podcasting host. Visit Geek Slop for bite-sized chunks of science and technology news and interesting articles catered to geeks and other superhero types.
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Within each country there are usually smaller territories in the form of states and counties. Each person has his own personal territory, which includes the area that exists around his possessions, such as his home, which is bounded by fences, the inside of his motor vehicle, his own bedroom or personal chair and, as Dr Hall discovered, a defined air space around his body. How far the space extends depends mainly on how crowded the conditions were in which the animal was raised and the local population density.
Solitary confinement, where no others are in the prisoner's space, always has a calming effect.
The country in which you personally live may have larger or smaller territories than those we discuss here, but they will be proportionately the same as the ones we discuss here.
While we will tolerate strangers moving within our Personal and Social Zones, the intrusion of a stranger into our Intimate Zone causes physiological changes to take place within our bodies.
The more intimate our relationship is with other people, the closer they will permit us to move within their zones. This differs from the kiss received from a stranger on New Year's Eve, from your best friend's spouse or dear old Aunt Sally, all of whom keep their pelvic area at least 6 inches (15cm) away from yours. For example, the CEO of a company may be the weekend fishing buddy of one of his subordinates and when they go fishing each may move within the other's personal or Intimate Zone. There is a list of unwritten rules that most cultures follow rigidly when faced with a crowded situation such as a packed bus, in a line at the sandwich shop or on public transport. These labels are used to describe the blank, expressionless look on the faces of the travellers, but are misjudgements on the part of the observer.
As you choose a seat that is surrounded by a sea of unknown faces, notice how, like a pre-programmed robot, you will begin to obey the unwritten rules of masking in a crowded public place.
As the density of the crowd increases, each individual has less personal space and starts to feel hostile, which is why, as the size of the mob increases, it becomes angrier and uglier and fights may break out. The consequences of high-density living and overcrowding were seen in a study of the deer population on James Island, an island about a mile (2 kilometers) off the coast of Maryland in Chesapeake Bay in the United States. They seat the criminal on an armless, fixed chair in an open area of the room and encroach into his intimate and close Intimate Zones when asking questions, remaining there until he answers. He usually looks for the widest space available between two others and claims the area in the center. The main purpose of this spacing ritual is to maintain harmony and it appears to be a learned behavior. People choose the end toilets about 90% of the time and, if they are occupied, the midway principle is used.
Unspoken territorial rules state that a restaurant table is divided equally down the middle and the staff carefully place the salt, pepper, sugar, flowers and other accessories equally on the center line. Several weeks after joining, three female members complained that the Italian man was making sexual advances towards them and that they felt uncomfortable around him.
Many Southern Europeans have an intimate distance of only 8 to 11 inches (20-30cm) and in some places it's even less.
If the advance into the Intimate Zone is rejected, the other person will step backwards to reclaim their space. The Italians thought the Australians were being cold and unfriendly because they kept moving away from the Italians to keep a comfortable distance.
If you watch a Japanese and an American talking, the two will slowly begin to move around the room, the American moving backwards away from the Japanese and the Japanese moving forward.
People raised in sparsely populated rural areas for example, need more Personal Space than those raised in densely populated cities. People raised in a country town with a small population may have a space 'bubble' of up to 36 inches (1m) or more and this is the average measured distance from the wrist to the body when the country person shakes hands.
People raised in remote areas can have an even larger Personal Space need, which could be as wide as 18 feet (6 meters). Considering, for example, that a farmer could have a 'bubble' of 3 to 6 feet (1-2m) or more, a handshake could be seen as a territorial intrusion, causing the farmer to react negatively or defensively.
A person's home, office and car represent a territory, each having clearly marked boundaries in the form of walls, gates, fences and doors. At home a family member might mark his or her favorite chair by leaving a personal object, such as a handbag or cell phone, on or near it to show their claim and ownership of the space. A simple question such as, 'Which chair is yours?' can avoid the negative results of making such a territorial error. In some cases, this territory is magnified up to 10 times the normal size, so the driver feels that he has a claim to an area of 25 to 30 feet (8-10 meters) in front of and behind his car. Rigorous observation proved that people entering their car to leave a parking space take 50%+ longer in exiting on average when the person is fully aware of someone else waiting for the parking space as compared to the scenario when no one else is obviously waiting. As they drive slowly beside the curb, almost in the gutter, they can be as big a hazard on the road as the driver with the expanded Personal Space. A few simple questions and further observation of these people can reveal the correct answer and can help you avoid making incorrect assumptions. This is why the happy-go-lucky person, who slaps everyone he meets on the back or continually touches people during a conversation, is secretly disliked by many.
Climbers begin their four-day Mount Everest climb at Base Camp located at the foot of the mountain. Given that a person can die between breaths, many dead are not recognized as such until quite some time after they succumb. At mortal journey, check out the footprints of our past - interesting stories and news about past and current trends and fads. We try our best to attribute images, videos, quotes, and article sources to their creators and original sources. When you understand the implications of this, you can gain enormous insights into your own behavior, and the face-to-face reactions of others can be predicted.
Within these are even smaller territories called cities and towns, within which are suburbs, containing many streets that, in themselves, represent a closed territory to those who live there. Where some cultures, such as the Japanese, are accustomed to crowding, others prefer the 'wide open spaces' and like you to keep your distance.
Violence from passengers on aircraft increased during the 1990s when the airlines started packing people close together in the seats to compensate for revenue lost as a result of price discounting. Of all the zone distances, this is by far the most important, as it is this zone that a person guards as if it were his own property. This is the distance that we stand from others at cocktail parties, office parties, social functions and friendly gatherings. We stand at this distance from strangers, the plumber or carpenter doing repairs around our home, the mailman, the barista at Starbucks, the new employee at work and people whom we do not know very well. Whenever we address a large group of people, this is the comfortable distance at which we choose to stand. The heart pumps faster, adrenalin pours into the bloodstream, and blood is pumped to the brain and the muscles as physical preparations for a possible fight or flight situation are made.
A recently hired employee may initially feel that the other staff members are cold towards him, but they are only keeping him in the Social Zone until they know him better.
At the office, however, the CEO keeps his fishing buddy at the social distance to maintain the unwritten code of social strata rules.
What the observer sees, in fact, is a group of people masking - adhering to the rules that apply to the unavoidable invasion of their Intimate Zones in a crowded public place.
As you compete for territorial rights to the armrest with the stranger beside you, you will begin to realize why those who often go to a crowded cinema alone do not take their seats until the lights are out and the film begins.
The police try to break up the crowd so that each person can regain his own personal space and become calmer.
Many of the deer were dying in large numbers, despite the fact that at the time there was plenty of food, predators were not evident and infection was not present. It often takes only a short while for this territorial harassment to break down the criminal's resistance. At the cinema he will choose a seat that is halfway between the end of a row and where the nearest person is sitting.


Men always try to avoid standing beside strangers at a public urinal and always obey the unwritten law of 'Death before eye contact'. As the meal progresses, subtly move the salt cellar across to the other person's side, then the pepper, flowers and so on.
The male members of the club felt that the Italian woman had also been behaving as if she could be sexually available. The Italian couple felt at ease and relaxed when standing at a distance of 10 inches (25cm) from the Australians but were totally unaware of their intrusion into the Australians' 46-centimetre Intimate Zone. If the advance is accepted, the other person holds his ground and allows the intruder to remain. However, the man may be from a culture with a smaller Personal Zone and he is moving forward to a distance that is comfortable for him.
This is an attempt by both the American and Japanese to adjust to a culturally comfortable distance from the other. Watching how far a person extends his arm to shake hands gives a clue to whether he is from a large city or a country area.
Successful country salespeople state almost unanimously that the best negotiating conditions exist when they greet the rural customer with an extended handshake and the farmer from a remote area with a distant wave. When another driver cuts in front of him, even if it wasn't dangerous, the driver may go through a physiological change, becoming angry and even attacking the other driver in what is commonly known as 'Road Rage'. In the former scenario this manifests itself through our readjustments of the rearview mirror, makeup, or clothes, or making cell phone calls; any number of ways to unconsciously or semi-consciously demonstrate our ownership of the space. Italians, with their smaller spatial needs, are often accused of being tail-gaters and pushy on the roads because they are closer than is culturally accepted elsewhere. A number of factors can affect the spatial distance a person takes in relation to others, so it's wise to consider every criterion before making a judgement about why a person is keeping a certain distance. Climbers face the dangers of falling off the mountain, tripping into huge crevices, asphyxiation from low oxygen levels, avalanches and falling rocks, and weather that can unexpectedly change drastically in mere minutes. Climbers leave the 17,700 foot base camp, which borders Tibet and Nadas, and seek to reach Camp #1 located at 20,000 feet.
In an environment where the climber’s every step is a struggle, rescue of the dead or dying is all but impossible and bodies of the dead are almost always irretrievable.
If you see something on Altered Dimensions that's misattributed or you would like removed, please contact us. American anthropologist Edward Hall was one of the pioneers in the study of man's spatial needs and in the early 1960s he coined the word 'proxemics', from 'proximity' or nearness. In the cinema it's an armrest where we do silent battle with strangers who try to claim it.
A lion raised in the remote regions of Africa may have a territorial space with a radius of 30 miles (50 kilometers) or more, depending on the density of the lion population in that area, and it marks its territory by urinating or defecating around the boundaries. As he becomes better known to them, the distance between them decreases until eventually he is permitted to move within their Personal Zones and, in some cases, their Intimate Zones. Whether we are in a crowded elevator, cinema or bus, people around us become non-persons - that is, they don't exist as far as we are concerned and so we don't respond as if we were being attacked if someone inadvertently encroaches on our territory. Similar studies in earlier years with rats and rabbits revealed the same trend and further investigation showed that the deer had died as a result of overactive adrenal glands, resulting from the stress caused by the degradation of each deer's personal territory as the population increased.
At the health club, he chooses the towel hook that is in the largest available space, midway between two other towels or midway between the nearest towel and the end of the towel rack. Italian people also use more eye contact and touch than Australians, which gave rise to further misjudgements about their motives. To measure a man's level of interest in her, a woman will step into his Intimate Zone and then step back out again. The Japanese, with his smaller 10-inch (25cm) Intimate Zone, continually steps forward to adjust to his spatial need, but this invades the American's Intimate Zone, forcing him to step backwards to make his own spatial adjustment. City dwellers typically have their private 18-inch (46cm) 'bubble'; this is also the measured distance between wrist and torso when they reach to shake hands. In a home a person's private territory may be their kitchen and they will object to anyone invading it when they are using it. Compare this to the situation that occurs when the same person is stepping into a lift and another person steps in front of him, invading his personal territory. At the summit, winds can reach hurricane strength literally blowing the climber off the mountain.
After resting the night at Camp #1, they next travel to Camp #2, also known as Advanced Base Camp (ABC).
The bodies become part of the landscape and many become “landmarks” that later climbers use as way markers during their climb. His research into this field led to new understanding about our relationships with each other.
The inhabitants of each territory share an intangible allegiance to it and have been known to turn to savagery and killing in order to protect it.
On the other hand, a lion raised in captivity with other lions may have a personal space of only several yards (metres), the direct result of crowded conditions. The adrenal glands play an important part in the regulation of growth, reproduction and the level of the body's defenses. The purpose of this ritual is to avoid offending the other people by being either too close or too far away from them. The Italians were shocked when this was pointed out to them but they resolved to practice standing back at a more culturally accepted distance.
If you look at a video of this phenomenon replayed at high speed it gives the illusion that the two men are waltzing around the room with the Japanese leading.
A businessman may have his favorite place at the conference table, diners may have their favorite seat in the cafe, and Mom or Dad have their favorite chair at home. His reaction in those circumstances is normally apologetic and he allows the other person to go first: dramatically different from what happens when the same person cuts in front of him on the open road.
Oxygen levels leave the climbers gasping for breath while their oxygen deprived brains leave them unable to make rational decisions.
From Advanced Base Camp they move to Camp #3 where at 24,500 feet, oxygen levels are so low, they must wear oxygen masks while they sleep. There is a sub-zone that extends up to 6 inches (15cm) from the body that can be entered only during intimate physical contact. A physiological reaction to the stress of overpopulation had caused the deaths, not starvation, infection or aggression from others. This is one of the reasons why, when negotiating business, Asians, Europeans or Americans often look at each other with suspicion. These areas may be marked either by leaving personal possessions on or around the area, or by frequent use of it. Some climbers stop for a brief rest only to slowly drift into a deep sleep, never to wake up.
This is why areas that have the highest human population density also have the highest crime and violence rates. The Europeans or Americans refer to the Asians as 'pushy' and 'familiar' and the Asians refer to the Europeans or Americans as 'cold', 'stand-offish' and 'cool'. The cafe diner may even go so far as to carve his initials into 'his' place at the table and the businessman marks his territory at the conference table with things such as a personal folder, laptop, books and clothing spread around his 18-inch (46cm) Intimate Zone border. All dangers aside, ask any climber who has beaten the mountain and reached the 29,000 foot summit and they will tell you the most memorable, and disturbing, part of their climb were the many perfectly preserved bodies that they passed on their way to the top. After reaching Camp #4, climbers arrive at the “death zone” and must decide whether to continue, stop and rest a little longer, or turn back. This lack of awareness of Intimate Zone variations between cultures can easily lead to misconceptions and inaccurate assumptions about one culture by another.
During their ascent, the climber is literally teetering on the brink of life and death and in a race to reach the summit, and back, before their bodies shut down and die.



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