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In another chapter in Book I, Ptolemy wrote that there are two ways of making a portrait of the world: one is to reproduce it on a sphere, and the other is to draw it on a plane surface. If the second method of drawing the earth is used, that is, if the spherical earth is projected onto a plane surface, certain adjustments are obviously necessary.
In the eighth and last Book of the Geographia, Ptolemy returned to the business of discussing the principles of cartography, mathematical, geographical and astronomical methods of observation, and, in some cases (manuscript or printed copies) there follow short legends for each of the special maps - ten for Europe, four for Africa and twelve for Asia - mentioning the countries laid down on each plate, describing the limits, and enumerating the tribes of each country and its most important towns. The obvious way to avoid crowding, Ptolemy said, is to make separate maps of the most populous regions or sectional maps combining densely populated areas with countries containing few inhabitants, if such a combination is feasible.
The other version, B, contains sixty-four maps distributed throughout the text, vice collected together in one place. Ptolemy’s knowledge of the vast region from Sarmatia to China was, however, better than that of previous map makers.
The presently known version of Ptolemy’s works began to surface when the Byzantine monk Maximos Planudes (1260 - 1310) succeeded in finding and purchasing a manuscript copy of the Geographia. Note that most scholars, however, believe that due to its placement on the column in a portico or stoa open to the public, the Porticus Vipsani, it was probably rectangular, not circular. In the second place Schnabel’s statement that Agrippa reduced the itinerary figure of 745 miles to a straight line of 411 cannot be accepted. Spain consists of three boxes, the square of Lusitania and the rectangle of the Hispania citerior [Roman province] east of it being placed over the rectangle of B?tica. Note that most scholar, however, believe that due to its placement on the column in a portico or stoa open to the public, the Porticus Vipsani, it was probably rectangular, not circular. All these parts were in place when an errant 1508 report of a strait at the tip of South America with a large southern continent lying beneath inspired Schoner to unwittingly preserve the only copy of Agrippa’s Orbis Terrarum on the bottom of his 1515 world globe. It was reverse engineered from the mappaemundi, but plays it relatively safe in its assumptions. The purpose of this little book is to write a description of the world map, which we have designed both as a globe and as a projection [tam in solido quam plano].
In Plate IX of the map, numbering the plates from left to right, the top row first, Waldseemuller re-asserts that he is particularly delineating the lands discovered by Vespucci.
A general delineation of the various lands and islands, including some of which the ancients make no mention, discovered lately between 1497 and 1504 in four voyages over the seas, two by Fernando of Castile, and two by Manuel of Portugal, most serene monarchs, with Amerigo Vespucci as one of the navigators and officers of the fleet; and especially a delineation of many places hitherto unknown.
This map’s greatest claim to immortality, however, is contained in the simple word of seven letters, America, the earliest known use of that name to describe the newly found fourth part of the world, placed on the southern continent (present-day South America) of the world map only by Waldseemuller. Plate I, in the upper left-hand corner, contains an inscription that explains Waldseemuller’s ideas as to the location of the lands discovered by Vespucci and Columbus. Waldseemuller places a land to the west of Isabella Insula [Cuba], as do many of the other mapmakers of his time, La Cosa, Cantino, Ruysch and Caveri (#305, #308, #313, #307).
Through agreement with Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the government of Germany, the 1507 world map by Martin Waldseemuller is to be placed on permanent display in the Library of Congress’s Great Hall area in the Thomas Jefferson Building.
Description: In 1507, the copper plates used for the 1490 Rome edition of Ptolemy’s Geographia were reprinted, together with six new maps, either by the printer Bernard Venetus de Vitalibus or the editor Evangelista Tosinus.
The oldest printed maps showing America (as opposed to one-of-a-kind “manuscript” or hand-drawn maps) are the world maps of Giovanni Matteo Contarini (#308), the one produced by Martin Waldseemuller (#310) and this map by Ruysch. While Ruysch is believed by some historians to have been with John Cabot on his famous voyage of 1497, his map makes no direct mention of the Cabots. Ruysch drew his map as a planisphere on a modified equidistant conical projection with its apex at the North Pole which is another remarkable feature. The basis of the entire Ruysch map, according to the historian Henry Harrisse, was a purely Lusitanian planisphere, similar to those of Cantino and Caveri (#306 and #307), but constructed after the former and before the latter; that is, between 1502 and 1504, as we have shown in a comparative description of the continental region which is north of Central America in Portuguese charts. But as Ruysch had himself visited the northern part of Newfoundland on board an English vessel, and acquired from experience positive data concerning the situation of that peninsula, as he calls it: qui peninsulae Terra Noua uocat?, without having the same reasons as Gaspar Corte Real to place it in the middle of the Atlantic, within the Portuguese Line of Demarcation, Ruysch, following the charts used by his English companions, brought Newfoundland close to the western continent. This is sometimes interpreted to be another element of British influence, as the variation of the compass orientation had been noted by Cabot on his second voyage. To that effect, Harrisse compares the nomenclature of the region placed in Ruysch’s mappamundi, south of his Terra Nova, with the names inscribed on the northwestern continental land in the Cantino and Caveri maps, both of which are of the Lusitanian map tradition, with no admixture of foreign geographical elements whatever.
The Ruysch map is classified by the historian Henry Harrisse as a Type III within the Lusitano-Germanic Group of new world maps (the only specimen that Harrisse places in this Type). It is evident, from what has already been said, that Ruysch deserves to be placed in the first rank among the reformers of cartography.
The oldest printed maps showing America (as opposed to one-of-a-kind “manuscript” or hand-drawn maps) are the world maps of Giovanni Matteo Contarini (#308), the one produced by Martin Waldseemuller (#310) and this map by Ruysch.  While Contarini’s and Waldseemuller’s maps, printed as individual sheets, have fallen victim to the ravages of time, and only a single copy of each is known to have survived, a number of copies of Ruysch’s map, which was printed as a plate in an atlas, are preserved today.
It is these legends which, in some editions, have been placed on the reverse of the maps, and they appear to have been originally intended for that purpose. In Chapter Two Ptolemy said, “It remains for us to show how we set down all places, so that when we divide one map into several maps we may be able to accurately locate all of the well-known places through the employment of easily understood and exact measurements.” On the other hand, some scholars even go so far as to say that maps were already drawn before certain portions of the text was addressed, so that they could be used as models for the completion of other portions of the text.
Ptolemy extended the west coast of Africa with a free hand, and even though he reduced the bulge made by Marinus more than half, it was still way out of control.
He shows, for the first time, a fairly clear idea of the great north-south dividing range of mountains of Central Asia, which he called Imaus, but he placed it nearly 40° too far east and made it divide Scythia into two parts: Scythia Intra Imaum and Scythia Extra Imaum Montem [Within Imaus and Beyond Imaus].
The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenes’ division of the world into North and South. On the re-establishment of peace after the civil wars, he was determined on the one hand to found new colonies to provide land for discharged veterans, on the other hand to build up a new image of Rome as the benevolent head of a vast empire. Detlefsen had explained their origin by assuming the production of smaller hand-copies of Agrippa’s map, their smallness then making a written text desirable. In the first place, Schnabel has apparently overlooked Ptolemy’s method of establishing the longitude and latitude of particular geographical points.
All three adjustments were based on their Roman counterparts, but reflect necessary adjustments as the makers of the mappaemundi opted for a Christocentric design. On Plate V (the Caribbean area) of his map, Waldseemuller wrote: These islands were discovered by Columbus, an admiral of Genoa, at the command of the King of Spain. This area may represent the coast of China copied from Marco Polo, and placed here in the belief that the new discoveries were in and near Asia.
After a halt at the Cape Verde Islands, the expedition traveled southwestward, reached the coast of Brazil, and certainly sailed as far south as the Rio de la Plata, which Vespucci was the first European to discover.

That map, printed on twelve separate sheets from wood block plates, when assembled would measure more than 4 1?2 feet by 8 feet in dimension. Instead, in the 1513 atlas the name America does not appear anyplace in the volume, and the place of America is referred to as Terra Incognita (Unknown land). This single surviving copy of the map exists because it was kept in a portfolio by Johannes Scho?ner (1477-1547), a German globe maker, who probably had acquired a copy of the map for his own cartographic work. The southern point of Africa moreover is here placed on a nearly correct latitude, thus giving a tolerably exact form to that part of the world. In its plane state the map appears as an opened fan with the curved, or southern edge, at the bottom. Ruysch designates its coast as SILVA ALOE [aloe forest] for the valuable plant which Polo said the king of Chamba offered as part of his annual tribute to the Kublai Khan. It has long been recognized that there were corrections to the plates of this map even before the earliest known example, state one - thus the importance of examining an early strike of the map, to better discern these changes. It has long been recognized that there were corrections to the plates of this map even before the earliest known example, state one. His Analemma was mathematical description of a sphere projected on a plane, subsequently known as an “orthographic projection,” which greatly simplified the study of gnomonics. In addition, a description of a projection of the inhabited hemisphere on a plane, by which it could retain its circular outline, or globular aspect is also given. The better known regions have many place-names, while the lesser known have few, and, unless the map is carefully drawn, it will have some crowded, illegible areas, and some where distances are unduly extended. Ptolemy “corrected” this length to 180° (9,000 miles), still 50° (2,500 miles) too long, an error arising from using the Fortunate Islands as his prime meridian which he placed about seven degrees (350 miles) too far to the east. Planudes constructed a map based upon the instructions found in Ptolemy’s eight books and subsequently, through Athanasios, Patriarch of Alexandria, had a copy of the Geographia, with maps made for Emperor Andronicus III.
The fact that such an insignificant and distant place as Charax was named on the map shows the detail that it embodied. Cross measurements of the Mediterranean are given at three points, from the Italian coast by way of Corsica and Sardinia to Africa, from southern Greece through Sicily to the same place, and from Cape Malea in Greece to Crete and Cyrenaica. But it may actually be that the EMM were based on the original text found on Agrippa’s map with the locative terms such as “above,” “opposite,” and “to the south of” being necessary for a consolidated text set apart from the map, while the mappaemundi’s placement of these data items directly onto the map logically allowed the removal of the spatial references.
To avoid confusion hereafter the main portion of the map will be referred to as the “world map”, designating the two small representations of the eastern and western hemispheres, placed above the world map, as the “insets”.
However, as can be seen above on Plate I of the world map, the two continents are inexplicably separated by a hypothetical strait, connecting the two great oceans.
In ignoring the possible intention of these words as explanation, most scholars have ignored the simple fact that place names usually originate informally in the spoken word and first circulate that way, not in the printed word. It is not enumerated in the table of contents of the 1507 edition and it must be assumed that Ruysch’s drawing came into the engraver's hands late in the year, just in time to be engraved and inserted into some of the copies then printed. Ruysch also gives on his map a relatively correct place to the Insule ae Azores, Insula de Madera, Ins. The use of the letter “k” in this “Rocky Bay” is one of the map’s scant traces of the British flag under which Ruysch is believed to have sailed. In his scholarly work, The Continent of America, John Boyd Thacher made this comment regarding the Ruysch map; “The mystery of this map — and every early map boasted its mystery — is the absence of the island of Cuba from its place in the Caribbean Sea”. His work entitled Planisph?rium [the Planisphere], described a sphere projected on the equator, the eye being at the pole, a projection later known as “stereographic”.
Some map makers have a tendency to exaggerate the size of Europe because it is most populous, and to contract the length of Asia because little is known about the eastern part of it.
As for his own policy, he said, “in the separate maps we shall show the meridians themselves not inclined and curved but at an equal distance one from another, and since the termini of the circles of latitude and of longitude of the habitable earth, when calculated over great distances do not make any remarkable excesses, so neither is there any great difference in any of our maps”. This particular copy has not been recovered, however another copy attributed to Planudes is preserved, in part, in the monastery of Vatopedi on Mount Athos. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. Detlefsen, as against the view of Partsch, effectively quoted the passage of the younger Pliny, on the 160 volumes of his uncle’s commentarii, which he describes as electorum… commentarios, opisthographos quidem et minutissime scriptos, annotated excerpts, written on the back in a minute hand. It is, of course, possible to imagine that tabulated lists were put up as an adjunct to the map at the short ends, but the references to Spain and the Caspian seem somewhat out of place even here, and the balance of probability on this problem seems to lie, although rather precariously in favor of a contemporary, or nearly contemporary, publication of at least a selection of Agrippa’s material comprising something more than mere lists of names and figures. Firstly, Klotz has not discussed the possible use of Agrippa in Ptolemy’s Geography, and secondly, and much more fundamentally, he has not recognized the scientific importance of the world-map of Agrippa as a link between Eratosthenes and Hipparchus on the one hand and Marinus and Ptolemy on the other, but has merely repeated traditional views dating from the end of the 19th century. The most important of these passages is the first (II, 5, 17, C 120) where he refers to the important role played by the sea and secondarily, and by rivers and mountains in the shaping of the earth. Yet we may be sure that maps still continued to be made as rectangles on a plane surface, although the relation of the spherical to the plane surface must have begun to appear as a problem.
Again the horizontal spine of Mount Taurus plays an important role in both as a line of division between the northern and southern areas, Agrippa, however, follows the Eratosthenic method of division only in a general way and not in detail. And finally, based on Schoner’s design Agrippa’s map was built around a concentric grid that resembled a polar projection which he as a globe maker would have readily recognized. But should some doubts still linger, he offers one last review two earlier images comparing the landmass to other C-shaped maps, the Greek Hecataeus (#108) and medieval Hereford world maps, and ask that you consider the mathematical probability that Schoner would incorporate the precise elements of these maps in their precise order and placement without an ancient world map as his template. And (to begin with our own continent) in the middle of Europe we have placed the eagles of the Roman Empire (which rule the Kings of Europe) and with the key (which is the symbol of the Holy Father), we have enclosed almost the whole of Europe, which acknowledges the Roman Church. However, this view is not supported on the Waldseemuller map either by the place-names found in the area of the new discoveries, or by the overall visual image presented by the placement of the new discoveries as totally separated by some distance from Asia.
All these we have added to the earlier known places, so that those who are fond of things of this sort may gaze upon all that is known to us of the present day, and may approve of out painstaking labors. A black African discovery of America, it has been argued, took place around 3,000 years ago, and influenced the development of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca civilizations. Moreover, as a reflection of national pride, a theory native to Hungary argues that the European explorers of the New World (or their priests) named it after this popular saint, in the old tradition of bestowing place names in honor of saints. His published letters had fallen into the hands of these German scholars, among whom was the young cartographer Martin Waldseemuller.
This suggests that the map was prepared for press in a hurry and the punch used as the quickest method of lettering the plate.

It can be surmised that Ruysch was confused by Columbus’ insistence that Cuba was the eastern tip of a continental Asian promontory; Columbus, on his second voyage (1493-94), went so far as to force his officers to make sworn statements that Cuba was such a peninsula, in effect the Aurea Chersonesus or Cattigara of Ptolemy. This ‘tutor’ of Ptolemy had read nearly all of the historians before him and had corrected many of their errors (presumable errors relating to the location of places as contained in travelers’ itineraries).
The listing of place-names, either in geographical or alphabetical order, with the latitude and longitude of each place to guide the search, is not so different from the modern system of letters and numerals employed to help the reader, a little convenience that is standard on modern maps and Ptolemaic in origin.
Within this round frame the Roman cartographers placed the Orbis Terrarum, the circuit of the world. This shape was also one that suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. If Romans were planning this, they would place the northern section much further west, whereas the cartographers were Greeks, and they followed a tradition which originated in Rhodes or Alexandria. Romans going to colonies, particularly outside Italy, could obtain information about the location or characteristics of a particular place. We do not know the size of this map that has perished, or whether its descent from the map of Agrippa was through a series of hand-copies as Detlefsen supposed. By subtraction we get the difference in longitude between the two places as 8° 45’ and the difference in latitude as 1° 55’. On the other hand, navigators unknown to modern historians, may have sailed along the coast of Florida at this time. This one request we have to make, that those who are inexperienced and unacquainted with cosmography shall not condemn all this before they have learned that it will surely be clearer to them later on, when they have come to understand it. Hudd opens with a reference to Bristol's 1897 celebration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of North America by John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), the Italian navigator and explorer who had sailed for England, laying the groundwork for the later British claim to Canada. Waldseemuller recognized the transition taking place, as the title of his map notes and his placement prominently of images of Ptolemy and Vespucci, next to their worlds, at the top portion of the 1507 world map denotes. So, it was in place long before Ruysch made his map, and to be true, no one knows from what saint it was named.
During the second century, Alexandria was not only the richest city in the world, with regard to learned institutions and treasures of scholarship, but also the wealthiest commercial place on the earth.
Finally, Ptolemy thought, about all one could do was to locate unfamiliar places as accurately as possible with reference to well-known places, in as much as it is advisable on a map of the entire world to assign a definite position to every known place, regardless of how little is known about it.
He must have had plans drawn, and may even have devised and used large-scale maps to help him with the conversion of Lake Avemus and the Lacus Lucrinus into naval ports.
Using Ptolemy’s reduction factor at 43° N latitude which is forty-three sixtieths we find that with Ptolemy’s degree of 500 stadia the difference in longitude between the two places in question is 3,135 and five-twelfths stadia and the difference in latitude is 958 and one-third stadia. Only a combination of the practical measurements with astronomical observation could have affected a real progress and our evidence shows only too clearly that this happy union did not take place. As can be seen, Terra Incognita replaces America and it is placed up against a frame that avoids any speculation as to the size or shape of the new continent(s). For his achievement Cabot received a handsome pension conferred upon him by the King, from the hands of the Collectors of Customs of the Port of Bristol. Taprobana is placed further towards the East Indian peninsula, in which position this geographical remnant from the time of Alexander the Great was retained, down to the middle of the 16th century. This threat was quite real to Columbus, who figured himself prominently into the events, believed by him to be close at hand, leading to the end of the world.
It was a place where seafaring people and caravans from all parts of the known world would use to congregate, thereby providing the opportunity to collect knowledge of far away lands and seas. When such a conical surface is extended on a plane, a network with circular parallels and rectilinear, converging meridians arise. This particular world map is usually found at the end of Book VII, preceded by three chapters containing some practical advice, a general description of all known areas of the world and the three principle seas (the Mediterranean, the Caspian and the Indian Ocean), with their bays and islands, and instructions for drawing a sphere and maps on a plane surface.
Byzantium is placed in the same latitude as Massilia, which made it more than two degrees north of its true position.
Schnabel now treats the spherical triangle involved as a plane right-angled triangle, and using the theorem of Pythagoras, he finds that the hypotenuse, that is, the distance between the Varus and the Arsia is 3,291 stadia or 411 Roman miles. The same thing occurred in the British islands that were regarded as running from northeast to southwest.
One of these officials, the senior of the two, who was probably the person who handed over the money to the explorer, was named Richard Ameryk (also written Ap Meryke [Welsh] on one deed, and elsewhere written Amerycke) who seems to have been a leading citizen of Bristol at the time.
Cannibalism had, though, been reported independently by early mainland explorers, such as Vespucci, perhaps rendering the Trindad association more plausible in Ruysch’s mind. Cartography is not an artistic endeavor according to the Greek scholar, but should be concerned with the relation of distance and direction, and with the important features of the earth’s surface that can be indicated by plain lines and simple notations (enough to indicate general features and fix positions). The map of Agrippa, however, was set up, not in a sacred place, but in a portico or stoa open to the public, the Porticus Vipsania. A red cross symbolizes Prester John (who rules both eastern and southern India and who resides in Biberith); and finally on the fourth division of the earth, discovered by the kings of Castile and Portugal, we have placed the emblems of those sovereigns. And what is to be borne in mind, we have marked with crosses shallow places in the sea where shipwreck may be feared. On the other hand, we know that several cartographers identified North American mainland as “Greenland” so the label for Labrador on this map is not so unusual. This term, in its sundry Romance variations, soon became a major place-name associated with North America.
Augustus, as he was ill, handed his signet-ring to Agrippa, thus indicating him as acting emperor. It is unfortunate, however, that nearly all Agrippa’s figures come down to us in a non-reduced form that makes it impossible to reproduce his map. The adjacent features also make sense in this interpretation; C GLACIATO (a reference to glacial waters) would be Newfound-land, C DE PORTOGESI would be Nova Scotia, and IN BACCALAURAS would be Cape Breton or Prince Edward Island.

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