18 May. 2003|
Tools to cut wood joints,dewalt planer blades dw733,plans for a wood workbench - For Begninners
It will never match the beauty of a dovetail or the strength of a mortise-and-tenon, but for speed, accuracy, and ease of use, it’s hard to beat the biscuit joint. Biscuit joints can be used on all wood products: solid wood, plywood, medium-density fiberboard (MDF), and particleboard. The biscuit joiner has just four main parts: a motor, a blade that cuts the slot, an adjustable fence that aligns some types of cut, and a base that houses the blade and also can align cuts.
An adjustable stop on the joiner controls the depth of cut to match each of the common biscuit sizes—0, 10, and 20. When nailing or srewing but joints use corner or mitre clamps to hold the two pieces in place. Halved joints or lap joints are mostly used to assemble light frames which are going to be covered with hardboard or plywood. Mitre joints are always cut to 45° in a mitre box so that they will form a 90° corner when joined. When nailing a mitre joint always start the nail with one part of the mitre above the other.
Loose tongued joints are used to join planks edge to edge to form a larger board like a table top in which case they are always glued only.
Bare faced tongue and groove or Loose tongue and groove joints can be used to join chair rails to chair legs.
Tenon and mortise joints are very strong joints mostly used in furniture making and for heavy doors and gates. Using the same settings of the mortise gauge mark the mortise on one side of the other piece of wood. Remove excess wood with a sharp chisel, always working from the centre to the edges of the mortise. Place the wood from which the tenon has to be cut at a 45° angle in a vice and with a tenon saw start cutting the tenon cheeks at the highest point on the waste side of the marking.
A through mortise can be strengthened by inserting small wedges in the opposite end of the wood to hold the tenon in place. Bridle joints or open mortise and tenon joints are used in furniture making especially to join the legs to the cross pieces. Lay the two pieces over each other and transfer the markings through the cuts with a tenon saw.
Lapped dovetails are mostly used for drawer fronts as they give a very neat, strong joint with only one side showing end wood. A very nice joint to use for fixing drawer sides to fronts but don't attempt it without a router. Dowels are mostly used to strengthen butt, mitre and rebated joints but are also used to join wood when making or repairing small tables, chairs and doors.
When using dowels to join cross pieces to small legs, stagger the dowels for maximum length and strength.
Small pieces of quadrant or a length of quadrant run the entire length of the joint make excellent glue blocks and give a neat finish especially on the inside of drawers and boxes.
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GOAL: To learn the process and techniques involved in hand-cutting two of the most common of the four types of dovetail joints.
Tools for dovetailing (starting at bottom right): cutting gauge, try square, dovetail saw, Japanese miter gauge, sliding bevel, bevel edge chisels, Warrington hammer, coping saw, pencil, marking knife. Start the cut at the far side, follow the squared line, then angle the saw by sighting down the guide line. The single-lap joint on the front is marked out by two gauge settings and three gauge lines.
With the type of dovetail joint selected for your project and the design and layout complete, you might be eager to get started. The single-lap dovetail is the joint at the front of any drawer constructed using dovetail joinery.
Although the design and layout will differ (see illustration), the tails in a single-lap dovetail are cut with the same method used in cutting the tails of a through dovetail. Next, clamp the drawer front upright in the vise and, slice by slice, cut down vertically with gentle mallet blows (see Photo 2). Ideally, the joint is loose enough that it can be inserted by hand, but tight enough that the tenon stays in there on its own. You never want your tenon piece too small because the glue joint will not be strong enough to hold. As you can see, the mortise part of the wood joint is made with a router and the tenon is cut on the table saw. By doing a search on Youtube or Google, you will find a number of different methods for making your own jigs for cutting these specialty joints.
Clamp the hardwood in the vise that will be receiving the tenon and start making the end cuts (cheeks) with your dovetail saw. Once you have cut the tenon to size, lay it on the wood that will get the mortise cut and mark the proper width that the mortise needs to be cut in relation to the outside edges of the peg.
You can learn how to make mortise and tenon joints that are accurate through trial and error.
For this reason, they are great for cabinetry, which typically involves a mix of solid wood and sheet goods. The spinning blade emerges from the front of the tool to cut a shallow, arc-shaped slot in the workpiece. So when you insert a biscuit into a glue-lined slot, the biscuit expands, creating a snug fit and a tight joint. This joint is useful for making light-duty door frames, especially when the panel is plywood or MDF. Reposition the joiner so the base butts against the end of the shelf, and cut the mating slots in the side piece (right). These joints are not recommended for hardwood unless pilot holes and screws or dowels are used to hold them together.
Half the thickness of each piece of wood to be joined is cut away with a tenon saw and the joint is glued and screwed or nailed.
When the depth line of the tenon is reached, turn the wood around and finish cutting from the other side.
Marked in the same way as mortise and tenon joints the only difference is that the mortise is cut into the wood from the end. Marking is the same as for open dovetails but the cutting out between the pins needs a fair amount of chiseling. With the saw teeth held horizontal, cut the slopes of the tails down to the knifed shoulder line on both sides.
The level of complexity for making these joints with homemade templates and jigs is very high. I even found several jigs that can be purchased from woodworking experts during this research process for writing this article.
When you are making one of these wood joints by hand, you will begin by selecting the proper sized chisel for making the mortise cut. Align the center-registration mark on the biscuit joiner with the biscuit centerline mark made in Step 1. The diameter of a dowel should not be more than a third of the width of the narrowest wood to be joined. That’s not a very high tolerance level and this is precisely why this wood joint is considered one of the most difficult ones to make. There are machines that can be bought for making these hardwood joints, but they are rather expensive. Using the woodworkers marking gauge mark the wood that will be receiving the mortise on one side and the tenon wood on one side as well.
As you have seen in the video instructions, the mortise and tenon joint making process requires a high level of accuracy.
When making a through tenon it is best to mark the tenon on both sides of the wood and to drill from both sides or to watch and “back drill” to avoid splintering the wood. Lay the drawer front on the bench and, using the widest chisel that will fit between the saw kerfs, begin to chop by positioning the chisel about halfway down the joint (see Photo 1). This is one of the most difficult wood joints to make because of the level of accuracy that is required for making a mortise and tenon joint in hardwood. Continue cutting until you reach the stop, and then allow the spring action to return the motor to the starting point. By the time you come back, it will already have swelled enough that you won’t be able to insert it in the second part of the joint.
Alternatively you can allow a little space at the end of the hole in which the dowel is inserted to allow for the extra glue and air but this will weaken the joint.