13 Oct. 1983|
Build wood turning lathe,woodworkers supply ri,carport shed design - For Outdoors
The speed of the lathe should range from 2400 to 3000 revolutions per minute when the belt is on the smallest step of the cone pulley.
Woodturning has progressed enormously in recent years and is now no longer just a means of producing functional items, but is fast approaching the status of an art form. There are lots of very cheap lathes on the market that all look the same and appear to give you a lot for your money, photo 1. For this reason, it’s better to buy a lathe that is cast rather than fabricated, but this inevitably often involves greater cost. A professional turner will probably need a heavy-duty floor-standing lathe, but for the home woodturning enthusiast a bench-mounted model will probably be quite sufficient, photo 4.
Several manufacturers provide leg-stands as an optional extra if you don’t want to build a bench.
A homemade wooden bench is often better at absorbing vibration than a crude metal stand, and it can change the whole operation of the lathe.
The headstock may be permanently fixed in line with the bed, or it may have the facility to swing round so that the spindle ends up at right angles to the bed for bowl turning, photo 12.
I would rate this swinging head as an essential feature on a lathe; the real advantage is not only for bowl turning, but also for any turning where you have to work over the bed.
This which means that you can then take all your threaded accessories with you, rather than renewing them with the lathe when you upgrade it. It is essential that your lathe is also equipped with Morse tapers in both headstock and tailstock. There is a huge range of Morse taper kit on the market, but if you buy a lathe with only screw-on fittings you are very restricted as to what you can use. A small lathe will need a motor of at least 1⁄3hp, particularly if you envisage turning bowls, but bigger is better in this case. This needs to be as substantial as the rest of the lathe, as it has to provide fi rm support for between-centres work.
The tool-rest assembly is another vital part of the lathe, the main requirement being that it is quickly and easily adjustable.
On the other hand, if you think your main interest will be bowl turning, a swiveling head is vital but between-centres capacity is less important.
If you want to do a bit of everything, try to decide on the biggest diameter you want to turn and choose a lathe accordingly. Above all, bear in mind that woodturning is an addictive hobby, so try to buy in as much spare capacity as you can afford now to save expensive upgrades later on.
Should the operator lose control of the tool and allow any part other than the point to touch the cylinder, a run or gashing of the wood will be caused. To fuel this massive increase in popularity and demand, many woodworking machinery manufacturers have hurriedly added lathes to their range, but a good machine requires a number of essential features that are often overlooked in the rush to get new equipment onto the market. Vibration is the woodturner’s worst enemy, particularly if the workpiece is long or out of balance, and there is nothing to beat sheer weight to minimise this vibration.
However, do remember that unlike a lot of other machines, you will often spend hours working at the lathe. If you are short of space in the workshop, you can build in a lot of storage for tools or raw materials under the lathe, which also helps to give the structure a bit more mass, photo 6. On many smaller lathes, a thread size of ¾in x 16 tpi is the industry standard, which makes upgrading your machine less costly. Morse tapers are commonly No 1 or No 2 on the smaller lathes; the bigger the number the thicker the taper. This is usually reserved for the top-of-the- range lathes, but in the past electronic speed variation has suffered from loss of torque at low speeds.
However, if you engage reverse with a piece of faceplate work, there is always the possibility that it will unscrew itself, so lathes with reverse should feature a faceplate locking system. The actual locking mechanism varies from machine to machine; some use a simple clamp and lever under the bed, whilst others use a cam type of lock, photo 26, which is easier to use as it is accessed from the front of the lathe. If you will mostly be turning spindles, then there’s perhaps no need for a swinging head model, but rigidity of the bed and good between-centres capacity are important features.
You can take deeper and more ambitious cuts, and the ease of use of features such as electronic variable speed control make turning more intuitive and enjoyable.
The cutting should always stop at the base of the cut as there is danger that the tool will catch when cutting against the grain of the wood on the other side. The advantage of mounting it on your own workbench is that you can get the centre height just right – a serious consideration if you anticipate doing a lot of turning in the future.
Bear in mind that the performance of your lathe depends on how well it is mounted, so buy a leg-stand only if it looks man enough for the job. Although you can still work off the standard tool-rest with the head swung a little, for big diameter bowl turning you will need an additional bowl rest to maximize the capacity, photo 14. But if you think you will spend a lot of time at the lathe as your skills and ambitions grow, then you will need the extra power and weight of a larger machine. The speed at which a lathe should run depends entirely upon the nature of the work to be done and the kind of material used. Incidentally, lathe dimensions are still mainly given in imperial measurements; for metric buffs the equivalents are 760 and 915mm.
So if you finished the last job at top speed and now want bottom, you firstly have to switch the lathe on and reduce the speed before you can mount the work, all of which is a bit fiddly and time consuming. Fortunately, a garden-variety lathe—without a lot of fancy features—is such a perfect example of simple design that an amateur toolsmith ought to be able to assemble a bargain-basement duplicate all on his or her own. At high speed the centrificial force on such pieces is very great, causing the lathe to vibrate, and there is a possibility of the piece being thrown from the lathe thus endangering the worker as well as those around him. But a few of our staffers with some woodworking experience to their credit have put the lathe through a number of trials, and the consensus is that the timber-framed woodturner is fully capable of handling most of the basic shaping and finishing jobs encountered by the casual crafter . However, since Dennis and Robyn actually assembled the tool largely from odds and ends around the shop (a feat that probably wouldn't be all that difficult to duplicate in your own workspace), the entire lathe lightened our till by only $35 or so. Of course, your ultimate goal here is to set the head- and tailstock centers on an equal plane for accurate turning, so you may have to alter the given dimensions slightly to match the height of your particular mandrel's center.When the floor flanges are bolted in place over the tailstock hole with the ram installed, you can attach the ram lock and handwheel. We found that various-sized floor flanges that were bushed and rethreaded to fit the driven shaft served that purpose well.Last but not least, the lathe needs a tool rest.
So take the time to bolt its legs permanently to a solid work platform, and always wear eye protection (but never loose clothing, belts, or jewelry) when turning. The speed ratio mentioned earlier will yield 760 and 1,150 RPM with a two-speed motor.If you're a wood-turning novice, you'd also do well to research the craft before cutting (Sears, Roebuck & Co.