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23.07.2014
The basic idea behind the keyword-driven testing approach in test automation is to separate the automation from the test case design.
Based on the technology-independency, tests might be developed earlier in the QA process and beneficially they are easier to maintain for that reason. This blog post describes how the keyword driven testing approach in test automation can be followed within Ranorex, granulated on two different levels. Following this more advanced approach, it’s recommended to have at least basic programming knowledge. First of all, we will use Ranorex Modules as abstraction layer for the elementary actions performed. It is recommended to pack your keywords (aka Ranorex Modules) in separate projects, referenced by one Ranorex Solution.
Depending on the level of abstraction you’d like to have here, you can either reference a Ranorex Module Library Project or directly reference the resulting DLL file. Many people prefer defining test cases in an Excel-spreadsheet-like table since they are used to work like this since years. After doing so, you simply can add a user code action (Add New Action -> User Code) and choose one of the predefined keywords and, if defined, set the arguments.
You can also follow the data-driven approach within the actions table (as already explained in the previous section) by simply making the keyword parameters variable.
Well, I wouldn’t agree separating tests from test frameworks always simplifies test maintenance.
So, to make maintenance simple I wouldn’t necessarily opt for different technologies. In the previous article on Keyword Driven Framework, we covered the basics of the framework such as what Keyword Driven Framework actually is, what are the main components used in this framework, its generic flow and the common Keyword Driven Framework structures that are used most frequently. Case 1: Keywords are mapped to the lowest level operation on an object (this operation usually is a single statement). Case 2: Keywords are mapped to a function or action which contains a collection of statements. Before we begin explaining each of the points mentioned above, let us first revisit the structure of this framework once again so that you get an idea about what framework is being referred to here.
From the above figure you can note that the screenshot shows the code (or flow) for the Login portion of GMail. In the sample framework that we will create, we will cover the basic steps that would help you learn how to create a keyword driven framework.
1) Excel Sheets to Store Test Case Flow: Normally, the flow of our test scripts (like open login page, enter user id and password, click on login button etc) are written in QTP Actions or Function Libraries.
For our framework, we will create a single Excel Workbook which will store the test cases that we create for this framework. 2) Function Library: In a Keyword Driven Framework, function library is the most important component. Because of all these reasons mentioned above, Function Library can be considered as the core component in the keyword driven framework.
3) QTP Test Script (Driver Script): QTP Test Script (QTP Actions) is one more component that you use commonly in your automation frameworks. Normally, you will use QTP test cases in your framework to write the code (or flow) of the test cases that you want to automate.
4) Excel Sheets to Store Test Case Data: To make your keyword driven framework more robust and to run the test cases against multiple sets of data, you can store the test data in separate excel sheets. In order to keep things simple in our framework, we will not use a separate data sheet and will store the data together with the test case flow only. 5) Object Repository: To identify and store the objects in this framework, you can either use Object Repository or use the Descriptive Programming approach in QTP. 2) When you run the QTP test case, it will load the function library and will pass the control to it.
3) Based upon the test case that needs to be run, the function library will load the corresponding excel sheet which contains the test case flow.
4) The function library will read each line from the excel sheet, convert it into a format that QTP recognizes and will then execute the line of code. 5) Once all the test cases are executed by the function library, the control will be passed back to the QTP Test Case and the execution will be stopped. If you enjoyed this article, you can join our blog to get new articles delivered directly in your inbox. Absolutely Right… Pure keyword driven framework will rarely ever work on a real life application. What I feel is that many people are not aware about the exact workings of different types of frameworks.
Anish I had a lot of questions on how these frameworks create an impact and you have explained them really well…Thanks a ton!!!
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1) QTP Test Scripts (or QTP Actions): As part of this framework creation, we will be automating 3 test cases. 2) Function Library: There will be 2 function libraries that will be created for this framework.
3) Object Repository: For this framework, we will use the Object Repository to store the object properties. 4) Excel Sheet to Store Test Case Flow: We will be using a single excel workbook (and a single excel sheet in the workbook) to store the flow of all the 3 test cases. For this framework, we will be working on the same test cases that were automated for Keyword Driven Framework mapped at Operation Level. 1) TC_01_CreateOrder: For this test case, we will write a script that will login to Mercury Flight Reservation system and then create a new flight reservation. 2) TC_02_ModifyOrder: In this test case, the script will log in to the application, open an existing order and then modify the order. 3) TC_03_DeleteOrder: Here, the script will again log in to the application, open an existing order and then delete the order.
The below image depicts the basic steps which we will use to script the first test case from scratch. Step 1D: Add all the necessary objects (that are required for order creation) in the Object Repository. Step 1F: Once the Object Repository has been associated with the Test Script, write the script to insert a new order in the flight reservation system. The code you have written to insert a new order in Flight Reservation System will look similar to the code shown below. If your code to Insert New Order in Flight Reservation Application is running fine, then you have accomplished the first task. Step 2A: First Step is to identify the functions which should be created from the linear flow. Step 2B: Create 3 different functions in the Test Case and then cut paste the appropriate code in all the 3 functions. Step 3B: Once all the functions have been created, call these functions from the test script itself. In the beginning of the article, we had mentioned that we will be creating 2 function libraries in this framework. Now at this step, the function library will contain all the 3 functions and the test script will contain the function calls for all these 3 functions. Once this step is finished successfully, you will have the script that is made up of separate functions. The next step would be to create a Test Case Flow excel sheet where we will add all the keywords associated with the test case.
In this step, we will create a test case flow excel sheet and then add the keywords that have been identified for the test case.
Step 3A: The first step is to identify the keywords that will be associated with our test case. Step 3B: Once the keywords have been identified, the next step is to add the keywords in the excel sheet. Now we have to write the code that will fetch the keywords from the excel sheet and call the associated function.
Step 3D: You have to now write the function that will read the keywords from the excel sheet. The above function opens the excel sheet, loads its contents into QTP Datatable and then reads the keywords that are associated to the given test case. Step 3E: The next step is to map the keywords with the actual flow functions so that whenever a keyword is encountered, the matching function can be executed. Once you verify that the test case is running fine, you will have with you the working model of a basic Keyword Driven Framework where the keywords are mapped at function level. The entire framework together with the function library and flow for all the 3 test cases is available in the sample framework.
As mentioned in the beginning of the article, this is a very basic framework that will just contain the basic things to help you understand the concepts easily. Please note that these changes or improvements are not available in the attached framework. Improvement 1) Currently, the test case flow just contains the TestCaseName, Keywords and Description only. Improvement 2) You can add one more additional column which will tell QTP whether the particular flow has to be executed or not.


After implementing the above 2 enhancement points, the test case flow excel sheet would look something like this. I will soon start working on the Hybrid Framework and will upload the articles once its done.. I would be working on Hybrid Framework and most of the improvements would be covered as part of that framework only. For this, we can store the result based on the LastRunResult in the run time data table and then we can export and save the runtime table with the same name as the original excel file we imported….
I have realised we need to set the qtp results object and then need to get the lastrunresults from that. Also, one better way would be to directly update the excel sheet (rather than exporting from data table). I searched so much for detailed explanation with eg, but couldn't find anything that will really give me an insight. Functional level keyword framework is better in terms of maintenance and future expansion.. We come in to work, drop the framework on the file system and begin writing automated checks from day 1! Till now we have covered QTP Linear Framework, Modular Framework and Data Driven Framework as part of the QTP Framework series of articles. In this article, you will read the following topis that will help you understand the basic concepts of Keyword Driven Framework. Keyword Driven Framework is a type of QTP Framework where for a particular test case, you would first identify a set of Keywords and then associate an action (or function) which each of these keywords.
Now, let’s see how we can approach this test case from Keyword Driven Framework perspective. Once you have identified the functions, the next step is to identify some keywords and then associate the functions with these keywords. From the above image you can see that basically a Keyword Driven Framework is nothing but a collection of keywords & functions (or actions or operations) and the association between these two entities. Below is the list of common components that you will find in most of the keyword driven frameworks.
1) Excel Sheet to Store the Keywords: This is the only extra component that you will find in a Keyword Driven Framework. 2) Function Library: In Keyword Driven Framework, function libraries usually play a very important role.
3) Data Sheets: As with the other frameworks, you can use the data sheets to store the test data that will be used in the application. 4) Object Repository: Based on the design of your Keyword Driven Framework, you can either use an object repository or completely skip it (if you are using Descriptive Programming approach). 5) Test Scripts: Again based on the design of your framework, you can have separate test scripts for each manual test case or a single driver script that will execute all the test cases. 2) The function library opens the excel sheet and reads the first keyword associated with the test case. 4) The function then performs all the required actions on the application that is being tested. As mentioned in the beginning of the article, the basic premise of a Keyword Driven Framework is that – you identify some keywords and write associated functions. That’s the reason why, if you search for Keyword Driven Frameworks on the internet, you would find a variety of ways in which people have implemented this idea.
Example 1: This is one of the most common formats of Keyword Driven Frameworks that you will see around (with slight variations here and there). Example 2: This is another common structure that is used very frequently and is quite similar to the previous one.
Example: As mentioned previously also, in this type of Keyword Driven Framework design, the keyword is associated with a small operation (like click button, set value in some text box) rather than associating it with an entire function (like login, logout etc). In the above example, Set, Click and Sync are the keywords that will be associated with corresponding set, click and sync functions provided by QTP. Would you like to share any other Keyword Driven Framework format that that we might have missed here?
I have created an simple framework which has seperate folder for each component such as or,results,function library,script ,datatable and i used the data driven framework-2 with some customization.currently am working on creating batch execution model to incorporate in it. Having a proper folder structure as you have defined is one of the best practices and helps a long way in coming up with a good framework design..
How do you control the logical events in the Pure keyword driven framework (with lowest level operations)? For that we would be writing the some custom functions that will do the desired operations. I am using qtp 11 and trying to create a keyword driven framework where I have parameterized my logins. But I got more Ideas, even I already worked more than 3 year in a key word driven framework. Awesome explaination…tried searching many articles to get the clear picture and this is THAT ONLY ONE article that came as relief !! This is usually achieved by using an additional layer of abstraction where the tests itself are defined technology-independent and readable for non-technical personnel as well.
Next to that, labor can be divided easier based on different levels of technical experience.
Therefore it could be carried out by different people with different levels of technical and domain-depending understanding. Here, the keyword implementation is completely separated from the test case design and keyword usage. With Ranorex, it’s possible to implement test cases based on keywords in a table-like workplace as well, namely in the Ranorex Recorder. According to your preferences you can either use the Ranorex Test Suite or the Ranorex Recorder as base of your work.
You still can describe your test data in same language as your framework, just remember to introduce some internal DSL (e.g. We will see how you can create a keyword driven framework where most of the keywords are mapped to the operations at the object level. And each of the keywords (like Set, Click, Sync shown in Column E) are mapped with the actual operations that you perform at the object level (like set value in a text field, clicking on a web button etc). Let us now see the different components that are normally used with this Keyword Driven Framework. But for this framework, the flow of the test cases will be written in the excel sheets (as shown in the image in the previous section). For example, consider that you have 3 test cases – one for GMail, second one for Facebook and the last one for Yahoo Mail.
For example, suppose you have few test cases for GMail, few for Facebook and few for Yahoo Mail. So your function library will also contain the code which will read each line from the excel sheet and convert in into the format that QTP understands.
But the way the QTP test case (or action) is used in this framework is slightly different from the conventional sense. When you store the data separately, you would need to write code in the function library which will fetch the data from the excel sheets. Based upon which method you use, you would need to write corresponding functions in your code to read and load the objects when the test cases are run. In the next article, we will cover, in detail, on how you can create this framework from scratch and write test cases in this framework. Once we see the framework closely and maybe work on it a bit, then we will have a clear idea about its plus and minus points. This blog aims to provide information rich articles to help you learn various concepts in QTP.
The first function library will contain all the functions that are related only to the framework (and not to the application). Now in this step, you would need to convert the linear flow into different functions and then call the same from the test script. One look at the test case, and you would get to know that the test case can be divided into 3 flows or functions. At this point, you can see that the flow of the test case is defined in the QTP Test Script. By doing this, the flow of the test case will be dictated by the test case flow excel sheet.
Then we will write code that will read the keywords from the excel sheet call the functions associated with the test cases.
The code to fetch open the excel sheet and fetch the keywords is the generic code that is independent of the application.
So, the functions that we would write here would go to a separate function library (framework related function library). Once it identifies the keyword, it passes the keyword to a different function which then executes the actual function associated with this keyword. We will create a separate function where will define the mapping in a Select Case statement. Once the function has been called it will do its job and execute all the functions that are associated with the keyword. Delete the function calls that are written there and write the new code that will call the fnReadKeywords() function and pass the test case name as the parameter.
Now you can easily add more test cases to this framework by following the steps mentioned above.


You can download this framework (link available near the bottom of the article) and play around with the code. Because of this, if you want to run the flow for multiple data, you would need to change the data values before each run. If you have any points to add here, or if you have any other improvement which can be added in this framework, please let us know about it using the comments section. But when we launch the tests in the way described in this article, how do we capture the results? At the end of every function (business flow) you can have a check to see, if there was any error in the function.
This is because, if you want to store in data table, and then export in the end, there will be a possibility that you will loose all the data in case your script fails just near the end of the test case. Can you please advice me when a Framework designer who have task to develop a complete regression pack, should go for Operation level or function level keyword framework..? Could you please send me code for creating results after execution in excel and chart forms.
Although, sometimes I may take a few extra days to add enhancements and modify it based on the new employers needs.
This file can be scheduled to run every hour and it will execute your automation testing framework.
Facebook Twitter Google Plus Pinterest LinkedIn Keyword Driven Framework is one of well known automation framework and extensively used in various service offering companies. Beginning with this article, we will cover the various aspects of QTP Keyword Driven Framework in detail.
Let us consider that you have to automate a flow where you would need to do the following things in GMail. If you look at the above test case from pure Modular Framework point of view, you will be able to easily identify that you would need to write 3 different functions for the above test case. You would have to built all the necessary intelligence in the function library so that it can read the excel sheets and call the different functions based on the Keywords. Steps 2 to 5 are repeated till all the keywords associated with a particular test case are called. This generic statement provides you with a lot of scope to improvise and put in your own thoughts to build this framework.
The only difference is that the keyword names are self explanatory and hence you don’t need to provide the description for each keyword. We would be covering each of the above mentioned examples in detail (together with downloadable code) in upcoming articles. Once you identify the keyword from the data table then you call the corresponding function for that keyword. And even if the keyword name and the function name would match, it would not create any issue. I am trying to implement the same in our project and needed some guidance from you if not much of an inconvenience: how to arrange the folder structure for the test cases?
I am trying to implement the keyword driven framework in my project and am starting from stratch; can you give me a general idea of the folder structure that needs to be implemented in regards to the test suites: what considerations need to be taken care of to get the optimum results? Here the automation (keyword implementation) can be done by technically experienced team members whereas the test case design (keyword usage) can be done by domain testers who don’t need to have technical skills to that extent. Meaningful data placed in an excel spreadsheet, for instance, could define the credentials to login as well as the set of data to be added in a test case.
This is the reason we are referring to this framework as the one where keywords are mapped to Operations.
So based on how you want to implement this concept, the components of the framework and the test case flow that you define might differ. Side by side, we will also mention whether we will be using those components in our present framework or not.
To store these 3 test cases in the excel sheet, you can either create 1 excel workbook with 3 different sheets. This is because almost all the important things that your framework does will be scripted in the the function library only. Also most of the important functionality and logic of your framework is written in the function library. The image below shows how the test case excel sheet will look like if you store the data separately.
And this knowledge will surely help us come up with better approach for our future projects. The second function library will contain the functions that will contain the functions related to the application. Once you understand the underlying concepts used for creating the first script, you can use the same concepts to script the remaining test cases. Now all your remaining steps would focus on how to modify this script and fit it into the framework. So now, we will create a function library and then move the functions from the test script to this function library. This is because even if you have some other application, the only change here would be the name of the test case, the keywords and the description.
Since this function is dependent on the application, we will store this function in the application related function library.
But now, since the flow has been defined in the test case flow excel sheet, we can remove the previous function calls from the main test script. To avoid this, you can try to separate the data from the flow by adding it to a separate excel sheet. Either we need to capture it from XML results file that will be generated for each test run?
But if you directly update the excel as and when a flow finishes, you would have updated the excel in different intervals. It would be really helpful for freshers if you can explain the function to read the keywords in more detail.
The operational level one becomes complex and it becomes more difficult to handle when you increase the number of test cases.. The explanations of the key word driven frame work and all the other articles are of superb quality.
You all have seen this framework several times as we taught you different aspects of test automation. However, this 'Execute.vbs' file is so awesome that you can run as many frameworks as you desire. We will be covering all these details together with examples and downloadable code in 4 to 5 articles. You would need to write some code that will first open this excel sheet and copy the keywords. For ease of understanding, you would also need to provide a description for each of the keywords.
My question is if function for corresponding keyword is also mentioned in the sheet then how can we call that function in the script?
I mean what is the optimum way to organize the folders for the various test suites in a project? In contrast, using the Ranorex Recorder with its actions table, the keywords are presented by predefined methods held by the inheriting code module. That would require doing this separately both in the framework that parses the test data, and in XML files as well. Let us see some of the important things that a function library does in a Keyword Driven Framework. Because of this reason, QTP test case is also referred to as Driver Script (because the QTP test case (or action) just drives or initiates the execution).
Can we consider the keyword driven framework If the validations are very dynamic ( unfortunately almost all the applications have the dynamic validations). This way you would be able to change the data without touching the flow and you can also re-run the same flow multiple times by using a loop. This way, whenever you get a non-zero value, you can update that particular business flow as fail in the excel sheet. This framework was developed over 10,000 hours by real Software Development Engineers in Test (SDETs). The most amazing part of all is that there are at least 150 functions that can enhance your test automation code immediately. Some of us have even made this executable through email so that it can be on demand for manual testers. So when you associate a keyword with the function, it means that a single keyword is associated with a collection of steps. So the keywords that you will use in this case would be Set, Click, Type etc which will be associated with functions which will just click on the object or enter value in a text box.
The below image shows the structure of the keyword excel sheet with horizontally aligned keywords.
It seems like there’s no limitation to data-drive keyword-driven test cases with Ranorex. One good example of this is Robot Framework (RF) and it’s standard plus 3rd party test libraries.



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