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Pyrex cooking utensils,easy pot roast in a crock pot recipe,cooking dish set 24pc - For Begninners

03.11.2013 admin
We've launched an all-new version of Coloribus.It's a brand new set of tools for the perfect workflow. A few years ago, I woke up to the fact that half of the world's peoples must burn wood or dried dung in order to cook their food.
As a University Professor of Physics with a background in energy usage, I set out to develop a means of cooking food and sterilizing water using the free energy of the sun.
The parabolic cooker involves a reflective dish that concentrates sunlight to a point where the food is cooked. The box cooker: Basically an insulated box with a glass or plastic lid, often with a reflecting lid to reflect sunlight into the box. The first reflector was made at my home out of aluminum foil glued onto cardboard, then this was curved to form a reflective funnel. The Solar Funnel Cooker is safe and low cost, easy to make, yet very effective in capturing the sun's energy for cooking and pasteurizing water -> Eureka! Later, I did extensive tests with students (including reflectivity tests) and found that aluminized Mylar was good too, but relatively expensive and rather hard to come by in large sheets. Next, we paint a jar black on the outside, to collect heat, and place this at the bottom of the funnel. I recently tested a bag used for fruits and vegetables, nearly transparent and available free at American grocery stores, that works great. A friend of mine who is also a Physics Professor did not believe I could actually boil water with the thing. Of course, the Solar Funnel works much better outside of winter days (when the UV index is 7 or greater).
A plastic bag is used to go around the cooking-jar and block of wood, to provide a green-house effect. Apply glue or adhesive to the top (inner) surface of the cardboard, then quickly apply the aluminum foil on top of the glue, to affix the foil to the cardboard. The easiest way to do this is to punch three holes in the cardboard that line up on side A and side B (see figure). At this stage, you are ready to put food items or water into the cooking vessel or jar, and put the lid on securely. Next, gather the top of the bag in your fingers and blow air into the bag, to inflate it.
Place the entire bag and its contents inside the funnel near the bottom as shown in the Photographs. Put the Solar Funnel Cooker in the sun pointing towards the sun, so that it captures as much sunlight as possible.
It helps to put the Solar Funnel Cooker in front of a south-facing wall or window (in the Northern Hemisphere) to reflect additional sunlight into the funnel. Remember that the cooking vessel will be very hot: Use cooking pads or gloves when handling! If your funnel gets out-of-round, it can be put back into a circular shape by attaching a rope or string between opposite sides which need to be brought closer together.
For long-term applications, a hole in the ground will hold the Funnel Cooker securely against winds.
The jar can be suspended near the bottom of the funnel using fishing line or string (etc.), instead of placing the jar on a block of wood.
Students at Brigham Young University have performed numerous tests on the Solar Funnel Cooker along with other cookers. An aluminized-mylar Solar Funnel Cooker was also tested in Bolivia, during the Bolivian winter. Contaminated drinking water or milk kills thousands of people each day, especially children. Think of all the lives that can be saved simply by pasteurizing water using a simple Solar Cooker! Safety was my first concern in designing the Solar Funnel Cooker, then came low cost and effectiveness. Keep the plastic bag away from children and away from nose and mouth to avoid any possibility of suffocation. A university student (Jamie Winterton) and I were the first to demonstrate that the BYU Solar Funnel Cooker can be used - at night - as a refrigerator.
During the day, the sun's rays are reflected onto the cooking vessel which becomes hot quickly. In September 1999, we placed two funnels out in the evening, with double-bagged jars inside.
As the sun moves closer to the southern horizon in the winter, the solar cooker is naturally less effective.
It is interesting to note that most developing countries are located near the equator where the sun is nearly directly overhead all the time. I have cooked bread by simply putting dough in the bottom of the jar and placing it in the funnel in the usual way. A graduate student at Brigham Young University did a calculus calculation over two years ago to assess the best shape or opening angle for the Solar Funnel. It came as quite a shock to me, especially as I learned of the illnesses caused by breathing smoke day in and day out, and the environmental impacts of deforestation -not to mention the time spent by people (mostly women) gathering sticks and dung to cook their food.


This approach is very dangerous since the sun's energy is focused to a point which is very hot, but which cannot be seen. It finally came to me at Christmastime a few years ago, a sort of hybrid between the parabola and a box cooker. Besides, cardboard is found throughout the world and is inexpensive, and aluminum foil is also easy to come by. Brigham Young University submitted a patent application, mainly to insure that no company would prevent wide distribution of the Solar Funnel Cooker.
So I showed him that with this new "solar funnel cooker," I was able to boil water in Utah in the middle of winter!
Most other solar cookers will not cook in the winter in northern areas (or south of about 35 degrees, either). A two-quart canning jar is available and works fine for larger quantities of food, although the cooking is somewhat slower.).
When the funnel is formed, this becomes a full-circle and should be wide enough to go around your cooking pot. Make sure the shiniest side of the foil is on top, since this becomes your reflective surface in the Funnel. For example, by putting two holes about a thumb-width apart, you can put a string, twine, small rope, wire or twist-tie in one hole and out the other, and tie together. For long-term applications, one may wish to dig a hole in the ground to hold the Funnel against strong winds. The Funnel Cooker is designed so that the hot region is deep down inside the funnel, out of harm's way. The design of the funnel allows it to collect solar energy for about an hour without needing to be re-positioned. If you are heating water in a canning jar, you may notice that the water is boiling when the lid is first removed - it gets very hot!
Using gloves or a thick cloth, lift the vessel out of the bag and place it on the ground or table. Look at the jar to check where the sunlight is hitting, and to be sure the bottom is not in the shadows.
If anything, the food cooked faster there - the sunlight filters through less atmosphere at high altitudes. And they are further pleasantly surprised at the rich flavors in the foods which cook slowly in the sun.
Water pasteurization temperature was reached in 50 minutes, boiled eggs cooked in 70 minutes, and rice cooked in 75 minutes.
It helps to place 2 (two) bags around the jar instead of just one, with air spaces between the bags and between the inner bag and the jar.
One jar was on a block of wood and the other was suspended in the funnel using fishing line. Solar Cookers will then serve year-round, as long as the sun is shining, for these fortunate people. Jeannette Lawler assumed that the best operation would occur when the sun’s rays bounced no more than once before hitting the cooking jar, while keeping the opening angle as large as possible to admit more sunlight. And yet, many of these billions of people live near the equator, where sunshine is abundant and free.
Problems: energy enters only through the top, while heat is escaping through all the other sides, which have a tendency to draw heat away from the food.
It looks like a large, deep funnel, and incorporates what I believe are the best features of the parabolic cooker and the box cooker. And individuals can make their own solar cookers easily, or start a cottage-industry to manufacture them for others. You can put your hand up the bottom of the funnel and feel the sun's heat, but it will not burn you. I laid the funnel on its side since it was winter and pointed a large funnel towards the sun to the south. I've tested HDPE bags which I picked up for free at my grocery store, used for holding vegetables and fruits. The metal pot or bowl should be supported around the rim only, with an air space all around the bottom (where the sunlight strikes it). Do this slowly, helping the cardboard to the shape of a funnel by using one hand to form creases that radiate out from the half-circle. I like to put just enough glue for one width of foil, so that the glue stays moist while the foil is applied.
Then place the cooking vessel containing the food or water on top of the wooden block, inside the bag. For longer cooking times, readjust the position of the funnel to follow the sun's path. In the Southern Hemisphere, put the Solar Funnel Cooker in front of a North-facing wall or window to reflect additional sunlight into your cooker.
The suspension method allows sunlight to strike all surfaces of the jar, all around, so that heats faster and more evenly.
For long cooking times (over about an hour), readjust the position of the funnel to follow the sun's path.


One should put vegetable oil inside the jar before cooking to make removal of the bread easier. So we finally chose a 60-degree opening angle so that the cooker is effective for about 1.2 hours.
Please consider making a contribution so more stories of awakening and alternative views can be shared! But more than once the parabolas had been stored next to a shed -- and the passing sun set the sheds on fire!
When the box is opened to put food in or take it out, some of the heat escapes and is lost. I also had to suspend the black cooking vessel -- rather than placing it on a wooden block. These little beauties are designed to relieve pressure through the lid -- a nice pressure cooker. For a quart canning jar such as I use, I cut a 5" radius half-circle out of the cardboard. Work your way around the funnel, bending it in stages to form the funnel shape, until the two sides overlap and the half-circle forms a complete circle. The lids can be used over and over if they are not bent too badly when opened (pry off lid carefully).
For an aluminized-Mylar Solar Funnel Cooker kit, please contact CRM (licensed manufacturer) at +1 (801) 292-9210. If people try to cook with the sun for the first time outside of this time window, they should not be discouraged. And they may accomplish this without the expensive infrastructure of electrical power grids that we take for granted in America.
I would also suggest that using a 2-quart wide-mouth canning jar instead of a 1-quart jar would make baking a loaf of bread easier.
If the sunlight misses on the first bounce, it can bounce again and again until being absorbed by the black bottle.) She set up an approximate equation for this situation, took the calculus-derivative with respect to the opening angle and set the derivative equal to zero. The people did not want these dangerous, expensive devices, even though the Altiplano region has been stripped of fuel wood. And cooking time is cut in half for each 10º C we raise the temperature (Professor Lee Hansen, private communication).
Tested side-by-side with an oven bag in two solar funnels, the HDPE bag worked just as well! Then simply place this pot-in-bowl down in the bottom of the funnel - no plastic bag is needed! Try to smooth out the aluminum foil as much as you reasonably can, but small wrinkles won't make much difference.
Hullinger also performed studies of transmissivity, reflectivity and absorptivity of alternate materials which could be used in the Solar Funnel Cooker. He found that the temperature of the air inside the funnel dropped quickly by about 15 degrees, as its heat was radiated upwards in the clear sky.
A good way to spread this technology is to encourage small local industries or families to make these simple yet reliable solar cookers for others at low cost. We were able to boil water in the Solar Funnel Cooker during this time, but we had to suspend the black jar in the funnel so that sunlight struck all sides. Optimizing in this way, she found that the optimum opening angle is about 45 degrees, when the funnel is pointed directly towards the sun. I used one of my wife's wide-mouth canning jars, spray-painted (flat) black on the outside, and it worked great. This clever method also allows the cook to simply remove the lid to check the food and to stir. While there are better materials (such as solar-selective absorbers), our goal has been to keep the cost of the Solar Cooker as low as possible, while maintaining safety as a first priority. That night, the minimum outdoor air temperature measured was 47.5 degrees - but the water in both jars had ICE.
We also used a laser pointer to simulate sun rays entering the funnel at different angles, and found that the 60-degree cone was quite effective in concentrating the rays at the bottom of the funnel where the cooking jar sits. I invite others to try this, and please let me know if you get ice at 55 or even 60 degrees outside air temperature (minimum at night). You can use the plastic bags used in American stores to put groceries in, as long as they let a lot of sunlight pass. A black PVC container may work even better than a black-painted jar, since PVC is a good infrared radiator - these matters are still being studied. But don't use a sealed container with no pressure release like a mayonnaise jar -- it can break as the steam builds up! The BYU Solar Funnel Cooker uses the glorious sunshine -- and the energy of the sun is a free gift from God for all to use!



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Comments

  1. T_O_T_U_S_H writes:
    Cookware 30 years ago and have been steel with an aluminum or copper.
  2. Togrul writes:
    (Little or bigger) of your favourite copper are really pricey and not everyone can.