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14.06.2014 admin
Induced current can heat any type of metal, but the magnetic properties of a steel vessel concentrate the induced current in a thin layer near the surface, which makes the heating effect stronger. Since heat is being generated by an induced electric current, the unit can detect whether cookware is present (or whether its contents have boiled dry) by monitoring how much power is being absorbed.
This form of flameless cooking has certain advantages over conventional gas flame and electric cookers, as it provides rapid heating, improved thermal efficiency, and greater heat consistency, yet with precise control similar to gas.[2] In situations in which a hotplate would typically be dangerous or illegal, an induction plate is ideal, as it creates no heat itself.
The high efficiency of power transfer into the cooking vessel makes heating food faster on an induction cooktop than on other electric cooktops.
Induction cookers are safer to use than conventional cookers because there are no open flames. Cookware must be compatible with induction heating; glass and ceramics are unusable, as are solid copper or solid aluminum cookware.
Manufacturers advise consumers that the glass ceramic top can be damaged by impact, although cooktops are required to meet minimal product safety standards for impact.
Energy efficiency is the ratio between energy delivered to the food and that consumed by the cooker, considered from the "customer side" of the energy meter.
When comparing consumption of energies of different kinds, in this case natural gas and electricity, the correct method enforced by the US Environmental Protection Agency is to resort to source (also called primary) energies. Whenever local electricity emits less than 435 grams of CO2 per kWh, the greenhouse effect of an induction cooker will be lower than that of a gas cooker. Inside view; the large copper coil forms the magnetic field, a cooling fan is visible below it, and main and auxiliary power supplies surround the coil. An induction cooker transfers electrical energy by induction from a coil of wire into a pot made of material which must be electrically conductive and ferromagnetic.
A coil of wire is mounted under the cooking surface, and a large alternating current is passed through it.
The cooking surface is made of a glass-ceramic material which is a poor heat conductor, so only minimal heat is transferred from the pot to the cooking surface (and thus wasted). Some energy will be dissipated wastefully by the current flowing through the resistance of the coil; wasted energy is minimised by the geometry of the design and by the coil having low resistance. The reason aluminium or copper does not work on an induction cooktop is because of the materials' permeability and resistivity.[12] Aluminium or copper cookware is more conductive than steel, and the skin depth in these materials is larger since they are nonmagnetic.
Household foil is much thinner than the skin depth in aluminum at the frequencies used by an induction cooker.
First patents date from the early 1900s.[15] Demonstration stoves were shown by the Frigidaire division of General Motors in the mid-1950s[16] on a touring GM showcase in North America.
Production took place in 1973 through to 1975 and stopped, coincidentally, with the sale of Westinghouse Consumer Products Division to White Consolidated Industries Inc. Control electronics included functions such as protection against over-heated cook-pans and overloads. CT2 was UL Listed and received Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approval, both firsts. The market for induction stoves is dominated by German manufacturers, such as AEG, Bosch, Fissler, Miele and Siemens.
The European induction cooking market for hotels, restaurants and other caterers is primarily satisfied by smaller specialist commercial induction catering equipment manufacturers such as Adventys of France, Control Induction and Target Catering Equipment of the UK and Scholl of Germany. Taiwanese and Japanese electronics companies are the dominant players in induction cooking for East Asia. Units may have two, three, four or five induction zones, but four (normally in a 30-inch-wide unit) is the most common in the US and Europe. The cookware that can be used on an induction hob will be generally the same as those that can be used on a conventional electric or gas hob.
For frying on an induction hob, a pan with a base that is a good heat conductor is needed to spread the heat quickly and evenly.
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Unlike other forms of cooking, heat is generated directly in the pot or pan (cooking vessel), as opposed to being generated in the stovetop by electrical coils or burning gas. An alternating electric current flows through the coil, which produces an oscillating magnetic field.
In non-magnetic materials like aluminum, the magnetic field penetrates too far, and the induced current encounters little resistance in the metal.

That allows such functions as keeping a pot at minimal boil or automatically turning an element off when cookware is removed from it. Because of the high efficiency, an induction element has heating performance comparable to a typical consumer-type gas element, even though the gas burner would have a much higher power input.
The surface below the cooking vessel is no hotter than the vessel; only the pan generates heat. Cookware must have a flat bottom since the magnetic field drops rapidly with distance from the surface. Audible noise (a hum or buzz) may be produced by cookware exposed to high magnetic fields, especially at high power or if the cookware has loose parts. Cooking with gas has an energy efficiency of about 40% at the customer's meter (energy purchased vs. They are the energies of the raw fuels that are really consumed to produce the energies delivered on site.[8] The conversion to source energies is done by multiplying site energies by appropriate source-site ratios.
A common consensus should arise on unified European ratios in view of the extension of the Energy Label to domestic water heaters. Built-in and rangetop units typically have multiple elements, the equivalent of separate burners on a gas-fueled range.
Electric cooking avoids the cost of natural gas piping and in some jurisdictions may allow simpler ventilation and fire suppression equipment to be installed.[11] Drawbacks for commercial use include higher initial cost and the requirement for magnetic cookware. The heat generated is analogous to the unwanted heat dissipated in an electric transformer; most of the heat is due to resistive heating like a transformer's copper losses and eddy currents and the rest is analogous to a transformer's other iron losses.
In normal operation the cooking surface stays cool enough to touch without injury after the cooking vessel is removed. The current flows in a thicker layer in the metal and so encounters less resistance and produces less heat.
The induction cooker was shown heating a pot of water with a newspaper placed between the stove and the pot, to demonstrate the convenience and safety. It used paralleled Delco Electronics transistors developed for automotive electronic ignition systems to drive the 25 kHz current.
The range top was a PyroCeram ceramic sheet surrounded by a stainless-steel bezel, upon which four magnetic sliders adjusted four corresponding potentiometers set below. The unit also featured a self-cleaning oven, solid-state kitchen timer and capacitive-touch control buttons (advanced for its time).
The Spanish company Fagor, Italian firm Smeg and Sweden's Electrolux are also key players in the European market. Some manufacturers mark the cookware or packagaging with symbols to indicate compatibility with induction, gas, or electric heat. The sole of the pan will be either a steel plate pressed into the aluminium, or a layer of stainless steel over the aluminium. For products such as sauces, it is important that at least the base of the pan incorporates a good heat conducting material such as aluminium to spread the heat evenly across the base. Volume 2: Potential impact of alternative efficiency levels for residential cooking products.
It includes the class of experiments and theories that have been examined for the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems. Because induction heats the cooking vessel itself, the possibility of burn injury is significantly less than with other methods; the surface of the cook top is only heated from contact with the vessel.
Practical induction cookers are designed for ferromagnetic pots that will stick to a magnet. Induction cookers are easy to clean because the cooking surface is flat and smooth, even though it may have several heating zones. Some users may detect a whistle or whine sound from the cookware, or from the power electronic devices. Stand-alone induction "modules" are usually single-element, or sometimes have dual elements. When an electrically conductive pot is brought close to the cooking surface, the magnetic field induces an electrical current, called an "eddy current", in the pot. Since the increased magnetic permeability of the material decreases the skin depth, the resistance will be further increased.
This is a "figure of merit" that can be used to rank the suitability of a material for induction heating.
Cooktop manufacturers prohibit the use of aluminum foil in contact with an induction cooktop.

The magnetic field passes through the bottom of the pot A, inducing eddy currents within it. The development work was done at the same R&D location, by a team led by Bill Moreland and Terry Malarkey. That elegant circuit design, largely by Ray Mackenzie [17], successfully dealt with certain bothersome overload problems. CT2 won several awards, including Industrial Research Magazine's IR-100 1972 best-product award and a citation from the United States Steel Association. Induction hobs (cooktops) work well with any pans with a high ferrous metal content at the base. The high thermal conductivity of aluminium pans makes the temperature more uniform across the pan. For really delicate products such as thick sauces, a pan with aluminium throughout is better, since the heat flows up the sides through the aluminium, allowing the chef to heat the sauce rapidly but evenly. There are no flames or red-hot electric heating elements as found in traditional cooking equipment. Since the cooking surface is not directly heated, spilled food does not burn on the surface. These provisional figures need to be somehow adjusted due to the higher gas hob efficiency, allowed in Europe by a less stringent limit on carbon monoxide emission at the hob. All such elements share a basic design: an electromagnet sealed beneath a heat-resisting glass-ceramic sheet that is easily cleaned.
The eddy current, flowing through the electrical resistance, causes electrical power to be dissipated as heat; the pot gets hot and heats its contents by heat conduction. The copper coil, on the other hand, is made from wire known as litz wire, which is a bundle of many smaller insulated wires in parallel.
The surface resistance in a thick metal conductor is proportional to the resistivity divided by the skin depth.
Unlike this concept, a modern cooktop uses electronically-generated high-frequency current.
In 2006, Stoves launched the UK's first domestic induction hob (cooktop) on a range cooker at a slightly lower cost than those imported. Some induction stoves have a memory setting, one per element, to control the time that heat is applied. Stainless frying pans with an aluminium base will not have the same temperature at their sides as an aluminium sided pan will have. The induction effect does not heat the air around the vessel, resulting in further energy efficiencies; some air is blown through the cooktop to cool the electronics, but this air emerges only a little warmer than ambient temperature. Persons with implanted cardiac pacemakers or other electronic medical implants may be advised by their doctors to avoid proximity to induction cooktops and other sources of magnetic fields.[4] Radio receivers near the unit may pick up some electromagnetic interference.
The energy efficiencies for cooking given above (84% for induction and 40% for gas) are in terms of site energies at the customer's meters.
The pot is placed on the ceramic glass surface and begins to heat up, along with its contents.
The coil has many turns, while the bottom of the pot effectively forms a single shorted turn. Where the thickness is less than the skin depth, the actual thickness can be used to calculate surface resistance.[12] Some common materials are listed in this table.
The efficiency is as high as 90% and saves a lot of energy and is environmentally friendly.
Stainless steel pans will often work on an induction hob provided the sole of the pan is a grade of stainless steel that is magnetic. Cast iron frying pans work well with induction hobs but the material is not as good a thermal conductor as aluminum. The (US averaged) efficiencies recalculated relative to source fuels energies are hence 25% for induction hobs, and 38% for gas hobs. That, in turn, means that most of the energy becomes heat in the high-resistance steel, while the driving coil stays cool. However, the product range sold in Western markets is a subset of that in their domestic market; some Japanese electronics manufacturers only sell domestically.

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