What are the signs of diabetes mellitus type 2 ervaringen,panasonic gl 1 chassis,number of hospital medication errors yii,type 2 diabetes mellitus with neurological manifestations icd 10 - 2016 Feature

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where in human body does not produce or properly uses insulin, a hormone that is required to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy. Human body has to maintain the blood glucose level at a very narrow range, which is done with insulin and glucagon.
The function of glucagon is causing the liver to release glucose from its cells into the blood, for the production of energy. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas leading to insulin deficiency. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults but was traditionally termed "Juvenile diabetes" because it represents a majority of the diabetes cases in children.
Type 2 Diabetes is also called non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes. At this stage hyperglycemia can be reversed by a variety of measures and medications that improve insulin sensitivity or reduce glucose production by the liver.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 diabetes in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness.
It occurs in about 2%–5% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery.
Risks to the baby include macrosomia (high birth weight), congenital cardiac and central nervous system anomalies, and skeletal muscle malformations. Increased fetal insulin may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome.
A cesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia, such as shoulder dystocia. Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes. It is strongly believed that due to some genes which passes from one generation to another, a person can inherit diabetes.
Either physical injury or emotional disturbance is frequently blamed as the initial cause of the disease.
These symptoms are quickly relieved once the Diabetes is treated and also reduce the chances of developing serious health problems.
Due to inefficiency of the cell to metabolize glucose, reserve fat of body is metabolized to gain energy. Factors like loss of water (polyuria), glucosuria , metabolism of body fat and protein may lead to weight loss.
The body gives few signals whenever there is fluctuation in blood sugar (due to suppression of immune system) by frequent skin infections like fungal or bacterial or UTI (urinary tract infection). High blood sugar resists the flourishing of WBC, (white blood cell) which are responsible for body immune system.
Diabetes is the primary reason for adult blindness, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), gangrene and amputations.
Overweight, lack of exercise, family history and stress increase the likelihood of diabetes. When blood sugar level is constantly high it leads to kidney failure, cardiovascular problems and neuropathy. Though, Diabetes mellitus is not completely curable but, it is controllable to a great extent. Vayu, on relative diminution of other two doshas, draws on the dhatus in urinary bladder and thus causes Prameha. Epidemiology • The worldwide prevalence of DM has risen dramatically over the past two decades, from an estimated 30 million cases in 1985 to 177 million in 2000. Pathophysiology • Type 2 DM is characterized by impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance, excessive hepatic glucose production, and abnormal fat metabolism.
Metabolic Abnormalities • Abnormal Muscle and Fat Metabolism Insulin resistance, the decreased ability of insulin to act effectively on target tissues (especially muscle, liver, and fat), is a prominent feature of type 2 DM and results from a combination of genetic susceptibility and obesity.
Impaired Insulin Secretion • In type 2 DM, insulin secretion initially increases in response to insulin resistance to maintain normal glucose tolerance. Increased Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production • In type 2 DM, insulin resistance in the liver reflects the failure of hyperinsulinemia to suppress gluconeogenesis, which results in fasting hyperglycemia and decreased glycogen storage by the liver in the postprandial state. Acute Complications of DM • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are acute complications of diabetes. Mechanisms of Complications • One theory is that increased intracellular glucose leads to the formation of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) via the nonenzymatic glycosylation of intra- and extracellular proteins. Ophthalmologic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus • Blindness is primarily the result of progressive diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema. Renal Complications of Diabetes Mellitus • Like other microvascular complications, the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is related to chronic hyperglycemia.
Neuropathy and Diabetes Mellitus • As with other complications of DM, the development of neuropathy correlates with the duration of diabetes and glycemic control. Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality • The increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality appears to relate to the synergism of hyperglycemia with other cardiovascular risk factors. Lower Extremity Complications • The reasons for the increased incidence of these disorders in DM involve the interaction of several pathogenic factors: neuropathy, abnormal foot biomechanics, PAD, and poor wound healing. Goals of Treatment • Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7% is the goal for patients in general. Combination Therapy with Glucose-Lowering Agents • A number of combinations of therapeutic agents are successful in type 2 DM, and the dosing of agents in combination is the same as when the agents are used alone. Insulin Treatments Insulin should be considered as the initial therapy in type 2 DM, particularly in lean individuals or those with severe weight loss, in individuals with underlying renal or hepatic disease that precludes oral glucose-lowering agents, or in individuals who are hospitalized or acutely ill. Prevention • Type 2 DM is preceded by a period of IGT, and a number of lifestyle modifications and pharmacologic agents prevent or delay the onset of DM.
Assessment of Long-Term Glycemic Control • Measurement of glycated hemoglobin is the standard method for assessing long-term glycemic control. Diabetes explained is quite simple – it is a physical disorder where the cells in the body are not receiving glucose (the fuel the cells need for energy).


Type I diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disorder, usually developed in childhood, that is the result of the pancreas not producing enough insulin to meet the body’s needs. Type II diabetes mellitus is the resistance some cells have to insulin, which prevents the glucose from being used. Gestational diabetes mellitus is similar to type II, but is caused by pregnancy and often disappears after pregnancy. Diabetes is the term people most use when referring to the condition known as diabetes mellitus. A person with diabetes insipidus will also urinate a lot, but this is caused by a lack of the hormone vasopressin which acts to balance the body’s hydration level and has nothing to do with glucose or insulin. To explain diabetes mellitus, it is first important to know what insulin is and how it works. If the beta cells in the Islet of Langerhans do not produce enough insulin for the body’s needs, the person has what is called Type I diabetes (or juvenile diabetes). People with Type II diabetes (or adult onset) have plenty of insulin in their system, but the cells do not recognize it. Without glucose entering the cell, it starves and sends a message to the brain to eat carbohydrates (feed me Seymore).
In contrast, using this same analogy, if your house had Type I diabetes, you (glucose) would not have a key (insulin) to use at all. It is important to note that when a person is insulin resistant that not every cell in the body resists insulin.
If you, or anyone you care about, has any of these symptoms, please consult a physician right away.
When diabetes mellitus is untreated, the high levels of glucose can be very damaging to the body. This FREE 9 Step Guide Will Help You Get Back on the Right Course to Better Health and Weight Loss. Welcome to Live Fit I started Live Fit with the goal of helping 1 million people find and keep fitness and good health.
I am starting this endeavor to make America fit using podcasts, articles, programs, education, and word of mouth. About This Site If you have struggled with diets in the past, and exercise is just not your thing, Live Fit can help you find the healthy habits and lifestyle that will allow you to Live Fit for Life. Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person’s blood sugar level to become too high.
A registered dietitian can help you put together a meal plan that fits your health goals, food preferences and lifestyle.
If you have signs or symptoms of low blood sugar, eat or drink something that will quickly raise your blood sugar level — fruit juice, glucose tablets, hard candy, regular (not diet) soda or another source of sugar.
You are not authorized to see this partPlease, insert a valid App IDotherwise your plugin won't work. It depends upon closeness of blood relationship as mother is diabetic, the risk is 2 to 3%, father is diabetic, the risk is more than the previous case and if both the parents are diabetic, the child has much greater risk for diabetes. This disease may occur at any age, but 80% of cases occur after 50 year, incidences increase with the age factor. New improved blood glucose monitor (new device for self blood glucose monitoring), and hemoglobin A1c laboratory test to measure blood glucose control during previous 3 months.
Trishna (Thirst and Polydipsia) : In the process of lypolysis, more water is utilized which results into activation of thirst center in the brain. SHANER MEHA - Delayed and very slow impulse of urination.patient urinates in less quantity without any urge and difficulty.
HASTI MEHA (Prostatitis) - Urine with lasika.In this type, patient urinates urine in a very large quantity just like an elephant.
MADHU MEHA (Diabetes mellitus) -In this type, patient urinates urine which is of whitish or yellowish in colour and rough in nature. Boil the 5 leaves each of Tulsi, Neem, Jamun, Bel, with 4 seeds of pepper in a glass of water and drink two times a day. The powder of seeds of Fenugreek (Methi) taken two to three times a day helps control the sugar in blood and urine.
If you interesting in "DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2" powerpoint themes, you can download to use this powerpoint template for your own presentation template. Insulin resistance impairs glucose utilization by insulin-sensitive tissues and increases hepatic glucose output; both effects contribute to the hyperglycemia. DKA was formerly considered a hallmark of type 1 DM, but it also occurs in individuals who lack immunologic features of type 1 DM • HHS is primarily seen in individuals with type 2 DM.
Among other actions, PKC alters the transcription of genes for fibronectin, type IV collagen, contractile proteins, and extracellular matrix proteins in endothelial cells and neurons. The mechanisms by which chronic hyperglycemia leads to ESRD, though incompletely defined, involve the effects of soluble factors (growth factors, angiotensin II, endothelin, AGEs), hemodynamic alterations in the renal microcirculation (glomerular hyperfiltration or hyperperfusion, increased glomerular capillary pressure), and structural changes in the glomerulus (increased extracellular matrix, basement membrane thickening, mesangial expansion, fibrosis). The presence of cardiovascular disease, elevated triglycerides, and hypertension is also associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. It most frequently presents with distal sensory loss, but up to 50% of patients do not have symptoms of neuropathy. The reasons for this include incompletely defined abnormalities in cell-mediated immunity and phagocyte function associated with hyperglycemia, as well as diminished vascularization.
The goal for the individual patient is an HbA1c as close to normal (<6%) as possible without significant hypoglycemia.
One drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine or 1.5 oz of distilled spirits (each of which contains 15g of alcohol). Sulfonylurea (SU)- increases insulin secretion (pancreas), ideal for lean patient, early in disease, use with caution in kidney diseasea.
Non-SU insulin secretagogue – increases insulin secretion (pancreas), ideal for post-meal hyperglycemia, variable schedule, alternative to sulfonylurea, may use in renal insufficiency a. Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitor – delays GI absorption of carbohydrates (GUT), ideal for post-meal hyperglycemia a.
Because mechanisms of action of the first and second agents are different, the effect on glycemic control is usually additive.


The reason is either because the hormone insulin is not produced or the cells do not recognize this hormone.
However, there are other meanings of this word and to be clear let’s look at the definitions. When vasopressin (also called Anti Diuratic Hormone) is low, the body cannot hold water and a person will urinate until they are dehydrated. It then circulates through the blood stream and acts like a key to open a door in cells to let glucose in. They will have to monitor their blood sugar levels frequently, but with modern glucometers, this is not as invasive as it used to be. These changes include, daily exercise, appropriate body composition (not being overweight), high consumption of produce (fruits and vegetables), a high fiber diet, lean meats and very limited sugar and saturated fats. The American Diabetes Association web site has statistics and much more information about this disorder.
Checking your blood sugar levels at home and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes.
Some people with type 2 diabetes can stop taking medications after losing weight (although they still have diabetes). Work closely with your doctor and dietitian to design a meal plan that maintains near-normal blood sugar (glucose) levels.
Secondly, long standing diabetes leads to thickening of blood vessels which affect proper circulation of blood in different body parts.
This causes disturbance in the equilibrium of dhatus and doshas in the body exposing body to further complications. For viewing only, you can play with our flash based presentation viewer instead of downloading the ppt file. The assumption is that a second genetic defect—superimposed upon insulin resistance—leads to beta cell failure. Both disorders are associated with absolute or relative insulin deficiency, volume depletion, and acid-base abnormalities. Three or more times daily for those using multiple insulin injections – Optimal frequency and timing of SMBG for those on oral agents is not known. To do this, the glucose is stored, first in muscle tissue, then in the liver, and finally any excess will be turned into triglycerides and stored as fat.
People with Type I diabetes will need to inject insulin several times a day to correspond with blood sugar levels that rise after eating.
For example, most commonly, a person’s muscle cells are resistant to insulin, yet their fat cells are not. Type 2 diabetes is sometimes called non-insulin dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes, and accounts for at least 90% of all cases of diabetes. Depending on your treatment plan, you may check and record your blood sugar level once a day or several times a week. Work closely with your doctor, nurse, and dietitian to learn how much fat, protein, and carbohydrates you need in your diet.
Exercise in which your heart beats faster and you breathe faster helps lower your blood sugar level without medication. To keep your blood sugar on an even keel, try to eat the same amount of food with the same proportion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats at the same time every day.
The ADA recommends screening for distal symmetric neuropathy beginning with the initial diagnosis of diabetes and screening for autonomic neuropathy 5 years after diagnosis of type 1 DM and at the time of diagnosis of type 2 DM.
Insulin resistance, as reflected by elevated serum insulin levels, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications in individuals with and without DM.
Thiazolidinedione (TZD) – increases insulin sensitivity (muscles and fats), ideal for insulin- resitance, inappropriate for metformin, can be used for renal insufficiency a. Individuals with a strong family history of type 2 DM and individuals with IFG or IGT should be strongly encouraged to maintain a normal BMI and engage in regular physical activity.
This means that the glucose in the blood will be accepted by the fat cells, which can take an unlimited amount of glucose to change into adipose (fat) tissue.
This type of diabetes was previously called “adult onset diabetes.” With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain a normal blood sugar level. Your meal plans should fit your daily lifestyle and habits, and should try to include foods that you like.
Your doctor may prescribe medications or other treatments to reduce your chances of developing eye disease, kidney disease, and other conditions that are more common in people with diabetes. A further decline in insulin secretion and an increase in hepatic glucose production lead to overt diabetes with fasting hyperglycemia.
The most prominent GI symptoms are delayed gastric emptying (gastroparesis) and altered small- and large-bowel motility (constipation or diarrhea). If your house had Type II diabetes, your key would not fit into the lock – perhaps the neighbor kid put gum in it. To make this undesirable effect even worse, since the cells are not receiving energy the person is prompted to eat more. Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1 diabetes, which occurs when the body doesn’t produce any insulin at all.
By balancing food and insulin together, you can keep your blood sugar (glucose) within a normal range. Gastroparesis may present with symptoms of anorexia, nausea, vomiting, early satiety, and abdominal bloating. Without being able to unlock the lock, you are not able to open the door and therefor, you (glucose) cannot go in.



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