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IntroductionAn audience analysis is a process used to identify and understand the priority and influencing audiences for a SBCC strategy. Geographic characteristics like where the audience lives and how that might impact behavior. Barriers and facilitators that prevent or encourage audience members to adopt the desired behavior change. An audience analysis informs the design of materials, messages, media selection and activities of a SBCC strategy.
An audience analysis should be conducted at the beginning of a program or project, in conjunction with a situation analysis and program analysis. To address the problem statement and achieve the vision decided upon during the situation analysis, brainstorm and list all potential audiences that are affected by or have control over the health or social problem.
To identify the priority audience(s), keep in mind the vision and health or social problem. Identify the socio-demographic, geographic and psychographic characteristics of each priority audience. Organize priority audience information in a table (see Audience Characteristics and Behavioral Factors Template under templates).
Understand what the priority audience knows, thinks, feels and does about the problem in order to determine the audiences’ stage of behavior change. There are a number of ideational factors that commonly influence individual behavior and should be considered when examining the audience’s knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. The situation analysis, stakeholder workshop and any additional quantitative or qualitative research will indicate what the priority audience currently does in reference to the problem and what the audience knows, thinks and feels about the problem or desired behavior. How capable does the priority audience feel about being able to take action to address the problem (self-efficacy)?
What emotional reaction does the priority audience have towards the health problem (emotions)?
What level of support does the priority audience believe they would receive from family members or the community (social support and influence)? Add this information to the table (see Audience Characteristics and Behavioral Factors Template under templates). It is crucial to know what prevents or encourages the priority audience to practice the desired behavior. Negative experience: Some audiences may have had a bad experience, such as with the health care system, and thus may be cynical or resistant to change.
Audience segmentation is the process of dividing the priority audience into sub groups according to at least one similar characteristic that will affect the success of the SBCC effort.  Look at the selected priority audience and decide if it is similar enough that it can be effectively reached by the same set of channels, messages and interventions. Are any audience members particularly difficult to reach, requiring a different set of channels? If yes, the audience may need to be segmented further.  See the audience segmentation guide for more information on how to identify and prioritize audiences so that messages and interventions can be most effectively targeted. Some urban women of reproductive age may have different concerns or views about family planning.
Who has the most impact on the priority audience’s health-related behavior and what is their relationship to the priority audience? Who influences the priority audience’s behavior positively and who influences it negatively? For each influencing audience identified, search the literature to identify information about them and their relationship to the priority audience. The audience profile consists of a paragraph with details on current behaviors, motivation, emotions, values and attitudes, as well as information such as age, income level, religion, sex and where they live. The audience profiles will feed directly into the creative brief process and will be an integral part of the SBCC strategy.
The priority audience’s perception about how the community views an issue may differ from how the community actually views the issue. No two audience profiles should look the same; the best profiles use qualitative research as a source. Designing messages and activities with shared characteristics in mind increases the likelihood of audience members identifying with the issue and feeling able to address it. Glossary & ConceptsPriority audience refers to a group of people whose behavior must change in order to improve the health situation. An influencing audience is made up of those people who have the most significant and direct influence (positive or negative) over the priority audience. Psychographics are the attributes that describe personality, attitudes, beliefs, values, emotions and opinions. Ideation refers to how new ways of thinking (or new behaviors) are diffused through a community by means of communication and social interaction among individuals and groups.
Gender refers to the socially and culturally constructed roles and responsibilities deemed appropriate for men and women. SBCC How-to Guides are short guides that provide step-by-step instructions on how to perform core SBCC tasks.

A community where health communication practitioners connect , share and learn to improve the practice of social and behavior change communication.
This website is made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the Health Communication Capacity Collaborative (HC3) Project, supported by USAID’s Office of Population and Reproductive Health, Bureau for Global Health, under Cooperative Agreement #AID-OAA-A-12-00058 with the Johns Hopkins University. HC3 is based at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Center for Communication Programs (JHU•CCP). Check out these two maps, the first showing obesity rates (by county) in the United States and the second showing the percentage of commuters who travel by car (via Planetizen). Researchers Anne Price and Ariel Godwin at Planetizen caution readers not to conflate correlation and causation.
Sounds like more research is needed — in addition to more transportation choices in the southeast and Appalachia. It would also be interesting to examine whether the availability of alternatives to single occupancy vehicle travel contributes to some of the better economic indicators in some of the nation’s less obese, wealthier areas. It’s also interesting that you can see the Appalachian Mountains in the obesity trend. There is a great deal of evidence that links time in a car to obesity, including a study conducted in 2004 in Atlanta that took into account sociodemographics and land use.
Given this information, we may have to face that jobs that require people to spend most of their day sedentary behind a wheel (truckers, bus drivers, etc.) are in fact health hazards.
Also, we tend to focus on how people commute, but given that only 15% of all trips made in the US are commute trips, it might be a good idea to consider the mode of travel for the other 85% of trips people make.
The fact that the first green category for the percentage of commuters who drive covers 9% to 86%, and then 4 categories cover the remaining 14%, shows how just ridiculously car-centric our nation is.
I have never been to Southern Illinois, but I am failing to see how its obesity rate would be much higher than neighboring states, even though the respective counties drive at the rates expected of a rural area. Also, the map of diabetes strongly indicates some strong state effects in measurement of obesity. Copyright NoticeThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. A stroke occurs when the normal functioning of a part of the brain is affected because of a disturbance in its blood supply.
The common risk factors listed above result in stroke by affecting the blood vessels and resulting in atherosclerotic narrowing of the vessels.
The good news is that ischemic stroke is now treatable provided the patient can be evaluated as soon as possible after the onset of stroke. Exciting and effective as the acute treatment of ischemic stroke is, it is the old adage that comes to mind that an ounce of prevention is worth more a pound of cure! The Comprehensive Stroke Center at our facility has a distinguished array of staff who are adept and are the cutting edge of developments in all these fields. The team should start thinking about the audience during the desk review and fill in any gaps during the stakeholder workshop. When estimating time, consider the existing audience-related data, what gaps need to be filled and whether additional stakeholder or audience input is needed. The priority audience is not always the most affected audience, but is the group of people whose behavior must change in order to improve the health situation.
This allows the program to tailor messages and activities based on the audience’s knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors.
Keeping in mind the ideational factors, examine that research to understand each priority audience. Identify barriers and facilitators of change in the literature and list them in the table (see Audience Characteristics and Behavioral Factors Template under templates).If the desk review does not adequately identify behavioral factors, conduct additional qualitative research (interviews, focus groups) with members of the priority audience. One group might be afraid of side effects while another group does not use family planning because they do not know where family planning services are available. Search the situation analysis, stakeholder workshop and any qualitative research findings for indications of who strongly influences the priority audience’s behavior (see Audience Focused Literature Review Chart Template under templates).
Audience profiles bring audience segments to life by telling the story of an imagined individual from the audience.
The profile should reflect the primary barriers the audience faces in adopting the desired behavior.
Do not rely solely on the project team’s beliefs or what program staff and health workers say or assume about the audiences.
The collaboration among team members (four or five people recommended) will provide richer and deeper insights into the issues.
It is important to recognize that some documents may have information gaps that will require additional inquiries (formative research) to fully understand the potential audience. This will help the program team better understand the audiences they are trying to reach and ensure that audience members see themselves in the messages developed for them. It is the most important group to address because they have the power to make changes the SBCC campaign calls for.
Psychographic characteristics or factors relate to the psychology or behavior of the audience.

However, when comparing other economic and demographic characteristics (unemployment, educational attainment, income), no other maps displayed such striking similarities.
Land use mix (residential neighborhood within 1 kilometer of commercial area) turned out the most important factor in predicting reduced likelihood of obesity (perhaps because people are more likely to walk and bike if there are destinations within walking and biking distance of their home.) Second was time spent in a car. On a linear scale (each color representing a 20% chunk), there would be almost no green except a handful of cities like NYC.
Land use mix (residential neighborhood within 1 kilometer of commercial area) turned out the most important factor in predicting reduced likelihood of obesity (perhaps because people are more likely to walk and bike if there are destinations within walking and biking distance of their home.) Second strongest predictor of obesity was time spent in a car. Far West Kansas and Far East Colorado look just about the same from the ground and drive at rates expected of a rural area, yet they have very different obesity rates.
You can’t pinpoint two or three areas where the correlation seems grey or foggy and then ignore the rest of the country, where the correlation is generally very strong. The large blood vessels which are commonly affected include the aorta, common and internal carotid arteries, as well as the intracranial arteries which form the circle of Willis (middle cerebral arteries, anterior cerebral arteries, posterior cerebral arteries, and the vertebro-basilar system). Intravenous tissue plaminogen activator (tPA) is a FDA approved drug for carefully selected patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Primary and Secondary prevention measures include control of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia and smoking cessation. As a result, messages and activities are more likely to resonate with the audience and lead to the desired change in behaviors. Allow for additional time if formative research is needed to fill in any gaps that may exist in the literature. The number of priority audiences depends mainly on the number of audiences whose practice of the behavior will significantly impact the problem. These groups would require different messages and interventions and should be segmented if resources allow. SBCC strategies can take advantage of such opportunities to connect with audience members about the topic.
Emotional factors include how an individual feels about the new behavior (positive or negative) as well as how confident a person feels that they can perform the behavior (self-efficacy). In many cases, the way a community defines gender roles and expectations disadvantages women and girls.
More likely, counties with the highest percentage of walkers and cyclists also share other common characteristics that are driving this trend.
Rapid advances are being made in application of thrombolytic therapy which can be delivered intra arterially to open occluded arteries. A large number of strokes can be effectively prevented with programs which address these factors. Their different roles – as friends, family, leaders, teachers, health providers and of course, the media – often determine their level of influence. Addressing the misperceptions with your program or campaign could lead to a more successful behavior change intervention than one that does not address misperceptions.
Social factors consist of interpersonal interactions (such as support or pressure from friends) that convince someone to behave in a certain way, as well as the effect on an individual’s behavior from trying to persuade others to adopt the behavior as well (personal advocacy). For example, if community norms dictate that boys should eat meat and vegetables while girls get rice and porridge, mothers will have difficulty ensuring that girls get enough of the right foods to be healthy. Government information and does not necessarily represent the views or positions of USAID, the United States Government, or The Johns Hopkins University. Perhaps lower rates are driven by a cumulative effect of a more affluent and educated population. The fact is, the map does show a generally clear trend: *most* parts of the country reflect a positive correlation between high rates of driving and high obesity rates.
Cardioembolic strokes result from emboli originating from the heart which lodge in the blood vessels of the brain. Endovascular approaches are being used to mechanically remove clots responsible for the stroke and open narrowed arteries using stents. It may also be that counties with higher rates of active commuting have policies and cultures that have led to higher rates of physical activity overall. Colorado – I have a hard time believing the counties just west of that border are that much different from the counties on the east side of that border. Anticoagulation strategies are used to prevent certain types of cardioembolic strokes such as those resulting from atrial fibrillation.
Surgery and endovascular treatments such as stenting can be applied to prevent strokes resulting from internal carotid artery stenosis and intracranial arterial stenosis.

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