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1Diabetes and Obesity Center, Konstantopouleio Hospital, 3-5 Agias Olgas Street, Nea Ionia, 14233 Athens, Greece 2Biochemistry Laboratory. Previous studies reported on postprandial lipemia in subjects with obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, elderly, patients with CHD and others. Background: Postprandial lipemia is important in the development of coronary artery disease because of elevated postprandial triacylglycerol-rich plasma lipoproteins and suppressed HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Methods and Statistical Analysis: Fifty diagnosed cases of type 2 DM which were in the age group of 35-65 years, which had a duration of diabetes of more than five years, were included in the study and 50 age and sex matched healthy subjects were taken as the controls.
Type 2 diabetes: What is it?Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to convert sugar into energy.
To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements. Some people who are diagnosed with diabetes haven’t experienced any diabetes symptoms — their diabetes was diagnosed from the results of a simple blood test.
If you begin to notice any one of the above mentioned symptoms please contact your primary care physician. The Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat fed a lipid-rich diet, closely mimics human adult onset of type II diabetes and its related complications.
Figure 2: Comparison of endothelium-dependent relaxations in ZDF and in their control (Lean) obtained in in vitro experiments performed in aortic and superior mesenteric artery rings. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals. To test our hypothesis, we studied the effect of postprandial lipemia and its characteristic lipoproteins (ie, TGRLs) on glucagon kinetics in healthy volunteers, isolated mouse pancreatic islets, and cultured pancreatic I± cells. Type 2 diabetes is a central component of the metabolic syndrome, which consists of a cluster of risk factors for CAD: type 2 diabetes, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipoproteinemia with elevated triacylglycerol and low HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated that the lipid profile, as a cardiovascular risk factor, was significantly elevated in the postprandial state as compared to that in the fasting state and that it was significantly elevated in the postprandial and the fasting states in the Type 2 DM patients as compared to the levels in their respective control groups.
This allows sugar levels to build up in the blood, which can lead to heart disease, blindness and other serious complications.
It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. Since your kidneys must remove the excess glucose from your blood, it ends up in your urine, which can cause more frequent urination with more volume.
When you lose an increased amount of fluid through frequent urination, you may become dehydrated and thirsty. Since your body is unable to use your blood glucose effectively, it begins to break down your energy stores such as fat, which can result in weight loss or a failure to gain weight in growing children. Feeling tired is a common diabetes symptom because your body cannot convert the glucose in your blood into usable energy.
Along with hunger and fatigue, it is not uncommon to feel irritable when you have diabetes. Hope is an innovative and federally-qualified community health center offering comprehensive medical, dental, pharmacy and clinical research. Type 2 is the increasingly resistance of cells to insulin produced in the pancreas or not enough insulin produced.. In time, ZDF rats evolve from a model of metabolic syndrome to a type II diabetic rat based on impaired glucose tolerance caused by the inherited obesity gene mutation which leads to insulin resistance. 1Diabetes and Obesity Center, Konstantopouleio Hospital, 3-5 Agias Olgas Street, Nea Ionia, 14233 Athens, Greece2Biochemistry Laboratory, Konstantopouleio Hospital, 3-5 Agias Olgas Street, Nea Ionia, 14233 Athens, Greece31st Department of Propaedeutic and Internal Medicine, Laiko General Hospital, Athens University Medical School, 17 Agiou Thoma Street, 115 27 Athens, Greece. Thus, patients with type 2 diabetes have higher postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations than do nondiabetic persons when carefully matched for fasting plasma triacylglycerol concentrations (7). The increased risk of atherosclerosis among them, may therefore, be related to the higher postprandial lipaemia in them. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Your body is unable to use the glucose you have and is trying to tell you it needs more fuel. Publication Clinical Study Study of Postprandial Lipaemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Exenatide versus Liraglutide.
Since Type 2 diabetes is characterized by both excessive postprandial glycemia and lipemia even with optimal fasting glucose and TG levels, the.

Diabetes UK estimates that over 600,000 people with type 2 diabetes don't know they have it. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. The postprandial dysmetabolism and the associated oxidative stress may link the insulin resistance and the Type 2 DM to the disproportional incidence of cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes mellitus Postprandial lipaemia Physical activity Fibre Cardiovascular risk Lipoproteins.
This study examined whether the GLP-1 analog exenatide inhibits postprandial vascular endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Numerous studies indicate that postprandial metabolic derangements, most notably hyperglycaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, which are exaggerated and prolonged in type 2 diabetes, are important cardiovascular disease risk factors since they induce oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunctions.
In diabetes, the postprandial phase is characterised by a rapid and large increase in blood glucose levels, and the possibility that the postprandial a€?hyperglycaemic spikesa€™ may be relevant to the pathophysiology of late diabetic complications has received recently much more attention. Diabetes may not have symptomsIn most cases type 2 diabetes doesn't cause any symptoms, or the symptoms are mild, which is why many people have it for years without knowing it, and why it's important to get tested.
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at high risk for development of life-threatening atherosclerotic disease compared with healthy persons.
However, recently Vakkilainen et al demonstrated that nateglinide and glibenclamide increased postprandial insulin secretion and decreased postprandial glycaemia, but neither drug attenuated postprandial lipaemia in type 2 diabetic subjects with good glycaemic control.
Warning sign: ThirstOne of the first symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be an increase in thirst.
This is often accompanied by additional problems, including dry mouth, increased appetite, frequent urination – sometimes as often as every hour -- and unusual weight loss or gain. We therefore studied the effect of ciprofibrate therapy on endothelial function, oxidative stress, and PPL in type 2 diabetes in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Warning sign: Blurred visionAs blood sugar levels become more abnormal, additional symptoms may include headaches, blurred vision and fatigue. Warning sign: InfectionsIn most cases, type 2 diabetes is not discovered until it takes a noticeable toll on health.
Diabetes can cause damage to blood vessels and nerve endings in the genitals, leading to a loss of feeling and making orgasm difficult.
Risk factors you can controlYour habits and lifestyle can affect your odds of developing type 2 diabetes.
Effect of Overweight and Obesity on Postprandial Lipemia among the Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes, Amrane Nadia and Khaled Meghit Boumediene. Risk factors for womenHaving gestational diabetes when you're pregnant puts you seven times at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes later on. Having a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also cause insulin resistance that can lead to diabetes. Type 2 diabetes in childrenAlthough older people have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes, the condition is affecting more young people.
Diabetes UK says around 35,000 children and young people in the UK have diabetes, with around 700 of these having type 2 diabetes. The leading risk factor for children is being overweight, often connected with an unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. Once children are overweight, their chances of developing type 2 diabetes more than doubles. Often a urine test is carried out first, and if it contains glucose, or a person is at risk of diabetes, one or more blood tests to check levels of glucose in the blood are performed.
How does insulin work?In healthy people, after a meal, food is broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is carried by the blood to cells throughout the body.
Cells use the hormone insulin, made in the pancreas, to help them process blood glucose into energy. People develop type 2 diabetes because the cells in the muscles, liver and fat cannot use insulin properly, called insulin resistance.
Type 2 Diabetes: Metabolism mishapsIn type 2 diabetes, the cells cannot absorb glucose properly.
If you've developed a condition called insulin resistance, the body makes insulin, but the muscle, liver and fat cells cannot use insulin, or do not respond to the insulin, properly.
With long-standing, uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, the pancreas will reduce the amount of insulin it produces.

Managing diabetes: DietFortunately, people with type 2 diabetes can significantly reduce the risk of damage to their bodies, including damage to the heart, kidneys, eyes and feet.
People with type 2 diabetes should carefully monitor carbohydrate consumption, as well as total fat and protein intake and reduce calories. Managing diabetes: ExerciseModerate exercise, such as strength training or walking, improves the body's use of insulin and can lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Being active also helps reduce body fat, lower blood pressure and protect against heart disease. Try to do at least 150 minutes of exercise a week, with some exercise on most days of the week.
It can also increase glucose levels in your blood as part of your "fight or flight" response. Instead of letting stress take its toll, try relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation or just talking to a friend or relative. Managing diabetes: MedicationWhen people with type 2 diabetes are unable to control blood sugar sufficiently with diet and exercise, medication can help.
There are many types of diabetes medicines available and they are often used in combination.
Some work by stimulating the pancreas to make more insulin, while others improve the effectiveness of insulin, or reduce the liver's production of glucose, or block the digestion of starches. Managing diabetes: InsulinMany people with type 2 diabetes eventually develop 'beta-cell failure'. This means the cells in the pancreas no longer produce insulin in response to high blood sugar levels. In this case, insulin therapy – injections or an insulin pump – must become part of the daily routine. Whereas insulin pulls glucose into the cells, these medications cause the body to release insulin to control blood sugar levels. Glucose testingTesting your blood glucose level will let you know how controlled your blood sugars are and if you need to take action to change your treatment plan.
How often and when you test will be based on how controlled your diabetes is, the type of therapy used to control your diabetes and whether you are experiencing symptoms of fluctuating sugars. Your diabetes team will suggest how often you should use a glucose meter to check your blood sugar. Common testing times are first thing in the morning, before and after meals and exercise and before bedtime. Long-term damage: ArteriesOver time, untreated type 2 diabetes can damage many of the body's systems.
People with diabetes are likely to develop plaque in their arteries, which reduces blood flow and increases the risk of clots. People with diabetes are up to five times more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke. Long-term damage: KidneysThe longer you have untreated diabetes, the greater the risk of developing kidney disease or kidney failure. Long-term damage: EyesHigh blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the retina, a critical part of the eye. This is known as diabetic retinopathy and it can cause progressive, irreversible vision loss.
People with diabetes are up to 20 times more likely to go blind than those without diabetes. Long-Term Damage: Nerve PainOver time, uncontrolled diabetes and elevated blood sugars create a very real risk of nerve damage. Symptoms can include tingling, numbness, pain and a pins and needles sensation -- often in the fingers, hands, toes or feet. Preventing type 2 diabetesOne of the most astonishing things about type 2 diabetes is that such a life-altering condition is often preventable.

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