Type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis criteria,how type 2 diabetes can be controlled without drugs 2014,type 2 diabetes teaching - Videos Download

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Diet, exercise, and education remain the foundation of all type 2 diabetes treatment programmes.
After metformin, it is reasonable to consider combination therapy with an additional 1-2 oral or injectable agents with the objective of minimising side-effects where possible.
For many patients insulin therapy alone or in combination with other agents will ultimately be required to maintain glucose control. All treatment decisions, where possible, should take into account the patient’s preferences, needs and values. Diabetes may be diagnosed based on HbA1c criteria or plasma glucose criteria, either the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or the 2-h plasma glucose (2-h PG) value after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
For all patients, particularly those who are overweight or obese, testing should begin at age 45 years. Two primary techniques are available to assess the effectiveness of glycaemic control: Patient self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) or interstitial glucose and A1C. Patients on multiple-dose insulin or insulin pump therapy should perform SMBG prior to meals and snacks, occasionally postprandially, at bedtime, prior to exercise, when they suspect low blood glucose, after treating low blood glucose until they are normoglycaemic, and prior to critical tasks such as driving. Initial therapy: Most patients should begin with lifestyle changes – healthy eating, weight control, increased physical activity, and diabetes education. Advancing to dual combination therapy: If the HbA1c target is not achieved after ~3 months with metformin, there are six drug choices including a second oral agent (sulfonylurea, TZD, DPP-4 inhibitor, or SGLT2 inhibitor), a GLP-1 receptor agonist, or basal insulin.
Advancing to triple combination therapy: Evidence suggests that there is some advantage in adding a third noninsulin agent to a two-drug combination not achieving the glycaemic target. Do you agree that private hospitals should be paid via the NTPF to cut public hospital waiting lists?
Rates for women are slightly higher for ages 18-34.  Routine blood sugar testing during pregnancy could be a contributing factor to this higher rate for women. For both men and women, rates are highest among adults aged 65 and over.  More than one in five Utah men in this age group has been diagnosed.


Highest rates of diabetes are seen for Non-Hispanic American Indian and Pacific Islander adults. The Community Faces of Utah believes it is important to make informed, preventive healthcare decisions for ourselves, our children, our families, and our friends. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation.
The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is conveniently summarised in terms of the postulated decline in beta cell mass as the disease process moves through its successive stages. Official Full-Text Publication: Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
Diabetes may be identified in seemingly low risk individuals who happen to have glucose testing, in symptomatic patients, and in higher-risk individuals who are tested because of a suspicion of diabetes. When lifestyle efforts alone have not achieved or maintained glycemic goals, metformin monotherapy should be added at, or soon after, diagnosis (in patients intolerant, or with contraindications for, metformin, select initial drug from other treatment options). By increasing our knowledge we become empowered to improve health for our families and our community. The primary complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels include damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
Shared decision making with the patient is important to help in the selection of therapeutic option. Since diabetes is associated with progressive beta-cell loss, many patients, especially those with long-standing disease, will ultimately need to be transitioned to insulin.
We also believe that diverse community organizations and institutions can fruitfully dialogue and collaborate to build trust, learn from each other, and work together to enhance our communities' health. Immunotherapy for prevention of type 1 diabetes or to ameliorate the course of the disease after clinical diagnosis is currently restricted to research studies. The choice is based on patient and drug characteristics, with the over-riding goal of improving glycaemic control while minimising side-effects. Update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes.


Position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes.
Diabetologia publishes original clinical and experimental research within the field of diabetes. In using triple combinations the essential consideration is obviously to use agents with complementary mechanisms of action.
Secondary and tertiary prevention interventions include MNT for individuals with diabetes and seek to prevent (secondary) or control (tertiary) complications of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is thought to be an immunologically mediated disease, the end result of which is pancreatic islet I?-cell destruction [1, 2].
For youth with type 1 diabetes, youth with type 2 diabetes, pregnant and lactating women, and older adults with diabetes, to meet the nutritional needs of these unique times in the life cycle, carbohydrates) would also be effective in prevention of diabetes through promotion of weight loss; however, clinical trial data on the efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets for primary prevention of type 2 diabetes are not available. The goal of tertiary intervention trials at or after disease onset is to halt the destruction of remaining I?-cells, perhaps allowing these residual I?-cells to recover function, hopefully lessening the severity of clinical manifestations and disease progression. Interleukin-1 antagonism in type 1 diabetes of recent onset: two multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.
Natural History of Type 1 Diabetes and Spectrum of Prevention Opportunities A  Pre-Clinical Autoimmunity Clinical Onset Remission Long-Standing Diabetes Clinical Problems hypoglycemia-like symptoms?
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (also called insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile-onset diabetes) occurs when pancreatic beta cells, the cells that make insulin, are destroyed by the body’s own immune system. Those who are at risk for developing type 1 diabetes usually have family and environmental factors which play into the development of the disease. The primary locus of susceptibility to type 1 diabetes includes the HLA-DR and DQ genes, 38-40, 115 but new candidate loci outside the HLA region are being identified. In conclusion, primary, secondary and tertiary interventions to prevent the onset of diabetes, or to mitigate its consequences, are worthwhile.



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