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Genetic Markers, Serological AutoAntibodies and Prediction of Type 1 DiabetesRaouia Fakhfakh1[1] Immunology Department, Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia1. 1996 "Interactions of age, islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, and first-phase insulin response in predicting risk of progression to IDDM in ICA+ relatives: the ICARUS data set.
2005 "Functional defects and the influence of age on the frequency of CD4+ CD25+ T-cells in type 1 diabetes." Diabetes. 1996 "Rapid HLA-DQB1 genotyping for four alleles in the assessment of risk for IDDM in the Finnish population. 1993 "Comparison of bolus and infusion protocols for determining acute insulin response to intravenous glucose in normal humans.
Environmental factors, such as exposure to a viral illness, also likely play some role in type 1 diabetes.
If you have these autoantibodies, you have an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Any pregnant woman can develop gestational diabetes, but some women are at greater risk than are others. If your body becomes insulin resistant, then you might face different symptoms of diabetes.
If you really want to know what causes diabetes type 2, then you need to have thorough consultation with any expert doctor dealing with the concerned disease. Physical inactivity is also quite important in this case and thus you must consider the same. You also need to change your sleeping habits as bad sleep habits are regarded as one of the greatest causes for the occurrence of this disease. What are the potential problems of poorly controlled sugar levels in diabetes type 2?Is There A Cure for Diabetes Type 2? Pathologically, particularly in Type 1A Diabetes, the pancreas is infiltrated with lymphocytes, leading to inflammation and other complications. The are 2 main types which include segmental and nonsegmental, with the latter being the most common. In non-segmental vitiligo, skin patches will often become visible on both sides of the body.
Segmental vitiligo, or SV, is much less common, affecting only 10% of people who are suffering with the condition.
Usually, the spots first appear as skin patches to areas which are continuously exposed to the sun.
For some, it may take weeks for the patches to spread while for others it may take months or even years! Compounding pharmacists are able to customise a treatment from scratch and proceed to medicate patients as unique individuals.
Modern medicine has moved away from this method as soon as large corporations and mass production moved on. Finally, we have taken a step back and recognized that even patients diagnosed with similar conditions require unique care.
Compounding prescriptions now form roughly 3% of all prescribed drugs, and this figure is steadily climbing. Patients affected by vitiligo can be prescribed a topical pseudocatalase cream with skin color additive adjustments. This treatment removes increased skin concentrations of hydrogen peroxide which lead to decreased pigment cells in patients who suffer from vitiligo. A recent study testing the effectiveness of compounded phenylalanine showed that 90.9% of participants showed an overall improvement with correct use. Please read Breakthrough Diabetic Treatment Unveiled for more information on healing this condition.
IntroductionThe type 1 diabetes mellitus (formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals by environmental factors (Atkinson and Eisenbarth 2001).
Your risk of developing type 1 diabetes increases if you have a parent or sibling who has type 1 diabetes. Other factors that may increase your risk include: The presence of damaging immune system cells (autoantibodies). Although it’s unclear why, people of certain races — including blacks, Hispanics, American Indians and Asians — are at higher risk. The risk increases as one gets older; probably due to tendency to  exercise less, lose muscle mass and gain weight as you age. If you developed gestational diabetes when you were pregnant, your risk of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes later increases.
For women, having polycystic ovary syndrome — a common condition characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth and obesity — increases the risk of diabetes. Your risk increases if you have prediabetes — a precursor to type 2 diabetes — or if a close family member, such as a parent or sibling, has type 2 diabetes.
For reasons that aren’t clear, women who are black, Hispanic, American Indian or Asian are more likely to develop gestational diabetes. In some cases, pancreas even stops producing insulin and this is quite a dreadful condition and the doctor confirms that you have developed diabetes. In  this case, glucose directly mixes up with the normal bloodstream rather than getting within body cells and this kind of condition is very much risky and might causes a lot of damages to your body. Increased intake of High-sugar content based foods can be quite riskier and might causes diabetes.
You must be physically fit and must leave lethargic habits like watching televisions for hours, sleeping for hours and many more. Sleeping more than nine hours and less than five hours can be the major reasons that might invite the symptoms of diabetes type 2.
It has been found in the medical researches that most of the fellows who are developing this disease after the age of 40. If you found this useful, please don’t forget to share with your friends and followers at Facebook, Twitter and Google+ etc. In individuals with genetic predisposition to beta-cell autoimmunity, exposure to an environmental trigger or triggers is believed to initiate beta-cell autoimmunity, first evidenced in the appearance of islet autoantibodies. Characteristics associated with low, intermediate, high, and very high risk are grouped from left to right on the abscissa with corresponding T1D risks on the ordinate.
The body’s own immune system attacks the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas, destroying or damaging them sufficiently to reduce and eventually eliminate insulin production.The increase in understanding of the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes has made it possible to consider intervention to slow the autoimmune disease process in an attempt to delay or even prevent the onset of hyperglycemia but varying in terms of their genetic, environmental, and amphopometric measures (2003). Sometimes family members of people with type 1 diabetes are tested for the presence of diabetes autoantibodies. Physical activity helps you control your weight, uses up glucose as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.
But type 2 diabetes is increasing dramatically among children, adolescents and younger adults.
If you gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms), you’re also at risk of type 2 diabetes.
You’re also at greater risk if you had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy, if you delivered a very large baby or if you had an unexplained stillbirth. Low-grade and mild inflation which is being distributed to your body due to fat deposition is the main cause for diabetes.

Therefore, diabetic patients are having restrictions in having high-calorie diets, refined beverages and foods and many more. Keep your body active by doing healthy exercises so that unwanted fat deposition especially at the abdomen area can be prevented. Since genes are automatically transferred from one generation to another therefore you do not have hands in the same and thus you need to take more care and must lead a restricted life. This is because after this age, the immunity power decreases as a result of which the pancreas function is automatically affected. If beta-cell necrosis ensues as a consequence of destructive betacell cellular autoimmunity, a subclinical reduction in beta-cell mass ensues. Increase in T1D risk is associated with progression of islet autoantibodies from single to multiple autoantibodies. The level of blood sugar increases as a result of overweight conditions and on the other hand insulation-resistance condition occurs.
The aims have been to find a way of identifying individuals at risk and to accurately define their degrees of risk. Subjects who are at high risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be identified using a combination of immune, genetic, and metabolic markers, For example, prediction of T1D among relatives can be quite accurate, by combining screening of relatives by measurement of islet cell autoantibodies with subsequent assessment of insulin autoantibodies (IAAs), first-phase insulin response to intravenous glucose, and oral glucose tolerance, while excluding those relatives with the known protective genetic allele HLA-DQB1-0602 (Pugliese, Gianani et al. 1995).Using this combination approach and screening approximately 100,000 relatives, it was possible to identify accurately two cohorts of relatives, one (339 individuals) with a projected 5-year risk of greater than 50% and actual 5-year risk of 60%, (2002) and another (372 individuals) with a projected 5-year risk of 25–50% and actual 5-year risk of 35% (Skyler, Krischer et al. 2005).The seminal research discovery of islet cell cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ICA) in 1974 not only offered clues to the autoimmune basis for type 1 diabetes but in addition, aided in providing some degree of clarity to the aforementioned difficulties associated with disease classification and diagnosis (Bottazzo, Florin-Christensen et al.
The discovery of autoantibodies in T1D also supported the formation of a series of studies defining the natural history of metabolic and immunologic events underling the formation of this disease, the biochemical nature of islet cell autoantigens in the disorder, and trials attempting to predict as well as prevent the formation of T1D.2. Animal models of type 1 diabetes The availability of two animal models of type 1 diabetes has made it possible to evaluate plausible therapeutic strategies before starting human trials. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and BioBreeding (BB) rats are in-bred strains that spontaneously develop autoimmune insulitis and diabetes with striking similarities to type 1 diabetes in humans (Mordes, Desemone et al. The present landscape of basic and translational research in animal models of T1D is characterized by overuse of the NOD mouse. This scenario has some historic reasons that are understandable, foremost among those being the fact that NOD mice and humans share several susceptibility-related genes, including genes encoding the MHC class II homologs.
But it is now also known that there is considerable complexity and heterogeneity in both the disease and in the genetics of the disease, and a singular focus on the NOD model generates too narrow a perspective.The cumulative incidence of type 1 diabetes in these animals is high, and the onset of insulitis as well as hyperglycemia can be readily detected.
Several interventions have been tested in these animals, often at a very early stage in the autoimmune disease process before the onset of insulitis. Examples include subcutaneous and oral insulin, nicotinamide, and the ?-cell antigen glutamic acid decarboxylase. Natural history of preclinical type 1 diabetes in humansType 1 diabetes is usually caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing ?-cells in the islets of Langerhans (Atkinson and Maclaren 1994). In the new classification of diabetes, immune mediated type 1 diabetes is called type 1A to distinguish it from some rarer cases in which an autoimmune etiology cannot be determined (type 1B); the latter are said to be idiopathic (1997). However many agree that an individual's genetic predisposition to this disease modified by environmental factors likely form a key facet for development (Knip 2003) (figure 1).Indeed, the genetic predispositionfor T1D, like most autoimmune disorders, in large partresides within genes controlling the immune response,principal amongst these being the major histocompatiblitycomplex (MHC).
However, susceptibility and resistancefor T1D does not reside in the MHC alone as more than two dozen additional loci outside of theMHC complex have been identified to influence risk for this disease (Melanitou, Fain et al. Among the many potential candidate genes residing in such loci are BCL2, CD28, CTLA-4, CXCL12, interleukin-2 receptor and INS genes (Atkinson 2005).The potential influence of environmental factors in T1D development has been suggested through multiple observations, the primary ones being the 500-fold variance in disease incidence based on geographic locale, seasonal variance in disease onset, and somewhat dramatic increases in the frequency of this disease, particularly over the last half-century.
In terms of how they might contribute to disease, without specific identification, such models remainFigure 1.The natural history of type 1 diabetes is depicted. 2002).hypothetical, but it is currently speculated that once the pathway to T1D has been initiated, either through as yet unknown triggers or natural physiological processes, various aberrant immune responses begin to play a role.
Under one such natural history model, defects in antigen presentation as well as antigen presenting cell maturation imparts an unnatural arrest in clearance of immune cells from the islets.
As the total ?-cell mass declines, a critical point is reached where glucose homeostasis is lost and eventually exogenous insulin is an absolute requirement for survival.Aside from model systems, thoughts continue that T-lymphocytes play the predominant role either directly (cytotoxicity) or indirectly (cytokine mediated ?-cell apoptosis) in the destruction of islets. Adoptive transfer experiments in animal models have shown that T-lymphocytes transfer disease and serum does not.
At the same time, recent studies have suggested key roles for B-lymphocytes in this process as one mouse model for T1D, the NOD mouse, whenrendered deficient in these cells (either through genetic manipulation or through antibody treatment) fail to develop overt disease.Hence, at one level, it isclear that B-lymphocytes are also involved inasmuch as they do produce autoantibodies (Brusko, Wasserfall et al. Genetic markersGenetic markers may be helpful in assessing the risk of type 1 diabetes in close relatives of a patient with type 1 diabetes. An association between HLA class I alleles and type 1 diabetes was first described in the early 1970s (Nerup, Platz et al. More recent observations have indicated that the genes in the HLA-DQ region are even more closely associated with type 1 diabetes than the DR genes (Morel, Dorman et al.
Thus, if the proband is heterozygous for DR3 and DR4 (the highest risk combination), the incidence of type 1 diabetes in a sibling who shares these two haplotypes rises to 19 percent. On the other hand, the absence of the above alleles makes type 1 diabetes very unlikely, especially if the subject carries a protective allele such as DQB*0301, *0602 (Pugliese, Gianani et al. 1995), DRB*0403, or *0406.Use of genetic markers plus the family history make it possible to estimate the risk of type 1 diabetes as being as low as one in 5000 (no susceptibility alleles or family history) to as high as one in four (two susceptibility alleles and a positive family history). As a result, the predictive value of HLA typing is much lower in population screening than it is among families in which one or more members have type 1 diabetes (Bingley, Bonifacio et al. These data suggest that HLA genotyping at birth may identify individuals at very high risk of developing type 1 diabetes before the occurrence of clear signs of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes onset. Rapid automated assays make it possible to do large-scale population screening for HLA easily, even in newborns (Ilonen, Reijonen et al. However, in relatives who are seronegative for conventional islet autoantibodies, the presence of two HLA-DQ high-risk haplotypes is associated with an increased risk of progression to type 1 diabetes (Pietropaolo, Becker et al. This observation suggests that unidentified autoimmune phenomena may be present in seronegative relatives who carry the 2 HLA-DQ high-risk haplotypes.Furthermore, specific allelic combinations of variants in the insulin gene (INS), the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 gene (CTLA4) and the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 gene (PTPN22) have been repeatedly associated with type 1 diabetes susceptibility (Undlien, Lie et al. Islet autoantibodies: The most important change in the T1D risk status of a child occurs when islet autoantibodies develop. Several clinically useful serum autoantibodies can be detected during the preclinical period of type 1 diabetes, including islet-cell antibodies (ICA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA), antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and antibodies to tyrosine phosphatase-like proteins such as insulinoma associated protein (IA-2, ICA512).
Furthermore, only 8 to 10% of all cases of type 1 diabetes have a familyhistory, while 90% of cases occur sporadically (Dahlquist, Blom et al. The next major discovery in terms of humoral autoimmunity in T1D was that of autoantibodies to insulin or IAA (Williams, Bingley et al. 1999).The presence of ICA was associated with an increased risk of diabetes, particularly if the ICA titer was high, ICA were persistently detected, or ICA were present in combination with IAA or GAD antibodies (Verge, Stenger et al. In one study of first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetic probands, those with IA-2 autoantibodies in the upper three quartiles were at higher risk than relatives with an IA-2 autoantibody titer in the lowest quartile (Achenbach, Bonifacio et al. This has considerable implications not only for stratifying high type 1 diabetes risk, but also to facilitate the search for pathogenic epitopes to enable the design of peptide-based immunotherapies, which may prevent the progression to overt type 1 diabetes at its preclinical stages.Unlike NOD mice, an animal model for type 1 diabetes, humans exhibit any combination of ICA, IAA, GAD, and IA-2 antibodies (Kaufman, Clare-Salzler et al. The risk of type 1 diabetes is relatively low with IAA alone, but is higher with the presence of multiple autoantibodies against islet antigens (insulin, GAD, IA-2 and ICA) (Bingley 1996, Pietropaolo and Eisenbarth 2001). Antibodies to GAD are predictive of progression to hyperglycemia even in the absence of ICA or IAA (Verge, Stenger et al.
As with IAA, however, the risk is higher in subjects who are ICA-positive.Parallel studies have shown the presence of these autoantibodies in the sera of individuals prior to the onset of T1D (Bingley 1996, Bingley, Bonifacio et al.
At the onset of disease using GADA, IA–2A and IAA in combination offers N85% sensitivity and 98% specificity (Bingley, Bonifacio et al.
The sensitivity at onset of T1D for ICA is 70–90%, GADA 70–80%, IA–2A 50–70% and IAA 30–50% respectively, with the variances in the ranges reflecting the population differences between studies.

In terms of prediction, multiple large intervention trials, while failing to prevent T1D, have validated the predictive value of these autoantibodies for T1D (Gale, Bingley et al. 2004) (Figure 2).The titter of IAA has been used to predict the time to onset of type 1 diabetes, particularly in children younger than five years of age (Ziegler, Ziegler et al.
In a prospective, cohort study of 1353 offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes, antibodies detected in the first six months were derived by placental transfer from the mother.
IAA were almost always the first to appear, with other antibodies (ICA, GAD, or IA-2) appearing later. By age five years, nine (1.8 percent) children had developed type 1 diabetes, and all had one or more autoantibodies beforehand. Fifty percent of children who had two or more antibodiesFigure 2.Type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk stratification by islet autoantibody characteristics.
HLA genotype discriminates risk in single antibody–positive children, but multiple antibody–positive children have high risk regardless of HLA genotype.present by two years had diabetes by age five years (Ziegler, Hummel et al. In afollow-up report of a slightly larger cohort (1610 offspring), the following results were seen (Hummel, Bonifacio et al. Periodic testing for islet autoantibodies appears to help assess the risk of diabetes in children of parents with type 1 diabetes.In another study of 81 Swedish children who later developed type 1 diabetes, 14 (17 percent) had at least one autoantibody present at birth (either GAD, IAA, or ICA512), as compared with 12 of 320 (4 percent) control children (Lindberg, Ivarsson et al. Four percent had more than one autoantibody present, compared with none of the control children. This study suggests that the autoimmune process may start in utero, but that this is rare.In addition to identifying subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes, the presence of ICA and GAD antibodies can also identify late-onset type 1 diabetes in adults thought to have type 2 diabetes. In a study of 97 Swedish diabetic patients who were initially thought to have type 2 or unclassifiable diabetes, 70 became insulin-dependent after six years of follow-up. Among these 70 patients, 60 percent were positive for either ICA or GAD at diagnosis, compared with only 2 percent of the 27 patients who remained responsive to oral therapy.The presence of these serological markers was closely correlated with histological evidence of insulitis in a study of 29 patients with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes (Imagawa, Hanafusa et al. Pancreatic biopsies obtained within these months of diagnosis revealed a T-cell infiltration of pancreatic islets and hyperexpression of HLA class I antigens on islet cells. These features were much more evident among patients with high serum ICA concentration, or the presence of GAD, IAA, or multiple antibodies.The absence of islet autoantibodies, however, does not exclude type 1 diabetes (House and Winter 1997). The appearance of islet autoantibodies in pancreas transplant recipients predicts recurrence of type 1 diabetes (Bosi, Braghi et al.
Type 1 diabetes can occur after organ donation, and thus living kidney donors from families with histories of type 1 diabetes should be screened for islet autoantibodies (Riley, Maclaren et al. Zinc transporter antibodiesIn 2007, zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8) was identified as a novel diabetes autoantigen (Wenzlau, Juhl et al.
Autoantibodies against the cation efflux zinc transporter (ZnT8A) have also been identified as a candidate type 1 diabetes autoantigen and proposed as additional markers of rapid disease progression (Wenzlau, Juhl et al.
In addition, sixty to 80 percent of patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes have ZnT8 autoantibodies.
Metabolic markersEfficacious prevention of T1D will require detection of the earliest events in the process. Autoimmunity is likely the predominant effector mechanism in T1D, but it is possibly not its primary cause. VA) showed that elevated serum concentrations of lysophosphatidylcholine precede the appearance of each islet autoantibody, and thus overt autoimmunity, in T1D.
If these results are validated in other well-characterized cohorts, like the German BABYDIAB (Achenbach, Koczwara et al. 2006), metabolome screening could be added to the screening panel to effectively identify pre-diabetic individuals for preventive treatments.Although glucose tolerance remains normal until close to the onset of hyperglycemia (Atkinson, Maclaren et al. 1990), the acute insulin response to several secretagogues (glucose, arginine, glucagon and isoproterenol) decreases progressively during the preclinical period (Aanstoot, Sigurdsson et al. The IVGTT has been standardized to allow easier comparison between centers (McCulloch, Bingley et al. In first-degree relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes, for example, an FPIR below the first percentile of normal is a strong predictor of type 1 diabetes.In the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 Diabetes (DPT-1), subjects at high risk for developing diabetes were followed with serial IVGTTs and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), and in a subsequent study, the metabolic factors associated with progression to diabetes were evaluated (Barker, McFann et al. In contrast, fasting blood glucose levels were a poor predictor of diabetes.The more important as pathogenetical significance was the finding of increased proinsulin in first degreerelatives or descendants from diabetic parents, both with type 1 (Roder, Knip et al. 2005) considered that the increased plasma proinsulin levels can be an additional marker for the prediction of type 1 diabetes. A simpler test that may prove useful is to measure the fasting serum concentration of proinsulin, the precursor of insulin. In normal subjects, proinsulin accounts for approximately 15 percent of serum immunoreactive insulin. One report, as an example, found that serum proinsulin concentrations were three to four times higher among ICA-positive relatives of type 1 diabetes patients as compared with ICA-negative relatives.
Combining risk biomarkersSince genetic susceptibility is only part of the risk factors for common diseases, genetic markers alone usually do not have adequate specificity. There is growing evidence that combining multiple genetic and clinical markers is the best way to develop a molecular test with clinically useful predictive power.Various combinations can be used to obtain similar overall risk, and for most combinations the risk can be calculated empirically.
2003) in which genetic risk is usually the first applied in the form of family history or HLA DR-DQ genotype. Autoantibodies are measured in those individuals who are considered to have sufficient genetic risk to warrant autoantibody testing. Because the risk of developing multiple islet autoantibodies is strongly linked to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genotypes,(Walter, Albert et al.
2003) further typing is unlikely to be helpful in a child who has an armada of islet autoantibodies.
Finally, beta cell function is measured in islet autoantibody–positive individuals using either the ability of the beta cell to secrete insulin in response to an intravenous glucose challenge or the ability of the individual to clear glucose after a meal challenge where low insulin secretion (eg, less than the first percentile) or impaired glucose tolerance are indicators of late-stage preclinical T1D.Although the decision tree approach is logical, it may be expected that once effective preventative therapies become available, the decision tree approach could be replaced by the population-wide application of all the previously mentioned markers in a public health prevention manner.
Clinicians may eventually move toward introducing a risk score based on the combination of all markers.
This would represent a paradigm shift after years of increasingly complex layers of decisions in screening.Finally, the T1D risk of an individual is not static throughout life. Risk calculated from the autoantibody status usually increases over time as autoantibodies appear and their number rises.
Beta cell function measures are expected to show decrease the closer someone is to disease onset. Over the lifespan of an individual, the calculated T1D risk on the basis of genes, autoantibody, age, and beta cell function change.5. ConclusionsType 1 diabetes is an immunemediated disease leading to chronic insulin deficiency due to extensive and selective -cell destruction in subjects with increased genetic disease susceptibility (Atkinson and Eisenbarth 2001). As far as diagnosis of T1D versus other forms of diabetes the autoantibodies and genetic markers are of great value. This subset may at times present a diagnostic challengeand it is of importance for treatment to know if T1D (absolute requirement for insulin) or type 2 diabetes with a relative insulin resistance is present.The occurrence of multiple antibodies against islet autoantigens serves as a surrogate marker of disease in primary or secondary intervention strategies aimed at halting the disease process (Pietropaolo and Eisenbarth 2001).
This statement is based on the fact that immune modulation appears to work in a variety of T1D models and at different stages of the disease. However, many preventive trials are based on data from the NOD mouse model which has improved our understanding of disease pathophysiology.

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