Treatment for diabetes complications medscape,blood sugar level for normal man,type 2 diabetes and obesity journal wiki - Easy Way

These are just a few complications that go hand in hand with uncontrolled or poorly managed blood sugar levels. Mostly, the root cause of diabetic foot complications occur when the nerve supply is damaged, also known as neuropathy which attenuates the sensation in the feet. Of all the foot complications observed in diabetes, foot ulcer is perhaps one of the most grave and expensive complications. Diabetics should not take foot ulcers lightly as delay in the treatment can lead to greater chances of losing the limb. Most likely, your doctor will take X-rays of the affected foot to verify that the infection has not reached the bone surface. In combination with the tough skin, pressure on that part may lead to damage to the capillaries and the surrounding tissue.
According to medical data, of the American diabetic population (which is nearing 16 million), almost one-fourth of them end up with foot problems, courtesy, diabetic nerve damage or neuropathy.
Thus, the patient is unable to perceive sensations, such as those of pressure, heat, cold or even pain. The key feature of diabetics is the intensification of the complication and the slow process of healing. Atherosclerosis or thickening of the walls of blood vessels results in hampered flow of blood to many organs, including feet.
Unfortunately, men and women with uncontrolled blood sugar levels are more likely to have severe foot problems which necessitate foot amputation. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Diabetic Neuropathy Affect nerves throughout the body (most commonly affects nerves in feet and legs) Types of Diabetic Neuropathy ? Peripheral neuropathy ? Autonomic neuropathy ? Focal neuropathy ? Proximal NeuropathyWhat causes Neuropathy ? Oxidative Stress and Alpha-lipoic acid Hyperglycemia Polyol Glucose auto- Pathway oxidation AGE formation Oxidative Stress X Nerve Ischemia ALA increases Glutathione (GSH), which is an important anti- oxidant. Diabetes is a disease that is characterized by the inability of the body to regulate the blood sugar levels, mainly due to either lack of or decreased sensitivity to the insulin hormone. It is a disease which affects the entire body and if the blood sugar levels stands above normal, for a considerable period of time, then the complications starts.  Diabetic neuropathy is one such condition where the nerves are affected due to persistent excess glucose in the blood. The most common and the most widely known complication of diabetes is peripheral neuropathy. So when the foot is cut or any injury occurs to the leg or foot, the damage to the nerves renders the part insensitive to pain. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy affects several organs like the stomach, blood vessels, urinary organs and the sex organs.When the stomach is involved there is often flatulence and bloating, constipation or diarrhea and other symptoms normally linked to acidity like heart burn, nausea etc.
If the autonomic neuropathy invilves the blood vessels that would cause dizziness and fainting spells. The vicious interaction of this troublesome metabolic disorder with multiple risk factors leads to many complexities, either involving the skin, leg, feet or significant micro vascular and macro vascular changes.
Those living with diabetes are at an increased risk of suffering from diverse foot related problems. Other than neuropathy, less than sufficient blood circulation and heightened susceptibility of infections also has a role to play in causing foot problems. After carefully debriding the devitalized skin tissue, you may be put on an antibiotic course.
The effect of this disorder on the capillaries which supply nutrition and blood to the skin of the leg and feet results in thickened skin layer known as callus or corn.
If bleeding takes place within the callus area, a haematoma can be visible which causes an itchy or burning sensation within the callus. To prevent its formation, one can wear therapeutic shoes with specially designed inserts that relieve pressure accumulation.
Peripheral neuropathy is the most prevalent form of diabetes induced neuropathy which targets the peripheral nerves.
Therefore, doctors repeatedly emphasize that diabetic people must under no circumstances ignore the formation of any skin infection or ulcer on the feet.
This change encourages the bacterial and fungal species to establish dangerous foot infections.


Some diabetics also complain of pain and discomfort in their calves whilst walking on a hard surface.
The vascular changes along with nerve damage make them easy targets for infections and ulcers which in turn may require amputation.
We examined the restoration of first-phase and total insulin response as well as hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.
The insulin hormone is mainly produced by the pancreas and the production is regulated by a complex mechanism. The diabetic neuropathy is not focused on a single system, rather there are a wide variety of functions that are hampered.
In peripheral neuropathy, the part of the body that is most affected are the legs and feet. The autonomic neuropathy of the bladder is mainly linked with frequency of urination or leaking of urine involuntarily. Carpal tunnel syndrome is another complication of diabetic neuropathy in which the median nerve gets trapped in the carpal tunnel which is situated near the wrist.This results again in pain and numbness. With diabetes, even seemingly harmless injuries may take a turn for the worse, leading to serious complications.
Once the outermost, protective skin layer weakens or breaks, the underlying deep tissues, become unprotected and opens to infection by bacteria. In addition to this, he or she may also place a protective cast or brace around the ulcerated foot. As compared to unaffected people, the incidence rate of stiff corn formation is increasingly more in those living with diabetes. If overlooked, the exposure of blood (due to disintegration of callus) may subsequently result in the initiation of an infection or ulceration.
As a result, sensory and motor nerves that supply muscles, skin, glands and other organs is drastically impaired. Neuropathy may also lead to other types of deformities in the feet, namely, hammer toes, bunions or Charcot feet. It has been noted that the process of tissue breakdown advances at a faster rate in such individuals and many a time manages to invade deep enough to reach the bone too. Due to the lack of sufficient nourishment, injuries or sores on the foot require an exceedingly long time to subside. This particular condition is termed as intermittent claudication. Doctors may recommend daily exercise or prescribe medications to enhance blood circulation to the lower extremities. For such reasons, those diagnosed with diabetes must take utmost care of their feet by controlling blood sugar and taking other preventive measures, such as abstinence from smoking and use of proper, comfortable shoes.
Blood Glucose levels increases for a long ,changes occur in tiny blood vessels that supply blood to retina III. Additionally, to examine the mechanistic basis of observed outcomes, we quantified the change in fat content of the pancreas and liver The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the abnormalities of insulin secretion and insulin resistance that underlie type 2 diabetes have a single, common aetiology, i.e. Neuropathy involves damage to bones, so peripheral neuropathy is associated with loss of sensations in the affected part. This could lead to the development of diabetic ulcer, which is yet another complication of diabetes. Insulin is needed to move glucose (blood sugar) into cells, where it is stored and later used for energy. Diabetes is caused by a problem in the way your body makes or uses insulin. Such bacterial attacks progress quickly resulting in development of ulcers mostly on the undersurface of the big toe or the ball portion of the foot. Its formation is, in fact, regarded as an initial sign that the person may be at an escalated risk for diabetic foot ulcer too. The most typical symptom of peripheral neuropathy is loss of sensation and numbness in either the hands or feet. It is thus imperative for such people to carefully observe the feet each day for changes in the colour, swelling, hot spots or deep cracks. It is important to moisturize the skin but make sure you don’t overdo it as surplus moisture from lotions or creams can increase the risk of skin infection.


The symptoms that helps in identifying the development of peripheral neuropathy would be numbness, tingling, burning sensation in the legs and pain. This provides a unified hypothesis to explain a common disease that previously appeared to require separate disease processes affecting the pancreas and insulin-sensitive tissues.
Constriction of the blood vessels or deposits forming on these blood vessels all lead to micro vascular injury. This article discusses the possible complications related to diabetes. Exams and Tests If you have diabetes, you should see your health care provider every 3 months. Prior to the onset of spontaneous diabetes in rodents, both total pancreatic fat and islet triacylglycerol content increase sharply.
In vitro, chronic saturated fatty acid exposure of beta cells inhibits the acute insulin response to glucose, and removal of fatty acids allows recovery of this response. The present data provide clear evidence that decreasing total pancreatic fat is associated with a return of beta cell function. If these skin ulcers do not improve, or become larger or go deeper, amputation of the affected limb may be needed.
However, it is probable that the negative effect on beta cell function is exerted by toxic intermediaries such as diacylglycerol and ceramides, which change rapidly in response to acute metabolic changes, rather than by stored triacylglycerol per se, which acts as an index of fatty acid intermediary concentration. Endless access to abundant calories from carbohydrate may be an evolutionarily novel, and thus pathology-inducing, situation. Nerve damage causes pain and numbness in the feet, as well as a number of other problems with the stomach and intestines, heart, and other organs. And yet everything happens only a certain number of times, and a very small number really Leave a Reply Cancel reply You must be logged in to post a comment. Regular aerobic exercise lowers blood sugar without medication and helps burn excess calories and fat so you can mange your weight. Exercise can help your overall health by improving blood flow and blood pressure. ATP - how does it works, how it was created  Gardening (4) How To Build Cabin Solar Powered for $2,000 7 Foods That Slow Down Ageing No Garden? Here Are 66 Things You Can Can Grow In Pots 7 Natural Uses For Baking Soda In The Garden  Health (75) Natural Diabetes Cure type 2 Why You Can NEVER Lose Weight by Building Muscle Mass Form Vs. Bill Gates Wants to be Immortal Cause of death in UK Health benefits of Cocoa and chocolate Leading Cause of Death Age 35 - 45 more from How To live to 100  Life Guide 101 (13) Because we don't know when we will die, we get to think of life as an inexhaustible well.
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