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Despite the epidemic of T2D, leading medical authorities have recently questioned the need for new drugs to treat the disease.
There are still, however, major unmet needs that are not addressed by older antidiabetic agents. Another incretin mimetic in development, Novo Nordisk’s liraglutide, has also been shown to produce significant weight loss in type 2 diabetics in Phase II clinical trials. The term diabetes refers to a group of metabolic diseases and is quite prevalent all over the world [2].
Type I Diabetes, in which the body is unable to produce the required amount of the hormone insulin.
Type II Diabetes, which is the most common type of diabetes, in which the body cells show resistance to the insulin hormone. Gestational Diabetes is another type of diabetes which is exclusively found in pregnant women.
There is also another condition known as Prediabetes which is often diagnosed in individuals.
While Type I and Type II Diabetes prove to be chronic and long lasting conditions, both gestational diabetes and prediabetes are reversible conditions which can be treated completely by following adequate remedies and methods of treatment. Type I Diabetes occurs when body’s own immune system destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. In Type II diabetes, either the body produces insufficient amounts of the hormone insulin, or the body develops a resistance to the action of insulin. Gestational diabetes may be defined as hyperglycemia with its first presentation or onset during pregnancy.
There are a number of symptoms which may help you to diagnose the presence of this metabolic disease. Increased thirst: Sufferers feel an increased urge of thirst in order to compensate for excessive fluid loss due to urination. Increased hunger: Also known as polyphagia, this condition is also noticed in diabetic patients. Fatigue: Increased tiredness and fatigue are other important symptoms in a diabetic patient. Slow healing: Slow healing of wounds is also an important feature that is seen quite commonly in diabetic patients. Abnormal sensation: There may be occurrences of numbness or tingling sensation felt in the limbs in diabetic. Increased risk to infections: A diabetic person is more prone to an infectious disease as compared to a normal person. Miscellaneous: There are some other symptoms of diabetes which may include a blurring of the vision, unexplained loss of weight, lack of interest and concentration while working or studying. Diabetic neuropathy: The excess sugar levels present in the blood stream can prove to cause damage to the blood vessels and capillaries. Diabetic nephropathy and diabetic ketoacidosis: Damage can be caused to the kidneys due to the excess glucose present in the blood in diabetics.
Diabetic retinopathy: Diabetes can also cause damage to the blood vessels surrounding the retina of the eye. Cardiovascular or macro vascular diseases like stroke or peripheral vascular disease: The risk of encountering cardiovascular diseases is greatly increased in diabetics.
Muscle wasting and weakness: Due to the cells being unable to effectively absorb glucose, diabetic individuals cannot efficiently or effectively use their body muscles. Diabetic coma: While it is known that diabetic patients suffer from increased risk to nerve damage, in some extreme cases, this nerve damage can also lead to a condition of a coma.
Others: There are many other complications which can be associated with diabetes and these include damage caused to the limbs, infectious skin diseases and conditions, an impairment of hearing and also the development of Alzheimer’s disease is some individuals. Fasting Plasma Glucose Test: This test measures blood glucose levels after going for at least 8 hours of fasting. Random Plasma Glucose Test: In this test, the doctor checks the blood sugar level without observing to the last meal. Treatment of diabetes include use of medications [3] or correcting the underlying causes such as diet and exercise [4]. Diet: A diabetic should always take a balanced nutrition to maintain the short-term as well as long-term blood glucose levels under control. Physical activity: It is another important and effective method of treating as well as preventing diabetes especially in Type II Diabetes mellitus caused due to obesity or overweight. Medications: Type I Diabetes can be treated with the insulin therapy where combinations of NPH and regular insulin or synthetic insulin analogues are administered to the patients with diabetes. Whatever the method of treatment for diabetes may be, care must be taken to periodically monitor the sugar levels in the blood stream of diabetics. There are also a number of home remedies and lifestyle tips that can be used to provide relief to the symptoms of diabetes. Stress and strain on the body should be considered very seriously as they may adversely affect a diabetic. Regular visits to the doctor and frequent eye checkups are required to be a part of a diabetic’s life.
While diabetes cannot be cured completely, following proper medication which is coupled with a healthy lifestyle with lots of physical activity can provide relief to sufferers.
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A callus generally refers to a more diffuse thickening of the skin (common on the ball of the foot) whereas a corn is a deeper and more focal formation of hard skin (more common on the toes). Pain from calluses is generally a mild discomfort, while a corn can give severe pain while weight bearing.
In development for the last 13 years, Invokana employs a “novel mechanism of action” to lower blood sugar in type 2 diabetics, Bloomgarden says. Invokana works by inhibiting sodium glucose co-transporter 2, a carrier that aids in the reabsorption of glucose into the bloodstream through the kidneys, which occurs during the process in which blood is filtered through the kidneys. Because Invokana is such a powerful diuretic, it can help lower a person’s systolic blood pressure, which made some clinical trial subjects feel dizzy and even faint in the first three months while taking the drug. Additionally, because Invokana blocks absorption of glucose, it could reduce a person’s weight. This method of reducing blood sugar by blocking glucose absorption in the kidneys proved safe and effective through nine clinical trials involving 10,285 participants, according to Janssen Pharmaceuticals. Even though the FDA voted 10 to five to approve Invokana, the jury is still partially out on the drug’s complete safety and the long-term effects of the new class of medication. Even though Invokana is a creative and apparently effective new way of reducing blood sugar, Bloomgarden says that metformin, or Glucophage is, and will most likely remain, the primary drug for treating type 2 diabetes. The FDA said Invokana can be used in conjunction with other drugs, such as metformin, in patients as long as they do not have suffer from any kidney function impairment. Patients won’t have to wait long to get their hands on Invokana if their doctor prescribes it for them. I am taking Invokana alone, as I am allergic to all othet medications for type 2 diabeties it works well keeping my sugars controlled, just have to drink a lot of water, but that is ok. Just started with Invokana about 2 weeks now (taking in addition to other type 2 meds and have seen a considerable drop in blood sugar readings. After I eat breakfast and take my blood sugar two hours after eating it is actually lower than when I take it first thing in the morning before I take my medications. I know that the price of this medication is high in cost but I really feel if it works for me which it is my life is more important to me than the money. Have been taking Invokana 100 mg for 4 weeks now and have just started to have cramps and diarrhea every day.
I have been on Invokana for 1 week now and have had the best results I have had in 2 years. I can’t tell how much of my positive result was caused by Invokana and how much to attribute to Weight Watchers.


I have been taking Invokana for 2 months now after struggling for 2 years to get my blood sugars under control. The Diabetes Media Foundation is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt nonprofit media organization devoted to informing, educating, and generating community around living a healthy life with diabetes. Diabetes can put you at risk for suffering from many skin conditions, some wanting medications while others not engaging in any specific treatment measures.
Skin complications can range from the mild ones as itching to the more serious and troubling ones like vitiligo and Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum (NLD).
The first thing you need to do is to consult your doctor when you note any abnormality or change in skin. Diabetics can also have an allergic reaction to several things including medications, insulin and anti-hyperglycemic medications. Digital sclerosis affects mostly the type 1 diabetes which is not controlled appropriately. Brining blood glucose levels back to a normal level is the main treatment measure to be adopted. Blood sugar control apparently does not play a role here, both before and after diagnosis of the condition. Prompt diagnosis can ensure timely treatment of a skin condition, before it can actually become a problem.
It is important for diabetics to keep their skin clean and dry.  Even minor injuries and abrasions should be attended cautiously and monitored for infection or any other sign of deterioration.
Varicella-zoster virus infection causes intensely itchy, oozing lesions that eventually crust over. The worldwide number of diabetics was 30 million in 1985 and is projected to increase to at least 366 million by 2030. In 2006, the ADA and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) published a consensus statement on optimal ways to treat T2D using current oral antidiabetics and insulin. Table 1 lists novel and emerging drug classes that may address these needs including several drugs that have been approved since 2005.
Despite its related mechanism to incretin mimetics, the DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin is only weight neutral and causes no significant weight loss. It is a rare form of diabetes and is prevalent in less than 10% of people with diabetes, mainly with children.
In this condition, the glucose levels in the blood prove to be higher than normal, but the levels are not high enough for the condition to be classified under Type II Diabetes. This results in the body cells being unable to effectively use up glucose, consequently leading to an increased concentration of sugar in the blood stream. If cases of increased hunger coexist along with above two symptoms in a sufferer, diabetes is said to be diagnosed. This condition affects almost all diabetic individuals and is considered to be one of the easiest ways of diagnosing if diabetes has affected an individual.
This can eventually lead to damage of the nerves and loss of sensation in particular regions of the body such as the fingers and the toes.
There is also a high presence of ketones in the urine which is caused by deamination of some amino acids and also the improper breakdown of fatty acids. While this may result in some eye conditions such as glaucoma and cataract, over longer periods, it can also lead to permanent blindness.
These include potentially serious conditions and diseases such as a heart attack, a stroke, pain in the chest and also a constriction of the arteries in the body. While this causes general fatigue and tiredness, over longer periods it may lead to a gradual wasting of the muscle tissues.
The test should be taken after at least eight hours of fasting and two hours after drinking a glucose containing liquid.
This test helps in assessment of symptoms and for diagnosing diabetes, but it does not diagnose prediabetes. Type II Diabetes can be treated effectively with the use of oral hypoglycemic medication like metformin.
While the treatment methods may prove to be effective on their own, diabetes should always ensure to monitor their glucose levels. This is the first and foremost step and sufferers must ensure that they collect as much information about the condition as possible. While regular exercise and diet can help in keeping these in check, measurements need to be taken regularly in order to avoid complications. Diabetes can have dire consequences on the gums and the teeth and regular brushing and flossing of the teeth should always be done.
The recommended limits are one drink of alcohol a day for women and two drinks a day for men. Smokers who also have diabetes have an extremely high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and the smoking and other forms of tobacco should be stopped at the earliest. Prolonged stress can prove to be very harmful to the tiny blood vessels and can lead to serious complications such as a stroke.
Following an effective treatment plan with a well-maintained lifestyle can help keep symptoms in check and can help diabetics lead a closer to normal life.
They occur as a result of pressure on the skin.Your body responds to the pressure by building more skin, for protection. To treat corns and calluses the Podiatrist will debride the hard skin, which is painless and gives immediate relief.  BUT until the cause (pressure) is addressed, the corn or callus is likely to return! Food and Drug Administration means diabetics have a significant new tool for treating the disease, as well as for losing weight and improving their overall health. The excess glucose is then flushed out of the body, which is why Invokana also acts as a “potent diuretic,” Bloomgarden said. It also worked with about the same effectiveness as sitagliptin, or Januvia, which inhibits enzymes and increases pancreatic function, Ren added. For extended periods, however, reducing blood pressure in a population of patients with typically higher than normal blood pressure as a result of their diabetes is a positive side effect.
According to Janssen Pharmaceuticals, clinical trials subjects taking the drug experienced a 3 percent weight loss compared to subjects taking a placebo. The most common side effects experienced were vaginal yeast infections and urinary tract infections, according to the company. A drug called dapagliflozin, from Bristol-Myers Squibb and AstraZeneca, that also works as a SGLT2 inhibitor, for instance, was rejected for approval by the FDA in 2012 because of concerns it increased rates of bladder and breast cancers in subjects. However, Invokana can be taken by those already taking metformin and other medications, according to the FDA. According to company spokesperson Christina Holden, Invokana is already being manufactured and field sales agents are already taking order from doctors. With the prescription she gave me a card to give to the pharmacy, now I get a year for free.
I was taking Metformin only, but when it alone wasn’t controlling my glucose level my doctor put me on glimepiride. When it comes to avoiding skin complications and unfavorable outcomes of diabetes, the most crucial thing is blood sugar control.
Sty (infection of the eyelids), boil (infections of the hair follicles), carbuncles and nail infections are some of the infections diabetics are likely to experience. Fungal infections, as those mentioned here, are generally caused by a yeast-like fungus (Candida albicans). Atherosclerosis affects vessels that cause cardiovascular disease; vessels supplying blood to the skin can also be affected. They are similar to burn blister and usually found on fingers, toes, hands, feet and forearms.
Symptoms of this skin condition appear as thick, waxy (but tight) skin on hands, fingers and toes. Medications may be used; it is difficult to arrive at a conclusive treatment measure fro NLD due to lack of knowledge about what causes this condition.


Many diabetic skin problems can be prevented through tight blood sugar control and routine examinations of the skin.
Some researchers believe that weight loss may be an advantage of incretin mimetics over DPP-IV inhibitors, however, it is still too early to definitively make this statement. This article is based on Diabetes and its Complications: Strategies to Advance Therapy and Optimize R&D, an Insight Pharma report published by Cambridge Healthtech Institute. Diabetes is caused due to an increased level of blood sugar or glucose in the blood stream, which in turn can be caused by a number of different factors, most primarily, the role of the hormone insulin in the body.
It is the most prevalent form of diabetes accounting for almost 90% of the total number of people with diabetes. It is suspected that heredity and genes have a major role to play in an individual encountering Type I Diabetes as it is passed on from one generation to another.
While this is the most common type of diabetes in individuals, the actual causes of Type II Diabetes are yet to be known.
The human placental lactogenic hormone also known as Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin, which is released during the gestational period, reduces the insulin sensitivity in mothers and it may lead to an increased level of blood glucose. There are other medications as well which include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).
This is the most effective way to ensure that targets are being met and that the medications or treatment remedies are proving to be effective. Carbohydrates on the consumptions of excess alcohol can upset the balance that is required in the dietary plan.
However, diabetics must make sure to understand the fact that complications related to the disorder can spring up at any time and they need to always maintain a high level of care in order to keep symptoms in check. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.This website is for informational purposes only. However if the pressure on the skin continues then the skin thickens further and can become painful.
Financial analysts are predicting that the drug will bring in more than $100 million in sales this year and top out at more than $660 million in annual sales by 2016. I was switched to Invokana after I had a seriously bad reaction with Toujeo ugh it didn’t work for me. Because I was getting dangerously low readings on the glimepiride, I decided to get a referral to an endocrinologist.
It not only helps in preventing a complication (including skin complication) but also treating the same in case of its occurrence.
This fungus is usually found in warm and moist skin areas like fingers and toes, corners of the mouth and vagina. Antihistamines and decongestants are generally used to hinder the effect of chemicals involved in an allergic reaction. Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum has association with diabetes mellitus, predominantly in the insulin dependants.
Your legs are mostly affected if you have poor blood flow. Skin lotions can relieve itching to certain extent. High blood glucose can reduce your strength to fight invasions, including those on the skin. Attune with your doctor for becoming more aware of diabetic consequences and have regular checkups to get timely treatment. The latter two drugs were rejected because of their expense, their lesser efficacy in lowering plasma glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, a measure of long-term glycemic control) than the older drugs, and the lack of experience in using the newer drugs in the medical community. Among the drugs listed in Table 1, pramlintide, an amylin mimetic that is approved for diabetics who use mealtime insulin, promotes satiety and thus reduces average caloric intake and can prevent weight gain. Animal studies indicate that both incretin mimetics and DPP-IV inhibitors may preserve beta-cell function, which addresses the other major unmet need. It may also be triggered by environmental factors like diet, viruses, and some specific toxins.
While the body systems of most women counter this by increasing the production of insulin, some women are susceptible to the disorder.
Diabetic sufferers do not have an easy time, but integrating a new lifestyle and adopting healthy measures as daily habits can greatly help in managing the symptoms of this disorder.
My doctor put me on Invokana and also gave me a card so I can get a year’s free supply.
However, these have side effects and should be implemented with precaution.  Immunotherapy is another alternative treatment option. Increased rates of obesity coupled with an aging population are the major drivers of the T2D epidemic, especially in the U.S. Progression of T2D is mainly due to the loss of pancreatic beta-cell function, which results in increased impairment of patient’s ability to produce insulin in response to increased blood glucose. The recently approved drug exenatide, an incretin mimetic, has been used together with metformin or a sulfonylurea to both meet glycemic goals (HbA1c less than 7%) and to give significant weight loss. However, it is not yet known if these drugs mediate beta-cell protection or regeneration in humans.
Various factors that may trigger Type II Diabetes include dietary habits, lifestyle and genetic susceptibility. A bacterial infection can be successfully treated with antibiotics implemented as cream or pill, as directed by your doctor.
There are other ways to treat an allergic reaction depending on the severity and symptoms of the condition.
Incretins such as glucagon-like protein-1 are gut-derived hormones that promote insulin secretion by beta cells in response to intake of food. The Phase III antidiabetic agent, rimonabant, Sanofi-Aventis’ Acomplia, is a cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor antagonist. Now if I check right after I eat, I might see like 250~300 but if I eat and wait like 2 hours and check, its back down in the 150 range normally. Most of the mortality and morbidity as well as the economic costs of diabetes are due to diabetic complications. Of the established drugs for treating type 2 diabetes, insulin, sulfonylureas, and TZDs cause weight gain. Looking to to me so far other than I’ve gotten dizzy a few times for a couple seconds and I checked, my sugars were not too low. You should always consult your doctor when suffering from an allergic symptom as individual needs differ.
However, the use of rimonabant for treatment of obesity or T2D is under a cloud, due to the incidence of depression and suicides associated with use of the drug. Invokana has certainly helped and I will continue to take it until I no longer need it for control. The Phase II results in obesity with taranabant are encouraging, but the determination of the efficacy and safety profile of this drug must await the completion of the Phase III trial.
As illustrated by Table 2, a major theme of the early-stage drug discovery and development efforts in T2D is developing agents that potentially target both Type 2 diabetes and obesity. They are attempting to address common pathways of both diabetes and obesity, for example, targeting sirtuins and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which takes addressing this unmet need one step further than what current agents such as incretin mimetics and DPP-IV inhibitors do. In addition, at least one type of early-stage program listed in Table 2, development of sirtuin modulators, has the potential for resulting in agents that may slow or reverse declines in beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes. Thus there are early-stage programs that are designed to address this major unmet need as well.
There is a need for novel drugs in T2D, provided that they address major unmet needs in the disease, such as halting disease progression and mediating weight loss.
Drug developers have already produced several drugs that may address these needs and they are at work to develop other drugs that are designed to do so.



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