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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Avascular Necrosis - Stem Cell Treatment in India at Mumbai and Delhi at lowCostAvascular necrosis is a disease resulting from the temporary or permanent loss of the bloodsupply to the bones. Mumbai : Nutech Mediworld has developed a Human Embryonic Stem Cell (HESC) therapy which will go a long way in treating patients with type-II diabetes who are on conventional pills and insulin treatment. Through the HESC therapy, insulin-producing cells are grown in human body without the need for a donor match. Nutech Mediworld, the human embryonic stem cell transplant centre based in Delhi, has developed disease-wise efficacy assessment parameters, and also established the quality and safety protocol to treat patients with human embryonic stem cell transplantation. The ready-to-use product has a shelf-life of six months, so that it can be made available to patients globally at their convenience. The therapy will cost around Rs 1,80,000 for six weeks treatment and Nutech is looking for partners to tie up for expanding the treatment to other cities across the country, she added. Type-II diabetes, which accounts for 90 per cent of all diabetes cases, is a silent killer and much harder to treat than type I.
Once transplanted into the body, the stem cells mature into insulin-producing cells in a few months.
Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease, is a group of mechanical abnormalities involving degradation of joints, including articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Researchers claim that embryonic stem cells can help in studying the effects of pollution on human health. In the study, the researchers from the University of California have successfully detailed the use of stem cells to gauge the neurotoxicity effects of the environmental pollutant Bisphenol A (BPA). The researchers used a combination of biochemical and cell-based assays to examine the gene expression profile during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells upon treatment with BPA, a compound known to cause heart disease, diabetes and developmental abnormalities in humans. Lead researcher Francesco Faiola of the State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology said that embryonic stem cells had a huge benefit because they offered the advantage to grow indefinitely in dishes yet possess the ability to differentiate to mimic embryonic development and virtually into any kind of cells of an adult organism. Faiola added that they could be utilised in developmental toxicity assays, without the need of animal experiments. Loss of blood supply to the bone can be caused by aninjury (trauma-related avascular necrosis or joint dislocation) or by certain risk factors(nontraumatic avascular necrosis), such as some medications (steroids), blood coagulationdisorders, or excessive alcohol use. As the diseaseprogresses, however, most patients experience joint pain - at first, only when putting weight onthe affected joint, and then even when resting.
Although insulin is present in their body, their cells can no longer use it to keep blood sugar levels in check. The treatment continues till the patient keeps improving and the blood sugar levels regain normal limits,” she said. Symptoms may include joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, locking, and sometimes an effusion. They were able to detect and measure the BPA toxicity toward the proper specification of primary germ layers, such as endoderm and ectoderm, and the establishment of neural progenitor cells.

He further said that their stem cell toxicology system proved to be very sensitive and reflective of the physiological toxic effects of BPA.
If theprocess involves the bones near a joint, it often leads to collapse of the joint surface.
Stem cells have the ability to repair and regenerate the damaged insulin-producing cells,” Shroff said. When bone surfaces become less well protected by cartilage, bone may be exposed and damaged.
Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. This diseasealso is known as osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis, and ischemic bone necrosis.Although it can happen in any bone, avascular necrosis most commonly affects the ends(epiphyses) of long bones such as the femur, the bone extending from the knee joint to the hipjoint. The pressure within the bone causes the blood vessels to narrow, making ithard for the vessels to deliver enough blood to the bone cells.
If avascular necrosis progresses and the bone and surrounding joint surface collapse,pain may develop or increase dramatically. If avascular necrosis is diagnosed early, the doctor may begin treatment by having the patient remove weight from the affected joint. As a result of decreased movement secondary to pain, regional muscles may atrophy, and ligaments may become more lax.Primary osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disorder related to but not caused by aging, as there are people well into their nineties who have no clinical or functional signs of the disease.
In healthy adult animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). Interestingly, in pregnancy and after injury, this system appears to be regulated by growth factors and can increase the rate at which new brain matter is formed. The diseasemay affect just one bone, more than one bone at the same time, or more than one bone atdifferent times.
This can interfere with the blood circulation to the bone and lead to trauma- related avascular necrosis. In some cases, reduced weight bearing can slow the damage caused by avascular necrosis and permit natural healing. Studies suggest that this type of avascular necrosis may develop in more than 20% of people who dislocate their hip joint. The period of time between the first symptoms and loss ofjoint function is different for each patient, ranging from several months to more than a year.Diagnosis of Avascular NecrosisAfter performing a complete physical examination and asking about the patients medical history(for example, what health problems the patient has had and for how long), the doctor may useone or more imaging techniques to diagnose avascular necrosis.
When combined with medication to reduce pain, reduced weight bearing can be an effective way to avoid or delay surgery for some patients. Normally, bonecontinuously breaks down and rebuilds - old bone is reabsorbed and replaced with new bone.The process keeps the skeleton strong and helps it to maintain a balance of minerals.
Studies suggest that long-term, systemic (oral or intravenous) corticosteroid use is associated with 35% of all cases of nontraumatic avascular necrosis. In thecourse of avascular necrosis, however, the healing process is usually ineffective and the bonetissues break down faster than the body can repair them.

However, there is no known risk of avascular necrosis associated with the limited use of steroids. If left untreated, the disease progresses,the bone collapses, and the joint surface breaks down, leading to pain and arthritis.Avascular necrosis affects both men and women and affects people of all ages. The X-ray of a person with early avascular necrosis is likely to be normal because X-rays are not sensitive enough to detect the bone changes in the early stages of the disease.
Doctors arent sure exactly why the use of corticosteroids sometimes leads to avascular necrosis.
X-rays can show bone damage in the later stages, and once the diagnosis is made, they are often used to monitor the course of the condition. Core decompression works best in people who are in the earliest stages of avascular necrosis, often before the collapse of the joint. Depending on a persons risk factors andwhether the underlying cause is trauma, it also can affect younger or older people.
This procedure sometimes can reduce pain and slow the progression of bone and joint destruction in these patients.
MRI provides the doctor with a picture of the area affected and the bone rebuilding process. There is a lengthy recovery period, and the patients activities are very limited for 3 to 12 months after an osteotomy. Some studies suggest that corticosteroid-related avascular necrosis is more severe and more likely to affect both hips (when occurring in the hip) than avascular necrosis resulting from other causes.
This procedure is most effective for patients with advanced avascular necrosis and those with a large area of affected bone. In people who drink an excessive amount of alcohol, fatty substances may block blood vessels, causing a decreased blood supply to the bones that results in avascular necrosis.
A harmless radioactive dye is injected into the affected bone and a picture of the bone is taken with a special camera. Bone grafting is surgery that transplants healthy bone from one part of the patient, such as the leg, to the diseased area.
The picture shows how the dye travels through the bone and where normal bone formation is occurring.
Commonly, grafts (called vascular grafts) that include an artery and veins are used to increase the blood supply to the affected area.
A single bone scan finds all areas in the body that are affected, thus reducing the need to expose the patient to more radiation.

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