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Recently, the lab has examined the efficiency of iPS differentiation into glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells using a modified stepwise protocol with indolactam V and GLP-1 and demonstrated successful generation of islet-like cells, which expressed pancreas-specific markers. Additionally, the lab has developed novel pancreatic gene delivery vectors and is currently studying the therapeutic effects of pancreatic overexpression of factors known to accelerate beta cell regeneration and neogenesis in diabetic mouse models. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has blood pressure lowering, anti-fibrotic and anti-hypertrophic properties, making it an attractive therapeutic for attenuating the adverse cardiac remodeling associated with hypertension.
The lab is currently examining the feasibility of this strategy in a large animal model for future clinical applications, as well as further developing a gene therapy strategy for hypertensive heart disease using other therapeutic genes. The lab is currently studying TRIM proteins' antiviral activities against infection and production of various DNA and RNA viruses. With an effort beginning again to weaken or repeal South Dakota’s ban on embryonic stem cell research, the Coalition for Cures Not Cloning has been formed to help South Dakotans understand the issue. Prentice said we don’t hear nearly so much about adult stem cells as we do embryonic stem cells, yet all of the successful therapies devised from stem cell research have come from adult stem cells. Back in 1981 scientists began to work with mouse embryonic stem cells, but didn’t manage to utilize human embryonic stem cells until 1998. One of the major problems with embryonic stem cells is that they are difficult to control and can begin to form types of tissue other than the one you want them to–like tumors. Another difficulty is that while ESC may function with some degree of success in the laboratory, said Prentice, it can be a very different story when the ESC are injected into a living body where they have to interact with other bodily cells. When an MSNBC interviewer in 2005 tried to distinguish between human cloning for reproduction and human cloning for research, Dr. Because ESC harvesting is very inefficient, it would take approximately 100 human eggs per patient to hope to cure any diseases. There are dangers associated with egg donation including increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. HOW long has ESCR been going on without producing any useful results, or even showing that it potentially could?
Did a quick search and only found mention of retinal regeneration being done with what sounded like *adult* stem cells.
Interesting, but I notice that my last (and most important) question remains completely unanswered by your response.
The question of whether adult stem cells can be COMPLETELY turned back into that most primitive of cells-the embryonic stem cell- looms large.
I would love for science to battle this out in lab, but as it has been in past areas of medical research, ethical issues have come up which also must be considered. So, does anyone in the world of “science” suppose that there are ANY moral limits on what should be researched? Answer: Satan (the devil) and his demons, along with their human agents in high places of power. As for your points about how our tax dollars are used and our possible culpability because we pay taxes, I would say that our government has been confiscating our money and using it against our will for years, for all sorts of nefarious purposes to which we object. Your logic here, that I take part in embryonic stem cell research because my tax dollars may go to the NIH, is convoluted reasoning. A more logical solution would be to have leaders who are not inspired by hell, but that is not likely to happen before the end of this age. The laws of science are no more invalidated by God's infrequent, temporary and isolated suspension of those laws than are the operating parameters of, say, the Windows operating system.
Unless the programmer who as access to suspend or change the program code actually does make a change to that code, you can always count on that programming to operate in specific ways under specific circumstances. In other words, as I said at the beginning, except for rare interventions by the programmer, you can expect the laws of nature to function consistently in specific circumstances at all times without change. Thank you Bob Then why would you expect that the laws of radioactive decay that we see today would be different in the past if there is rarely intervention in Gods laws ?Why should decay rates change if the other laws of nature don't (or could rarely) change as you stated ?
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes nerve cells in the spinal cord to die, eventually taking away a person’s ability to move or even breathe.
Results from a meta-analysis of 11 independent amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) research studies are giving hope to the ALS community by showing, for the first time, that the fatal disease may be treatable. Researchers say progress in treating ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, may be made by targeting new mechanisms revealed by neural stem cell-based studies. ALS causes nerve cells in the spinal cord to die, eventually taking away a person’s ability to move or even breathe. A summary of the findings from all 11 studies was published online in December in Science Translational Medicine. The transplanted neural stem cells help by producing factors that preserve the health and function of the host’s remaining nerve cells. Researchers observed improved motor performance and respiratory function in the treated mice. Harvard analysts discuss the unusual dynamics and events of the 2016 presidential election, and what they mean for our political system going forward. Religion helps make it possible for humans to live in large groups and pack into cities, performing as a social unifier, studies say.
A Harvard conference will review how online learning works best, and how to make it better. Martin Elvis of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics warns that a loophole in the Outer Space Treaty leaves open the possibility of a race for resources on the moon. A Harvard-backed expedition working in Israel has carried out the first-ever excavation of a Philistine cemetery. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Effective diabetes management requires regular blood sugar testing to check the levels of glucose in the blood. Blood glucose meters, diabetes test strips and insulin delivery equipment are an integral part of insulin therapy and become a part of the normal routine.
Ikeda's lab is to develop efficient and safe gene and cell therapy platforms for individualized medicine. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology enables derivation of pluripotent stem cells from nonembryonic sources. Importantly, the iPS-derived islet-like cells secreted C peptide in a glucose-dependent manner. Altered myocardial structure and function secondary to hypertensive heart disease are leading causes of heart failure and death. However, use of natriuretic peptides for chronic therapy has been limited by their extremely short in vivo half-life.
Ikeda's lab unveiled a novel antiviral strategy to limit late stages of viral replication, blocking viral production by tripartite motif 5 alpha (TRIM5alpha) through actively degrading a viral protein. A greater understanding of the roles of TRIM family proteins could lead to a novel molecular strategy for viral infection.
David Prentice of the Family Research Council was the keynote speaker at the South Dakota Family Policy Council‘s monthly luncheon on Wednesday in Rapid City. Prentice, an internationally-recognized authority on stem cell research, to speak on the issue. Prentice said many people don’t understand the difference between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, and the research associated with each.
James Thompson of the University of Wisconsin, who was the first to make a breakthrough with ESC, says scientists have overestimated the prospects for transplantation cures using embryonic stem cells. A female Stanford student named Calla Papademas is one such woman who found out about such risks after the fact.
James Thompson (from above) managed to create iPS (induced pluripotent stem cells): adult stem cells induced to an embryonic-like behavior without requiring human embryos.
Prentice said we’ve been doing adult stem cell transplants for years, even before we realized what we were doing. Prentice has expertise in lobbying and is knowledgeable on stem cells, but is not a world renown expert in the field of stem cell research.To claim that you must be well acquainted with all the intricacies and chemical complexities of research. When I saw that he had allowed his name to be associated with a supplement,I became skeptical.
Take out the ethical concerns and just ask if enough research has now been done in ESCR to honestly say it has no useful results.If you look at the world wide research, there are many research programs that are showing very positive results in ESCR. The most important question, I think, is: does ESCR actually show potential for *anything* that can't be done with adult stem cells? I thought that was obvious and it is one of the questions that hasn't been answered by science. Many scientists feel that total reprogramming of the adult cell ALL the way back to its most basic state may not be possible, thus depriving mankind in the long run The only way to know if a reprogrammed adult cell is as beneficial as an original emryonic stem cell is to let the research persist and keep comparing the two. Thomas Edison's DC electricity jumped initially to the lead as the best way to provide electricity to the world.
Only those whose consciences have been seared beyond recognition would defend such wicked practices. I was wondering if it includes you and I who pay taxes, some of which goes to the NIH which determines where our tax dollars go to pay for some embryonic stem cell research.Seems like you would have to make a choice.
I can protest all I want to these creatures in Washington (and, believe me, I do), but they don't seem to listen very well.
By that same argument, you could say that I would be responsible for the overdose death of a crackhead who stole my wallet and used the money inside it to buy the drugs that killed him. I can only comment on your stance.You are right in that many things are taxed that you simply have to pay to live in America.
I base my beliefs and objections on Truth, and yes, Truth comes from God, but it's not religious. Since you claim that your God can change the current laws of nature like radioisotopic decay rates or even the force of gravity or the germ theory on a whim, doesn't that essentially invalidate ALL of science as we know it.Must we not even question the physics of bouyancy or electricity since they could change tomorrow ?
And even this is not a perfect analogy, since God has rarely changed the laws of nature (if ever, on a permanent basis) since the curse brought by the Fall.

Research studies are giving hope to the ALS community by showing, for the first time, that the fatal disease may be treatable. Teng is also director of the Spinal Cord Injury and Stem Cell Biology Research Laboratory in the Department of Neurosurgery at Brigham and Women’s. A decade of research conducted at multiple institutions showed, however, that when neural stem cells were transplanted into multilevels of the spinal cord of a mouse model with familial ALS, disease onset and progression slowed, motor and breathing function improved, and treated mice survived three to four times longer than untreated mice. They also reduce inflammation and suppress the number of disease-causing cells in the host’s spinal cord. Rowling delivered the keynote address this afternoon (June 5) at Harvard University’s annual meeting of the Harvard Alumni Association. Stages of normal wound healing with predominant cell types involved at each stage of process.
Scanning electron microscope of co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells and early endothelial progenitor cells in a type 1 bovine collagen scaffold.Table 3.
IntroductionThe prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing to epidemic proportions worldwide. As Wikipedia notes: Patients with Type 1 diabetes depend on external insulin for their survival because the hormone is no longer produced internally. The usual schedule for checking blood glucose through fingersticks and administering insulin is before all meals, and at bedtime. Successful differentiation of autologous iPS cells into islet-like cells could allow in vitro modeling of patient-specific disease pathogenesis and future clinical cell therapy for diabetes. The lab is currently working on reprogramming diabetic patient-derived cells into genomic modification-free iPS cells using nonintegrating vectors, as well as studying the therapeutic effects of iPS-derived insulin-producing islet-like cells in a diabetic mouse model. A frequent clinical phenotype of cardiac disease is diastolic dysfunction associated with high blood pressure, which over time leads to profound cardiac remodeling, fibrosis and progression to congestive heart failure. Recently, the lab used myocardium-tropic adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-based vectors and demonstrated long-term cardiac BNP expression in spontaneous hypertensive rats.
For instance, type 1 interferons stimulate a series of cellular factors that block viral gene expression by degrading viral RNA or inhibiting protein translation. TRIM5alpha is a member of the vast family of TRIM proteins, most of which are poorly characterized. In addition to TRIM protein-mediated antiviral activities, the lab is also investigating the biology, epidemiology and pathogenicity of a recently identified retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV). A somatic cell is taken from the body, the nucleus is removed, then transferred into an empty egg to produce a single-celled embryo.
If you create an embryo by nuclear transfer, and you give it to somebody who didn’t know where it came from, there would be no test you could do on that embryo to say where it came from.
This journal is a great source for all the latest potential studies showing where ESC research is going.
It took decades for vaccines to be researched and slowly advanced and we are still improving them.
Starting behind and further back was the AC electricity of Nikola Tesla.Even though it intially appeared that DC was superior and would light the world, with time and then being able to COMPARE THE TWO when each had been thoroughly reseached, it was then and only then that it became obvious that AC was superior. A point I made in a letter to the editor published at WND is that, in the case of the aborted baby in the skin cream, it is basically cannibalism of a tiny baby's body to provide skin cream for vain people trying to fight the inevitable signs of aging. But, the reason that adult stem cell research is downplayed, while embryonic stem cell research is mega-hyped, is because the evil spirit powers that run the world desire more than anything to kill, steal and destroy as much of humanity as possible in the very short time they have remaining. There are consequences,like jail time, but you still have a choice to follow your moral beliefs or pay taxes that support something you feel is evil and immoral. And, the circumstances I also outlined in the assumptions concerning radiometric dating, including the introduction of additional daughter material into the specimen or leeching of the daughter or parent element over time. Twenty-five percent of the treated ALS mice in the study survived for one year or more — roughly three to four times longer than the untreated mice. Diabetic foot ulceration can affect up to 25 percent of people with diabetes mellitus throughout their lives. Guidelines also call for a check 2 hours after the meal to ensure that the meal has been covered effectively.
However, an efficient methodology is not available for the generation of glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells from iPS cells in vitro.
Sustained BNP expression significantly lowered blood pressure for up to nine months and improved the cardiac functions in hypertensive heart disease. Since many TRIM proteins are upregulated following viral infection or interferon treatment, the lab hypothesized that a subset of TRIM proteins represents a new group of antiviral factors.
It is what it is. It’s true that they have a much lower probability of giving rise to a child. Reading in depth on stem cells is a lot different than getting a degree and then devoting your life to hours in the lab.If he has a proper degree and has done the intense research as well, I would welcome that information. Because of the ethical concerns, many countries, like our own, have not had unfettered access to ESC research.Many prior obstacles that plagued ESC research early on are being overcome as technology and understanding slowly improves. Religious people have stood up for their morals time immemorium and suffered much more than jail time.
All I am saying is that if you really feel these taxes go to evil causes that go against your religious beliefs, you do have a choice not to contribute to some, like income tax.
The most significant complication of foot ulceration is lower limb amputation, which arises from pre-existing ulcers in the majority of cases.
On average, I test my blood sugar 5-6 times per day but some days that number may go as high as 9 or 10.
Sort of like running a marathon, the leader at mile 20 doesn't always win the race even if he has a pretty good lead. Despite current clinical care protocols for ulcer treatment, there exists a high amputation rate. Dobson but no longer associated with him,, which has expertise in lobbying for Christian right issues, but does no scientific reserach at all. Scientific research is full of these type of examples where the front runner fades in the end. This presents a major burden for individual patients’ health and well-being in addition to significant financial cost for health care systems. Now, its hard for me to imagine having to rely on insulin injections to manage my diabetes. Cell-based therapies offer a novel treatment strategy to augment diabetic wound healing, increase ulcer healing rate and prevent amputation.
The field of tissue engineering has developed commercially available skin substitutes for diabetic cutaneous wound repair. However, having been available for the last decade, the majority have demonstrated only moderate clinical benefit in small clinical trials. In comparison, stem and progenitor cell therapy offer the potential for accelerated wound repair in addition to structural skin regeneration with functional recovery.
Stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into other cell types and are classified into adult stem and progenitor cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.
The mechanisms of action of stem and progenitor cells are not fully elucidated but include 1) differentiation to specialised cells e.g.
Much research endeavour is determining the benefit of stem cell treatment on diabetic cutaneous wound healing with encouraging results in animal models. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering specialties are rapidly elucidating the mechanisms of action of stem cells and translating the results of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments to human clinical trials.
The requirements for success will be patient safety, clinical efficacy and convenience of use.The focus of this chapter is to review the area of topical stem and progenitor cell therapy as a treatment for non-healing diabetic foot ulcers.
It will focus on adult stem cells as these are nearer to use in human trials and do not pose the ethical constraints associated with the use of embryonic stem cells. Topical treatment with endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is presented in this review, and more specifically the delivery of these cells using biomaterial scaffolds. The case for adopting stem and progenitor cell therapy in research and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers will be discussed. The benefits of biomaterials and functionalised scaffolds for mediating cell therapy to a wound will be described. For both endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, the potential mechanisms of action will be discussed with reference to key pre-clinical and clinical studies. The chapter will also describe strategies to enhance the therapeutic potential of stem and progenitor cells for wound healing. A section of the chapter will focus on translational of these advanced biological medicines to clinical trials.
This includes issues regarding pre-clinical animal models, optimal cell source, safety and regulatory approval. The biology of cutaneous woundsThe repair of cutaneous wounds is a highly complex biological process. The goal of adult wound healing is to repair a skin defect, to ensure the restoration of a barrier and to regain tensile strength.
There is involvement of several cell types, cytokines and extra-cellular matrix components. The physiological overlapping pathways that are required for optimal wound healing include haemostasis (which occurs immediately on wounding), inflammation with cell migration and proliferation (neutrophils initially and subsequently macrophages).
Angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing blood vessels) and re-epithelialisation are central processes in wound healing.
This is a superficial description of wound healing and conveys the complexity of the process, but highlights the potential for disruption in a difficult to heal wound. Diabetic wound healingDelayed wound healing as occurs in diabetes mellitus results from dysregulation of the normal healings pathways.
The diabetic wound is complex with contribution from infection, neuropathy and impaired vascular supply. These include decreased or impaired growth factor production, angiogenic response, macrophage function, collagen accumulation, epidermal barrier function, quantity of granulation tissue, keratinocyte, fibroblast migration and proliferation and bone healing.

There is an imbalance between the accumulation of extra-cellular matrix components and their re-modeling by matrix metallo-proteinases.(Brem et al. Angiogenesis and wound HealingThe impaired vascular supply associated with diabetes leads to poor blood flow at the wound site impeding the optimal endogenous reparative response (Jeffcoate & Harding 2003) Impaired angiogenesis is a feature of diabetic wounds. In addition neovascularisation, or the de novo formation of new blood vessels is critical for granulation tissue formation and tissue regeneration in wound healing.
In the non-diabetic situation, hypoxia leads to activation of the transcription factor complex HIF-1? (Hypoxia inducible factor-1?), which leads to transcription of multiple genes required for successful wound healing. Skin regeneration is the regeneration of wounds with restoration of the normal function and anatomy of skin.
In biology, foetal wound repair is a regenerative process, and some vertebrate species demonstrate successful tissue regeneration where the initial phase of wound repair is followed by perfect structural and functional regeneration of the organ. The challenge for scientists is to produce tissue engineered products that exhibit extra-cellular matrix re-modeling characteristics seen in embryonic wound repair to produce functional and durable skin. Classification of diabetic ulcersDiabetic foot ulcers can be classified as ischaemic, neuropathic or neuro-ischaemic. The typical angiographic pattern of ischaemic diabetic vasculopathy is occluded distal blood vessels. Ulceration develops at sites of excessive pressure predominantly under the first metatarsalphalangeal joint, in the majority due to unperceived trauma. Current treatment strategiesThe management of the diabetic foot is complex requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Benefit of a cell-based therapy for non-healing diabetic ulcersIt is evident that there is a critical clinical need to develop novel therapies for treatment of non-healing diabetic ulcers in order to prevent amputation and reduce the significant financial drain on healthcare budgets and burden on individuals health. The understanding of the patho-physiology of diabetic wound healing is important in the development of advanced wound healing treatments. Cell therapy may reverse the biological defects in diabetic wounds by acting as reservoirs for cell and growth factor production.
Limitations with current cell-based therapyTo date clinical trials of topical cell based therapy for non-healing diabetic foot ulcers have yielded limited results. One reason is methodological flaws in the clinical trials which have raised concerns over the validity of the results.
Systematic reviews on skin replacement therapy have reported statistical benefit in wound healing endpoints. However there was a lack of information reported on safety, method of recruitment, randomization methods and blinding strategy for outcome assessments.
There is a lack of power size calculations in some of the trials and little mention of dropouts in trial. The current somatic cell therapies do not address the underlying pathology in the diabetic wound i.e. An efficient blood supply is central to normal wound healing, and delayed or inefficient angiogenesis will prolong ulceration and increase the probability of amputation. The current cell treatments do not target angiogenesis (blood vessel formation from pre-existing blood vessels) or neo-vasculogenesis (de novo blood vessel formation). The employment of these cell treatments result in wound healing by repair and not by regeneration.
Potential superiority of treatment with stem and progenitor cellsEndothelial progenitor cells are a newly described cell type involved in angiogenesis. Adult mesenchymal stem cell treatment holds promise as this cell type addresses the key wound impairments seen in non-healing diabetic ulcers.
They are immuno-modulatory and may create a more favourable inflammatory environment of the diabetic wound. Adult mesenchymal stem cells in diabetic wounds may in addition to beneficial paracrine activity, differentiate into other cell types e.g. BackgroundThe discovery of putative EPCs by Ashara et al in 1997 (Asahara, et al., 1997) has illuminated the fields of vascular biology and diabetes related vascular dysfunction. For the first time, vasculogenesis or de novo blood vessel formation was determined to occur post-natally, as previously it was assumed to occur only during embryogenesis.
The delivery of EPCs to ischaemic sites in the body offers the possibility of successful treatment of diabetic vascular disease.
Worldwide, research groups are testing the hypothesis that EPC therapy may treat peripheral vascular disease and prevent the progression of non-healing diabetic foot ulcers to amputation.
These cells are suitable for autologous therapy without immunological rejection but this approach may be hindered due to disease associated cell dysfunction.EPC research is complicated by several issues. The reports in the literature describe different identities, sources of isolation, culture methodologies and function. The first cell type is named colony forming unit-Hill cells which arise from peripheral blood mononuclear cells which are non-adherent and give rise to a colony after 5 days in culture. The second cell type is a heterogenous collection of cells termed circulating angiogenic cells or early EPCs.
These arise from mononuclear cells which are adherent to fibronectin or other matrix adhesion proteins after 4-7 days.
These cells are derived from mononuclear cells that adhere to fibronectin and appear after 6-21 days. The different cell types may also be characterized by flow cytometry for surface immunophenotype.
The mechanism is reported as via paracrine effect, direct incorporation in blood vessels and differentiation into endothelial cells. The field of topical EPC therapy is in the early stages with benefit demonstrated in these studies. In addition the standardisation of cell dose, definition of cell type and animal model is required. The use of human cells in immunocompromised animals are required to further elucidate therapeutic efficacy 4.3. Paracrine effectEarly EPCs and Late EPCs may contribute to post-natal neovascularisation by secretion of angiogenic cytokines and growth factors.
The secretome of EPCs contains cytokines and growth factors which stimulate wound healing by increasing proliferation, migration and cell survival of the different cell types required for wound healing i.e. Direct incorporation in blood vesselsThe second mechanism of action is the direct incorporation of EPCs into the growing blood vessel wall or the differentiation of these cells into mature endothelial cells. This mechanism is associated with late EPCs This mechanism has been shown in animal models and may not be as significant as the paracrine effect of cell therapy. The transplantation of conditioned media or identified therapeutic factors would allow for protein-based therapy.
One study compared conditioned media from EPCs to EPC treatment alone in an animal model of cutaneous wound healing.
Impaired angiogenesis in diabetes due to EPC dysfunctionIt is known that EPCs are decreased in number and dysfunctional in people suffering from diabetes mellitus. This is due to decreased mobilisation from the bone marrow and decreased homing to cutaneous wounds. Topical delivery In normal healing EPCs are released into the circulation from the bone marrow in response to ischaemia and travel to sites of tissue injury and participate in angiogenesis.
In mice with cutaneous wounds and 4 weeks of streptozocin induced hyperglycaemia, the levels of circulating EPCs were unchanged but the levels of bone marrow derived EPCs within the wound granulation tissue were decreased as compared to non-diabetic controls. The bone marrow derived EPCs from diabetic mice showed increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation in diabetic wound tissue as compared to non-diabetic controls. This ex-vivo manipulation may restore the EPC functional defect and succeed in restoring diabetic wound healing to the non-diabetic phenotype. Systemic delivery of stem cell results in cells being taken from the circulation in the lungs, spleen and liver and not reaching the wound. The topical delivery of cells allows for concentrated doses of cells to be delivered to a skin wound and not become trapped in other sites in the body. Matricellular proteins: Osteopontin Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular protein and is involved in tissue repair and angiogenesis. These proteins modulate cell function by interacting with cell-surface receptors, proteases, hormones, and other bioeffector molecules, as well as with structural matrix proteins such as collagens (Bornstein, 2009) Decreased OPN is found in EPCs in diabetes mellitus. Osteopontin knockout mice have decreased myocardial angiogenesis in response to ischaemia and delayed recovery after hindlimb ischaemia. Wound healing studies in osteopontin knockout mice show more residual debris and less matrix organisation than wildtype mice. Delay in diabetic wound healing may arise in part because of the low expression of OPN early in the wound bed after wounding, resulting in the reduced migration of immune cells to the site of injury leading to the accumulation of cell debris, decreased recruitment of endothelial cells, delayed angiogenesis and poor matrix organization. Current delivery options include injection of cells, delivery in extra-cellular matrix, delivery on a scaffold and delivery as part of a tissue engineering skin equivalents. The vascular progenitor cells exit the biomaterial over time and repopulate damaged tissue and participate in the vascular network.
Co-culture, gene therapy and hyperoxia It is hypothesised that endothelial progenitor cells act as angiogenic support cells by their paracrine activity. Co-administration of EPCs with smooth muscle progenitor cells increased vessel density in a mouse model of hind-limb ischaemia to a greater degree than administration of either cell alone.
Using an ex vivo gene transfer strategy, EPC cell cultures can serve as gene carriers and function as a temporal local production unit of de novo synthesized growth factors within the wound or skin replacement. Increase number of EPCsIncreasing EPC number for topical treatment increases the wound healing benefit of EPCs. In-vitro animal studies reveal that proliferation of EPCs derived from the bone marrow can be accelerated by GM-CSF. It has been used in human clinical trials for investigation of autologous therapy in critical limb ischaemia.

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