Stem cell research to cure type 1 diabetes zhao,nutraceuticals glycemic health and type 2 diabetes pdf download,m56 x 1.5 tap - 2016 Feature

By Zainab Wannous, Vivian Fong and Esther Ma BIOC3261, Human Biochemistry, The University of New South WalesType II diabetes has been a common metabolic disease of glucose in patients worldwide, mainly in developed countries such as the U.S. Diabetes is a common life-long condition and the number of children being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes is increasing.
We've worked with scientists and doctors to answer some of your most frequently asked questions about stem cell science and potential therapies. A Bit of BackgroundAnyone who has ever known me for more than say a few days probably has come to the unfortunate realization that, despite my relatively normal appearance, I am fairly insane. Because of my penchant for awesomely 80s movies and time travel, I have by natural consequence become a fan of Michael J. This was, until recently, his strongest conviction about finding a cure for Parkinson’s. For many, diabetes means living with daily insulin injections and the possibility of long-term damage to their health. Insulin is made by cells in the pancreas called beta cells that are arranged into clusters together with other pancreas cells. Insulin is needed for the uptake of glucose by cells (for example, muscle cells) so that it can be used as energy.There are several types of diabetes.

Although Type 2 diabetes can often be at least partially controlled by a healthy diet and regular exercise, Type 1 diabetes cannot.
People with Type 1 diabetes must test their blood sugar levels several times a day and administer insulin when it is needed (through injections or a pump).
Over time, high blood sugar levels can cause serious damage to the heart, eyes, blood vessels, kidneys and nerves, whilst injecting too much insulin can lead to a blood sugar level that is too low (hypoglycaemia) which can be fatal.It is possible to treat Type 1 diabetes by transplanting isolated islet cells, containing beta cells or even a whole pancreas into the patient from a donor.
Transplants can enable the body to regain control of blood sugar levels so that administrating insulin is no longer needed. The immune suppressing drugs leave the recipient vulnerable to infection and often have side-effects. Today only a limited number of type 1 diabetic patients are suited for transplantation due to these side effects.Even with immune suppressing drugs the transplant is eventually destroyed by the immune system and further transplants are needed. As the immune system has developed to destroy these types of cells from the first transplant, it recognises foreign cells more quickly and easily.
On the right glucagon is highlighted in purple, produced from alpha cells.How could stem cells help?There are currently no proven treatments for diabetes using stem cells.
Researchers have recently succeeded in producing cells from human pluripotent stem cells that respond to glucose in a similar way to normal beta cells both in the laboratory and in diabetic mice after being transplanted.

It is not known whether stem cells exist in the pancreas but beta cell progenitors have been found.
Researchers hope they may be able to find drugs that can activate the progenitor cells in the body of a diabetes patient, or reprogramme other mature pancreas cells to produce more beta cells.
Reprogramming other cells, for example, skin cells or liver cells, to make beta cells in the lab is also a possibility. Progenitor cells are being placed in a credit card-like case and transplanted into the body.
The hope is that similar to in mice the progenitor cells will spontaneously mature into insulin producing cells in the body, with the case allowing for the dispersal of insulin whilst preventing the immune system from attacking the cells.

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