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In this case, the resistor is actually an inductor with high reactance above the cut off frequency. RVR is an Italian transmitter maker that sells many transmitters and exciters in this country under names like Bext, Armstrong, etc.
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Class D amplifiers have only made headway in audio technology over the last few years, even though this technology has existed since the middle of the last century.
Class D amplifiers have experienced a real boom, because nearly all the major semiconductor manufacturers now offer standard products for them. Compared with their linear counterparts, Class D amplifiers are subject to significantly lower power losses. The PWM block is presented in somewhat more detail in Figure 2 to better illustrate the function.
It consists of a comparator, whose inputs are connected with a sawtooth voltage and the audio signal (simplified here as a sine function) (Figure 3). As the MOSFETS can switch almost without loss at the switching frequency of a few hundred kilohertz, the efficiency of Class D amplifiers is very high. The amplified PWM signal is now fed to a low-pass (zero-loss LC network) whose cutoff frequency is defined such that only the low-frequency audio signal passes to the speaker. The low power loss for Class D is the ultimate reason for using this type of amplifier in new designs for audio applications. The following assessment illustrates the situation: Typical gate charge values of highperformance MOSFETs are today of the order of 20 nC and switching times of around 5 ns are achieved.
High currents are one problem, short switching times and high switching frequencies of 400 kHz and more, are the other. The output filter is an important part of the circuit, as it is essential in determining the efficiency and reliability of the overall circuit and the resulting sound quality. An important design parameter, which is unfortunately often overlooked, is the impedance of the speaker. The following simple considerations help to understand the equations necessary for filter design. The developer is generally free to choose the limit frequency of the filter so any combinations of LC are conceivable. Unfortunately, passive components are not ideal; a capacitor comprises not only capacitance, but, on account of its leads, also an inductive and resistive component. The THD+N value is measured with special audio analyzers, a combination of a high quality frequency generator and a spectral analyzer with switchable filters in one instrument. Easy to program with high voltage and current inputs and outputs, and has hundreds of uses in robotics and home projects, including stepper motor driver, LED strip light controller, small speaker driver, servo actuator, fan speed controller, electric car window conversions, brew kit controller. The Macro Micro is basically a high current Arduino Micro, while being smaller than an Arduino Uno. A multipurpose microcontroller that is easy to program with high voltage and current inputs and outputs, and has hundreds of uses in robotics and home projects, including stepper motor driver, LED strip light controller, small speaker driver, servo actuator, fan speed controller, electric car window conversions, brew kit controller.
The Macro Micro can be powered via the micro USB connection or with an external power supply. This is a regulated voltage, used to power the microcontroller and other components on the board. The Macro Micro features 12 2A mosfets which can switch a 2A load to ground by digital outputs on pins D2 through D13. Of the mosfet enabled outputs, 6 of these have a separate input pin to enable digital in – bypassing the mosfets. By bridging the outer pins in each group (1,2 and 3,4) you will bring in the low pass filter.
The Micro has a total of 12 analog inputs, pins from A0 to A5 are labelled directly on the pins and the other ones that you can access in code using the constants from A6 trough A11 are shared respectively on digital pins 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12. We have incorporated Low pass filters in parallel on the 6 digital PWM channels to allow analog output. These filters are normally off and can be brought in or out of the circuit via solder blobs or 0R resitors.
With this in circuit you can use this digital channel as an analog output by using the PWM control in arduino. So, please guide me to calculate L and C parameters> If you can, please give me the way to calculate and design 1 Filter for FM transmitter (From 50w to 1000w).

This development has been driven by the steady trend towards increasingly miniaturized and high performance devices. In theory, up to 100% efficiency is possible with this type of amplifiers, whereas linear amplifiers attain maximum values of 60% to 70%. Here it is not the analog signal itself that is amplified, but a high frequency sine oscillation, pulse-width modulated with the audio signal, is input at a switching stage (= digital amplifier) and the low frequency component of the amplified signal is then filtered out with a low-pass filter. After the low-pass filter, the signal has the same shape as the output audio signal, only with a higher amplitude.
On the one hand, the half-bridge circuit is indeed very simple and fewer MOSFETs (together with drivers) are required. However, these problems are soluble; the new Class D IC electronics circumvent many problems, which makes life somewhat easier for the developer. Nevertheless, the demands are significantly higher than for analog amplifiers and therefore represent a challenge for some developers. Every experienced layout specialist knows that this places special requirements on circuit board design. LC low-pass filters are used for Class D amplifiers, which, in the case of ideal components, are completely loss-free and work without phase shift (Figure.
The cutoff frequency is selected at around 20 kHz to 60 kHz such that it is slightly above the audible range. Looking at the filter circuit, a voltage divider is identified at which the input voltage and output voltage respond according to the dynamic resistances (see equation (1)). However, standard configurations are growing and the developer should, if at all possible, keep to standard values from Table 1 in view of the availability of passive components (examples for a cutoff frequency of 20 kHz). Measurement entails inputting a sinus signal at the amplifier and looking at its output power in relation to the total power spectrum at the amplifier output. Table 2 shows a selection of suitable inductors for Class D amplifiers from the Würth Elektronik portfolio (rh). This is for an external power input, with voltage range from 14 to 30V – at a maximum of 3A continuous.
These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value.
It is connected to the RX_LED that indicates the activity of transmission during USB communication, but is can also used as slave select pin (SS) in SPI communication. Würth Elektronik offers a large selection of inductors specially developed and tested for Class D.
The trend is that these Class D amplifiers are gradually squeezing the purely analog AB amplifiers, which still predominate, from the market. The Class D amplifier is therefore nothing more than a combination of a pulse width modulator (PWM) and a digital power stage and subsequent low-pass filter.
The result at the output of the comparator is therefore a rectangular function whose momentary pulse width corresponds to the momentary amplitude value of the audio signal. On the other hand, it requires a bipolar power supply with +Vss, -Vss and GND, whereas the full bridge gets by with a power supply with Vss and GND.
The forward resistance RDS(on) must be small, as high currents flow and the gate charge QG has to be small so the switching times are short and switching losses remain within bounds.
In contrast to purely RC or RL filter elements, LC networks have a slight resonance overshoot at the cutoff frequency (Figure 6).
As the output power measurement can only be performed in theory over the entire frequency spectrum, it is essential to connect a filter at the amplifier output. Due to the immense advantages in cost, efficiency and package size with comparable audio quality, experts anticipate that there will only be new designs with Class D in a few years to come. Figure 1 shows the elements of such an amplifier with analog input in half-bridge topology.
The information of the audio signal is therefore contained within the pulse width of the comparator output signal – this method is called pulse width modulation. The two parameters counteract one another: A small forward resistance automatically leads to a large QG value and vice versa. The developer now has to use sufficiently wide PCB tracks in the layout regions affected and also place extremely high quality demands on the capacitors for Class D ICs.
References to HF-stable and EMC-compliant circuit board design are to be found in numerous discourses and in the technical literature [1].
It is apparent that this parameter affects both the resonance overshoot and also the phase.

Now the Butterworth characteristic is taken for the filter (3) and a comparison of coefficients performed (4), as well as destandardization (i.e. One of the most important parameters for assessing amplifiers is total harmonic distortion (THD). Without the specification of filter data (cutoff frequency, bandwidth), specification of THD+N is not meaningful.
For this reason, the product of RDS(on) and QG, also known as FOM (Figure of Merit), is the deciding quality feature of a MOSFET.
As small ESL and ESR values are required for blocking capacitors and bootstrap capacitors, mainly high capacitance ceramic capacitors and tantal or polymer electrolyte types are considered. As the speaker impedance is an integral part of the filter, this must always be considered in the selection of the filter components.
6), the signal amplitude is attenuated above the cutoff frequency, but it is not fully suppressed.
Ceramic capacitors with X7R or better dielectrics satisfy requirements in most cases; sufficient voltage stability must be ensured.
This value is a measure of the distortion of a signal and therefore the audio quality of a speaker.
As the sound quality of amplifiers is strongly dependent on the amplifier (output power) selected and the frequency amplified, discerning tests must be performed at different powers (e.g.
By default the analog inputs measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and the analogReference() function. Only in recent years have MOSFETs arrived on the market with a sufficiently low FOM, such that Class D amplifiers have only now become established on the market.
On account of the frequency dependence of the speaker impedance, especially at high frequencies, compensation of the LC output by means of feedback would in fact be necessary.
Especially at high power, one runs the risks that the high frequency residual ripple on the speaker input lines is too high from an EMC perspective. The result is the sought-after equation for dimensioning C (5) and L (6) in a half-bridge circuit. A few basic requirements apply for inductors, such as magnetic shielding and as low a DC resistance RDC as possible. This consists of two half-bridges that feed pulses of opposite polarity to the LC low-pass filter.
Unfortunately, a sophisticated circuit arrangement would be required here, so that in most designs it is simply omitted at the cost of sound quality. Core materials with low core losses in the switching frequency range of around 400 kHz are essential for high efficiency. Because, in contrast with measurement of the pure total harmonic distortion, all factors reducing the sound quality are included, the measurement of THD+N is very well suited as a benchmark for audio devices. As expected, the equations reveal that the impedance of the speaker plays an essential role in filter design.
Chokes based on iron powder cores (including molded inductors) have very high core losses in this frequency range and are therefore usually unsuitable.
Würth Elektronik had a series of chokes for their Class D whose serviceability was tested by Dr. The two capacitors connected to ground can also be combined and connect in parallel with the speaker.
To obtain the equations for the complete full-bridge circuit (Bridge Tied Load, BTL), two half-bridges are joined to form a full-bridge and the resulting capacitances and inductances are combined. So as to ensure comparability, the output filter in a Class D reference design from a leading semiconductor manufacture was assembled with the appropriate Würth Elektronik inductors. This leads to the dimensioning rules for the fullbridge circuit (BTL with capacitor parallel to the speaker) from (7) and (8). Figure 8 shows the example of THD+N measurement of a WE-PD series choke (744771133, 1 kHz, 10 W).

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